Method of mechanical-thermal purifying paving slab from hydrocarbon impurities

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology of mechanical-thermal purifying surfaces, for example, based on concrete, clay, sand and gravel chips, from residues of hydrocarbon impurities, in particular, such as fats and oils, oil products, stick chewing gum, paint, and can be used in the housing and utilities sector. Purifying method comprises selection of the type of impurities, preliminary mechanical purification, heating, mechanical purifying and final washing with weak solution of soap water. Contaminated points are being heated by direct flame burning at temperature in the range from the ambient temperature to 600 °C untill ash or soot is being formed, and then heating points are being cooled to the ambient temperature.

EFFECT: method provides higher quality of purifying and versatility of using the method to various types of hydrocarbon compounds.

3 cl



Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and environmental protection. For cleaning filtering system is erected and used on soil slope surfaces. Filtering system is composed of the slope soil top layer processed with aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex. The latter comprises the mix of hydrolysed polyarcylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine at the ratio of 1:3.5-1:4.5, wt %. Processed soil sorption capacity saturated, said soil is removed and disposed or recovered.

EFFECT: simplified cleaning, higher erosion resistance of run-off surfaces.

2 tbl

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: plant comprises a base vehicle 1 with a platform and equipment installed on it. Equipment comprises a reservoir 2 charged with water, a hydraulic manipulator with an ejector pump 4, a facility of mechanical removal of contaminants 3 and a facility of cleaned material discharge 5 in the form of a scraper conveyor. The reservoir 2 is made with windows in the upper part and side compartments for collection of contaminants. In the bottom of the reservoir 2 there are facilities of mechanical cleaning 3 in the form of acoustic radiators, which are connected to a power generator. The generator is installed on the base vehicle 1. The scraper conveyor is installed in the cavity of the reservoir 2, having a window for discharge. On the platform of the base vehicle 1 there is an expansion tank 7 with water and a transfer pump 6. The base vehicle 1 is equipped with a subsystem of automatic control, which controls level of reservoir 2 filling with water. The transfer pump 6 connects the expansion tank 7 with the reservoir 2. The automatic control subsystem comprises water level sensors 8, an input device 9 connected to sensors, an output device 10 and a control unit 11. Level sensors 8 are installed in the reservoir 2. The input device 9 converts an analogue signal into a digital one. The control unit 11 is connected to the input device 9 and the output device 10. The output device 10 converts a digital signal into an analogue one and is connected to the transfer pump 6.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of the process of soil cleaning from oil.

1 dwg

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: : invention relates to environment protection, in particular to purification of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast from pollution with oil and can be used on rail transport. Siftings of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast are loaded into device for washing. Washing of ballast siftings is carried out by mechanical mixing with detergent solution. After washing ballast siftings and polluted detergent solution are removed together and separated. During separation ballast siftings are separated into fractions and removed in order to be used in proper way. Separated polluted detergent solution is supplied through nozzles into precipitation tank of centrifugal type for pollution by separating phases. From precipitation tank separated oil products, detergent and sludge are removed in separate flows. Sludge is dehydrated and after that neutralised using chemical reagents. Detergent solution is subjected to purification from heavy metal salts and residual oil products. Formed deposit of heavy metal salts is periodically removed to the stage of sludge neutralisation. Purified detergent solution is supplied again to the stage of mechanical washing of ballast siftings. Before supplying detergent solution to the stage of washing, technical detergent which does not require water heating is introduced into it.

EFFECT: high degree of ballast siftings purification is achieved with simultaneous efficient phase separation, reduction of dangerous wastes formation and energy consumption for the process.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environment protection, in particular to purification of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast from pollution with oil and can be used on rail transport. Installation contains receiving reservoir for supply of polluted ballast siftings for processing, device for washing, connected with pipeline for detergent supply. Device for washing is made in form of closed tub, is equipped with worm, loading device and device for joined removal of ballast siftings and polluted detergent solution. Installation includes unit of vibration sieves for separation of polluted detergent solution from ballast siftings and for sieving it into fractions, precipitation tank of centrifugal type with nozzles for supply of polluted detergent solution, pipelines for separate removal from precipitation tank of separated oil products, detergent solution and sludge, belt filter-press for sludge dehydration, reactor for chemical sludge neutralisation, galvanic coagulator for removal of heavy metal salts and residual oil products from detergent solution. Galvanic coagulator is connected by pipelines to device for washing and pipeline with reactor for chemical sludge neutralisation.

EFFECT: high degree of ballast siftings purification is achieved with simultaneous efficient phase separation, reduction of dangerous wastes formation and energy consumption for the process.

2 dwg

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular to the cleaning of sand, soil, gravel and crushed rock from oil pollution, and can be used in all industries where used, transported or stored crude oil and petroleum products, as well as to clean sandy beaches

The invention relates to the environment and energy and can be used for air purification of exhaust gases of vehicles and electricity generation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for mechanisation of cleaning operations in indoor and outdoor areas. The combine comprises a frame with a control knob, a brush drum for sweeping debris and/or snow to the conveyor belt to transport containers and the water tank. The water tank is connected by the distribution pipes to the jet tube. The lever with tap cables is provided for water supply through the jet tube to the brush drum. The driving wheel pair imparts directional movement to the conveyor belt. The combine also comprises reversible rollers controlled by U-shaped control knob.

EFFECT: improved quality of cleaning and reduction of risk of lung diseases is provided.

5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: waste receptacle vehicle comprises sweep brushes 1 and a brush to pick up 2 gravel and sand mixture, garbage, dust or snow; a suction device 3 dwg. 2, comprising a gate 5, a diffuser attachment 6, a flap 22, where a suction nozzle 23 is mounted, a cascade of targets 24, a waste-retaining visor 25, a vortex chamber 11, an air duct 33, an air distributing box 34, a shutter 35, a bellows sleeve 46; a system of bag opening 8 dwg.3, comprising an air intake collector 9, a corrugated nozzle 10, a vortex chamber 11, an unloading frame 12, a basket (filtering 13 with a stop mechanism 14; a device for processing of snow and ice mass into liquid with its cleaning from garbage 15 dwg.4, comprising a non-spill hopper 7, a vortex heat generator 16, a disconnected coil of coolant 17, an autonomous heating device 18, a water-jet pump 19, a drain tap 20, a wave deflector 21, a manipulator 26 dwg. 5, equipped with a hydraulic clamp 27 and a rupture coupling 28.

EFFECT: device improvement.

21 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises weather station with surface temperature transducer mounted thereat and data processing center communicated via appropriate channels therewith. Said weather station defines air temperature, relative humidity and pressure, wind direction and speed, cloudiness, precipitation type and amount. Data processing center defines cleaning machinery and manpower appearance proceeding from prognostic curve.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of time for removal of precipitation, lower costs.

3 cl

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: vehicle contains chassis running in longitudinal direction and made with lateral sides, device for storing fuel gas and engine working on fuel gas. Wheels at least partially are actuated by the engine. The vehicle also includes container for wastes, debris and environment contaminators and transporting assemblies applicable for moving wastes, debris and environment contaminators into container. The container has side panels in which hollows extending into container along lateral sides and integrated with them are provided. Storing device contains a number of reservoirs applicable to contain fuel gas. The reservoirs are located in hollows and rest on chassis.

EFFECT: creation of self-propelled vehicle for roads cleaning characterised by low level of environment contamination, reduced operational costs and long fuel distance.

13 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to vehicles capable of sweeping ground and gathering trash. The vehicle comprises an axis parallel to the straight motion direction, actuating and control elements which include wheels and steering means. The steering means define the centre of rotation and the steering axis which is perpendicular to the said longitudinal axis and passes through the centre of rotation. The trash gathering system from the ground comprises at least two brushes with the centre of rotation on the top of the ground which form the base line along the longitudinal axis. The system for trash intake contains a collector pipe inlet installed on the top of the ground. The steering means, accumulation system and gathering system are installed in series so that the steering axis is positioned in junction with the line segment parallel to the longitudinal axis and lying between the collector pipe inlet and the base line.

EFFECT: trash is removed on all area of its accumulation, low power consumption, reduced size.

9 cl, 5 dwg

Refuse collector // 2378449

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: refuse collector consists of a rigid carcass made up of lateral walls, guide shields and top connecting plate, attached together. Said carcass accommodates cylindrical brush driven by support wheels via reduction gears. Reduction gear output shafts support triangular shackles suspended free thereto with their angles and bases rigidly jointed together by rods. The latter support hoods that make swinging suspension with mechanism to lock its extreme positions. To collect refuse, removable container are mounted with their side surfaces furnished with oval cutouts to allow said container to be fitted onto annular brackets so that container inner wall, in its top part, tightly abuts on guide shields, while its outer wall is pressed by handle and locked by clips.

EFFECT: simplified cleaning, reliability of suspension, simplified attachment of support wheels.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises gathering major and dust-like dirt into container, washing off soluble dirt by water, mechanical breaking of water insoluble dirt, collecting water with dirt into container and moving said container to cleaning equipment. Prior to covering cleaning, initial concentration of dirt, Cini, is determined (mg/l or g/m3), along with cleaning efficiency, E, in a cleaning cycle (%) and residual concentration of dirt, Cres, after one cleaning cycle (mg/l or g/m3). To provide for rated residual dirt concentration, Cres (mg/l or g/m3), cleaning is performed several times, the number of cleanings, n, is determined from the formula n=logba, where b=1-0.01·E, a= Cres: Cini, note that n=log1-0.01·E (Cres: Cini).

EFFECT: simplified method.

4 cl

FIELD: construction, road construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to road cleaning equipment, more precisely to design of brushes for sweeping machines and tractors and may be used in design and manufacture of brushes. Brush of street sweeper includes brush elements that comprises core and row of bristle installed on its external surface. Brush elements are installed on drive shaft, which is equipped with at least one longitudinal rib for fixation of brush element position. Row of bristle of brush element passes along the line of alternate direction, and neighboring rows of bristle create "pockets" in between themselves. Core is arranged in the form of cylinder, axial size of which is selected so that extreme points of bristle fixation row are located near end cuts of core, and neighboring rows of bristle, when installed on drive shaft, create at least three pockets. Row of bristle may pass along broken or wavy line. On the side of installation on drive shaft, brush element core is equipped with two stops, height of which corresponds to height of drive shaft longitudinal rib. Distance between stops is selected based on condition of free fit of brush element on drive shaft.

EFFECT: provision of high efficiency at higher reliability and simplification of cleaning.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction, highway engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to machines for cleaning of roads from soil deposits. Equipment for cleaning of roads comprises frame, which holds serially skewed mouldboard and scraper. Scraper is installed with smaller angle in direction of motion, and angle knife and buffer are serially installed on frame at the side. Buffer and scraper are made of elastic material.

EFFECT: design simplification and higher quality of roads cleaning from soil deposits.

3 dwg

FIELD: process, filters.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns multicyclone dust collector. Multicyclone dust collector contents the first cyclone unit, the second cyclone unit and separating plate. The first and the second cyclone unites are located symmetrical relative to each other. Every cyclone unit contains the first cyclone aimed for collection of coarse particles and secondary cyclones located at outer periphery of the first cyclone. Separating plate is located in inlet port for air.

EFFECT: improvement of dust collector structure.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: destruction of deposits inside a hollow item is performed by creation on the outer side of the hollow item of electro-hydrodynamic impact actions due to electrical discharges occurring in the working zone of electrodes located in a working tank filled with liquid. As the working tank, an earthed electrohydraulic bath is used, the metal housing of which is connected to one of the outputs of the surge-current generator. The hollow item is fully submerged into liquid of the electrohydraulic bath, thus providing its contact with the batch housing, and a high-voltage electrode connected to the other output of the surge-current generator is installed above the hollow item. Movement of the zone of electrical discharges is performed along the external surface of the hollow item along a helical line around the hollow item, for that purpose, the high-voltage electrode is moved along the surface of the hollow item or the hollow item is moved relative to the high-voltage electrode. With that, circular rotation of the hollow item is performed simultaneously with longitudinal movement of the electrode or the hollow item.

EFFECT: improving quality and efficiency of cleaning of an internal surface of hollow items.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: arc discharge cathode spots are initiated at processed surface, arc discharge being initiated between anode and cathode in the mode of voltage-current characteristic of increasing section, said cathode being a processed surface. Region of cathode spot location on processed surface is localised and processed surface is shifted by anode displacement. Anode with current-collecting surface area smaller than that of cathode is used and placed at the distance from cathode that ensures a positive anode voltage drop.

EFFECT: stabilised cathode spots on processed surface, fast surface cleaning and higher surface quality.

2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly, to production of precision bearings. Cavitation washing efficiency is upped by modification of activator that excited resonance oscillations consisting in making the activator mirror composed of alternating equidistant ring-like stiff and retarded shifting elements. Delay of shifting elements in activator oscillations creates vertical layer-by-layer shift of washing fluid to up the cavitation effect.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg

Method of treatment // 2447958

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to degreasing surfaces and cavities by solvents, preparing to high-sensitivity tightness tests, and may be used in space engineering, aircraft engineering, instrument making, etc. Proposed method comprises placing rocket to be cleaned on rotary device to revolve rocket body about horizontal lengthwise axis, filling rocket tanks partially with solvent to revolve the rocket about said horizontal axis. Rocket body bottom zone in contact with solvent is heated while surface of tanks is cooled. Proposed method differs from prior art in that MINIMUM amount of solvent Ms makes where CF is initial (before cleaning) mean-statistical specific amount of soluble impurities on inner surface of tanks, kg/m2; CFtol is tolerable residual amount (after cleaning) of soluble impurities, kg/m2; F is total area of inner surface of tanks, m2; δ is mean thickness of solvent film on aforesaid said inner surfaces in cleaning tanks, m; pv,pf are densities of vapor and fluid phases of solvent in cleaning, respectively, kg/m3; V is free inner volume of tanks, m3, while linear rotational speed of rocket cylindrical shell about axis is set to allow evaporation per unit time of maximum amount of solvent Gmax(kg/s): where v is linear rotational speed of rocket cylindrical shell about axis, (m/s); λ is factor of heat transfer from shell outer wall to solvent, kJ/m2 s K; tSMmax is maximum tolerable temperature of tank structural material heating, °C; Fc is total area of contact of solvent with tank inner surface, m2; r is solvent specific evaporation heat, kJ/kg; cSM is heat capacity of rocket tank material, kJ/kg K; ts is solvent temperature in tank necessary for efficient washing effect, °C; tH is tank shell temperature in area not in contact with solvent ( equal to ambient temperature), °C; A is mean thickness of tank shell, m; V is linear speed of tank wall rotation, m/s; L is tank cylindrical section length, m; ρsm is density of tank structural material, kg/m3.

EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning and preparation for high-sensitivity tightness tests, minimised consumption of power and materials, lower costs.

3 cl, 1 dwg