Method of ice cover destruction
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is implemented by creation ship trim by the stern, and buoyancy force due to drainage of the ballast tanks. At that the ship is provided with additional buoyancy force that is periodically changed with frequency equal to natural frequency of the resonance bending-gravitational waves generated in ice cover by pulse load.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of ice destruction by submarine.
The invention relates to shipbuilding, in particular to underwater vessels, destroying the ice when surfacing through the ice loading from below by creating buoyancy forces.
Known technical solution (1. Carlin S. L. security Concept ice sailing // Technical report. FSUE CDB ME "RUBIN" BLITZ. 11.55-07, 2007. 57), which is supposed to break solid ice body through the creation of trim by the stern and draining ballast tanks of a vessel.
The disadvantage of the solution is the limited thickness of the destroyed ice, defined by the reserve buoyancy of the underwater vessel, i.e. the volume of the ballast tanks.
The essence of the invention is to provide a method of increasing the load on the ice at the bottom due to the creation of the vessel additional buoyancy forces and ensure the periodicity of its impact.
The technical result obtained by carrying out the invention, is to increase the efficiency of destruction of ice underwater vessel.
The essential features characterizing the invention
Restrictive: method of destruction of ice cover underwater vessel through the creation of the vessel trim by the stern and buoyancy forces due to the draining of the ballast tanks.
Distinctive: the vessel creates an additional force of buoyancy, which periodically change�Ute with a frequency equal to the natural frequency of the resonant Flexural-gravity waves excited in the ice cover of the pulsed load.
It is known (2. Kozin V. M. Schipachev Vladimir Fluctuations of the ice cover under the action of periodically varying load. / Journal of applied mechanics and technical physics. - Novosibirsk: Publishing house of SB RAS. - 1992. No. 5) that the periodic application to ice sheet transverse load with a frequency equal to the natural frequency of the excited Flexural-gravity waves (VVM), leads to a significant increase of deformation (amplitude deflections) compared to its static application.
The invention is as follows.
When the need arises ascent into solid ice the ship without a course pregnaut with trim by the stern and begin to blow the ballast tanks. If their volume, i.e. the margin of buoyancy is insufficient for the destruction of the ice cover of the upper deck forward end, the vessel creates an additional force of buoyancy, for example, by supplying compressed air under pre-installed on the sides at the bow end and hermetically attached to a light elastic body (rubber) plate. This will lead to the appearance of the outside of the hull of vessels, i.e. additional buoyancy forces. It is necessary to C�ntry the size of these tanks were located above the center of gravity of the vessel. This will increase both the transverse and longitudinal stability of a vessel. If this is not sufficient for the destruction of the ice cover, these tanks begin to periodically ventilate and fill with compressed air with a frequency equal to the natural frequency of the VVM , leading to the generation of resonant VVM, i.e., increase the amplitude of the deflection, and hence the bending stresses in the ice. As a result achieved the claimed technical result.
The invention is illustrated graphically, where Fig. 1 shows a side view of the vessel when afloat in a known manner; Fig. 2 - cross section along A-A in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 - side view of the vessel when afloat by the proposed method; Fig. 4 - section along b-b In Fig. 3.
The vessel 1 with the trim by the stern φ pregnaut the ice cover 2 and begin to blow ballast tanks (not shown). If their volume is insufficient for destruction of ice cover 2 upper durable deck 3 at the expense of buoyancy forces γVb(where γ is the specific weight of water, Vb- volume ballast tanks) (see Fig. 1, 2, 4), i.e. the static waves of expansion 5 (Fig. 1-4), the vessel creates an additional force of buoyancy 2γVe(where Ve- the volume emerged containers 4) by filing them in compressed air through the holes 6 (Fig. 2, 4). This will lead to an increase in the wave of expansion to deformations in the ice 7 (Fig. 3, 4). D�I further increase in the deformation of ice, i.e. for excitation of the resonance 8 VVM, volume of containers 4 are beginning to change with a resonant frequency of the VVM (Fig. 3, 4).
Method of destruction of ice cover underwater vessel through the creation of the vessel trim by the stern and buoyancy forces due to the draining of the ballast tanks, characterized in that the vessel creates an additional force of buoyancy, which periodically change with a frequency equal to the natural frequency of the resonant Flexural-gravity waves excited in the ice cover of the pulsed load.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly to ice breaking facilities operated in combination with tug. Propose ice breaking adapter pushed by pusher tug is intended for making of navigable waterways in ices. Adapter hulls are composed of front and two lateral rigidly interconnected frame structure for tight contact with pusher tug. Said hulls feature a broken flat stern in shape approximating to triangle at waterline level. Lateral hulls feature equal width and are shifted downward from the main hull so that the line extending through their stems level with the waterline is spaced from the parallel line extending level with waterline through main hull stem-post at least 0.1 of the main hull width in its midship. Said lateral hulls are located on both sides from the main hull so that their midship planes are spaced from ice breaker midship plane by distance I defined by the formula: m, where Bf and Bl are widths of the front and lateral hulls in midship plane. Device for tight contact of said adapter with pusher tug is arranged at frame structure to extend by magnitude b making at least 3 m beyond the line passing through lateral hull stem-posts.
EFFECT: higher safety of navigation in ice.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vessel comprise hull with fore and aft, power plat to melt the ice aboard the vessel, at least two detachable fuel tanks for said power plant. Vessel fore has the chamber to be filled with collected ice. For this, ice loading opening is made at vessel fore. Opening lower part is arranged kevel to vessel waterline and gas the ramp skewed downward. Vessel is provide with at least one device for ice melting arranged in said compartment equipped with water discharge system.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of ice removal, lower costs.
23 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes actions to damage ice cover of a river and to erect a water barrier. The ice cover of the river is damaged by multiple parallel through slits 8. The water barrier 1 is erected in the form of an ice dam on a potentially flooded coast 5. The dam is built from ice blocks received as a result of sawing works on the river. The height of the dam must exceed the maximum level of the suggested water rise.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to speed up passage of floor waters during spring high water, to reduce economic damage from floods and to increase reliability of public and territories protection.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely to the protection of industrial facilities, lines of transportation, communication, various constructions against the harmful effects of water, and can be used to break the ice cover on rivers and water reservoirs. Method involves drilling of holes in the ice cover and laying of supply pipelines in them with subsequent destruction of the ice cover. Destruction of the ice cover is carried out via hydraulic fracturing by unregelating liquid, supplied under pressure into the previously pressure-sealed areas of these holes. Security for people during destruction of the ice cover is provided due to the possibility of its destruction from a safe distance, as well as safety improving for the engineering constructions and environmental safety.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the method due to the possibility of destruction of the ice cover into pieces of specified sizes in case of stratified break.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrology, in particular to regulation of ice conditions of rivers, namely to technology of works on elimination of ice jams on rivers, and is aimed at the prevention of jam-related floods. The device is a catamaran, in the hold of one of hulls of which a diesel engine is installed, and in another a generator with an accumulator battery is installed. The device has a screw shaft for the ice pre-capturing, a screw shaft with stiffeners for final braking of the ice, a transfer change gear for the rotation of the screw shaft with stiffeners. On the shaft with stiffeners a gear wheel for the rotation of the screw shaft of the ice pre-capturing through a cargo chain is installed. The shaft of the ice pre-capturing rotates and moves up and down along the bracket groove. Rise and lowering of the screw shaft of the ice pre-capturing is performed by a hydraulic piston. The front part of the catamaran is fitted with a tank with holes for passing of water and collecting the ice pieces after preliminary passing of the river ice breaker. The similar tank and the screw shaft are installed aft the catamaran. Propulsion engines are installed in the engine room under the pilot cabin between the catamaran hulls. For the adjustment of the length of the screw shaft the brackets on racks are installed.
EFFECT: prevention of destructive floods in jam regions is provided.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preventive jobs aimed at prevention of ice jams formation at river section and can be used for softening of ice cover at areas of underwater communications. Ice cover cleaned of snow is blacked to arranged ice bulky lens. The latter focus sun rays at blacked surface and inside ice cover.
EFFECT: accelerated destruction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ice technology, in particular, to performing icebreaking works with air-cushion ships. During the low tide the air-cushion ship moves with the resonance speed along the shoreline at a distance from the edge of the cadder and excites the resonant flexural-gravity waves in the ice, at that the transverse periodic motion is transmitted to the ship, with an amplitude not exceeding the half of the wavelength of the static deflection of ice, and the frequency equal to the frequency of resonant flexural-gravity waves.
EFFECT: increase of the efficiency of ice cover destruction.
SUBSTANCE: antiicing device for a hydraulic structure located on a shallow continental shelf includes protective elements 2 and fastening elements attaching the protective elements to water area bottom. Protective elements 2 are made in the form of submersible many-sided pontoons with possibility of their being filled with ballast material, one end face is provided with an inclined section and equipped with deflector 3 in its upper part, and the other, at least two end faces are vertical, along which pontoons are attached to each other. Pontoons form closed structure 4 in the form of a polygon in a plan view with two front walls 12 forming an ice-cutting wedge along its central axis, with two side walls 13 and rear wall 14 with possibility of its being disconnected. Each pontoon is installed with its end face with the inclined section and deflector 3 outwards, thus forming closed extended deflector 3 and an inclined surface, which envelop the whole structure along external perimeter. Two front walls 12 are made at least of two pontoons in the form of symmetrical polygons elongated in a longitudinal direction and provided at least with four side faces. Side walls 13 and rear wall 14 are made of pontoons in the form of polygons at least with three side faces. Side wall 13 is tightly attached with its end surfaces to vertical surfaces of front 12 and rear 14 walls. Fastening elements are made in the form of hollow piles and installed throughout the height of pontoons of front 12 and side 13 walls into the corresponding through holes 5.
EFFECT: improving protection efficiency of a hydraulic structure against ice and simplifying the device design.
9 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes vertical cylindrical housing 1 opened from above and having through slots 5 in lower part. An element generating water circulation is arranged in lower part of vertical cylindrical housing 1 and made in the form of a pair of electrodes - a cathode and an anode. The cathode is made in the form of metal bar 3 that is arranged inside housing 1 throughout its length coaxially at some distance from inner surface of the housing. The anode is located around the bar - the cathode and dielectrically isolated on inner surface of housing 1 in its lower part and somewhat above its through slots 5. The anode is made from electrically conducting material non-soluble in water. Pairs of electrodes are connected through electrical connections to direct current source 4, and electrical connection of the anode to it is arranged inside housing 1.
EFFECT: preventing ice formation on water surface near the structure; reducing corrosion rate and improving reliability of the device.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for river ice cover breaking includes insertion of explosive gas mixture in elastic gas-tight shell under ice cover and subsequent initiation of explosion in this gas mixture. Using ballast weight the shell is imparted zero buoyancy, submerged to specified depth and released downstream upon which the ballast weight is removed at the predetermined place, and gas mixture explosion is initiated with delay sufficient to rise elastic shell to bottom edge of ice cover. Device for method implementation comprises elastic gas-tight shell filled with explosive gas mixture, ballast weight and gas mixture explosion initiator. Elastic gas-tight shell is made in the form of hollow toroid in the bottom part of which ballast weight is uniformly spaced along circumference. Herewith, the elastic shell is provided with mechanism for removing ballast weight.
EFFECT: invention permits to increase efficiency of gas explosion for ice cover breaking and to decrease material and time consumption.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle comprises body, head, propulsor and steering complex. Hollow cylindrical screw jacket is arranged around the periphery of the body to spin there about and around its axis. Said jacket has outer laps as screw blades over the entire length of screw jacket. It is composed by three or more rectangular equal-width equal-length strips concaved or convexed relative to screw jacket rotational axis. Said strips are coiled in vertical plane in lengthwise direction and flexed in screw lines across cylindrical mandrel. Or, said screw jacket can be composed by three or more screw strips, curvilinear of various order and degree of curvature at centres located outside or inside screw jacket cross-section. Said strips are interconnected to make laps as screw blades over the entire length of screw jacket, screw lines and screw curvilinear surfaces as helical grooves concaved or convexed relative to screw jacket rotational axis with curvature centres located outside or inside screw jacket cross-section.
EFFECT: enhanced operating performances.
SUBSTANCE: underwater vehicle of increased manoeuvrability contains streamlined hull, propulsion system, hydro-jet pipes with inlet and outlet fittings, additionally it is provided with electric generators, accumulator batteries, guiding screens and water intake. Streamlined hull is drop-shaped. Propulsion system includes frontal, aft, left, right and central hydraulic propulsors which are made in the form of hollow helical surface and installed in the area of outlet fittings of hydro-jet pipes. Inlet fittings of hydro-jet pipes are fitted inside vertical water intake. Electric generators are installed on hydraulic propulsors. Guiding screens have shape of spheric cup and are rigidly fixed with gap to hull in the areas of outlet fittings of hydro-jet pipes.
EFFECT: improved performance of underwater vehicle.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: vehicle comprises hull with two rows of working wells, propulsor, deckhouse and steering complex. Hollow conical screw jacket is arranged around the periphery of the body to spin there about and around its axis It is composed by curvilinear strips of various order and degree of curvature. Centres of curvature are located inside or outside jacket cross-section to make along its periphery the multistart screw surface with screw lines and helical grooves. These are inclined relative to rotational axis inside said hollow conical screw jacket. Strips feature different width increasing over jacket length from inlet to outlet. Said strips are coiled in vertical plane in lengthwise direction and flexed in screw lines across mandrel composed by paraboloid of revolution. Said jacket has outer laps as screw blades over the entire length of screw jacket.
EFFECT: enhanced operating performances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly, to design of submarines. Proposed combat submarine has block-module hull. Fore and aft blocks are composed of one-piece cylindrical (conical) shell with end spherical bulkheads. Mid block is shaped to rectangular prism with recesses with missile containers and central bulkhead for accommodation of stiff compartment for communication between fore and aft compartments with commando apparatus and floatable rescue chamber.
EFFECT: enhanced combat performances.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises carrier craft to be submerged from support vessel which is equipped with underwater robot connected with said surface support vessel via power cable, control cable and preventer. Driving ballast tanks shaped to circular sectors in plan and provided with vent valves arranged at their top part and sea grates at their bottom and equalising ballast tanks are additionally incorporated with this system. Said tanks are interconnected by rigid split fasteners in perimeter of their adjacent surfaces to make a circular hull of underwater carrier craft and spaced apart by, primarily, equal spacings and are located equidistant from said circular hull centre. Carrier craft is equipped with compressed air cylinders, manipulators, their control unit and propulsion-steering complex composed by rotary propulsors with drives, compressed air systems and equalising ballast. Support vessel hull has underwater carrier craft and robot up and don silo.
EFFECT: enhanced operating performances.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship-building, specifically to enterprises intended for basing, technical inspection and renovation of vessels, as well as for initial operations connected with hydrocarbon production. Base of underwater oil-producing fleet includes administration and on-site facilities, dock, osmotron, railway station, airport with helipad. Dock is made with possibility of technical inspection of underwater vehicles which produce oil under drifting ice and represents transshipment point when oil is delivered by radio-controlled raiders in meshy containers which fill polymeric reservoirs with oil on dry-cargo vessels to deliver containers to oil refineries. Dock roof is equipped with snow-saving canisters from which melt-water can be used to raise water level in separate compartments of dock and to generate electric energy in hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: base for underwater oil-producing fleet is organized to provide vessel technical inspection, crew rotation, replenishment of completion materials and to serve as transshipment point when oil is delivered by raiders to dry-cargo vessels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to shipbuilding and can be used during submarine manoeuvring. Method for improvement of submarine mobility is proposed which submarine includes main submarine hull with screw propeller in its aft and with crew, which is functionally linked by docking unit with auxiliary submarine with remote control and screw propeller, herewith, functional link of main submarine hull docking unit is positioned from beneath of fore end of main submarine hull which is made in the form of cylinder, and docking unit is made with possibility of turning, and its lower end is fixed from above of middle part of auxiliary submarine hull so that it could be turned manoeuvring.
EFFECT: improvement of submarine mobility characteristics.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to naval electronic equipment to be used at perspective non-nuclear submarines. The electric power system comprises an accumulator battery, two diesel generating sets, distribution boards, control switchboard with switching and protecting equipment, and electric propulsion system. The accumulator battery is made as lithium ion battery, and its each group is divided into semi-groups. The semi-groups are connected to the power system through doubled automatic circuit breakers. The distribution boards are connected to semi-groups of the lithium ion battery through diode isolation. The electric propulsion system is made as all-mode electric propulsion system consisting of a propulsion motor and its power supply system, bypass power diodes are also installed in it and the system is connected to the power line by these diodes.
EFFECT: increasing sea endurance of a submarine and providing reliable power supply of essential systems.
SUBSTANCE: electric power system comprises an accumulator battery, two diesel generating sets, two electrochemical generators, an automatic circuit breaker, electric propulsion system, control boards with switching and protective gear and switchboards. The electric propulsion system is made as all-mode electric propulsion system consisting of a propulsion motor and its power supply system, bypass power diodes are also installed in it and the system is connected to the power line by these diodes. The accumulator battery consists of two groups; each group is coupled to the power mains through automatic circuit breakers at the accumulator battery boards. The accumulator battery is made as a lithium-ion rechargeable cell; each group is divided into subgroups and connected to the power mains through double automatic circuit breakers. The distribution boards are connected to semi-groups of the lithium ion battery through diode isolation.
EFFECT: increased sea endurance of a submarine.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to shipbuilding and concerns submarine operation. Method for submarine manoeuvrability improvement is suggested. The submarine includes hull of the main submarine with crew and screw propellers. The main submarine is functionally linked by docking unit with auxiliary submarine having remote control and motion screw. Screw propellers of the main submarine are positionally located at an angle of 120° relative to each other in the aft part of the main submarine hull for manoeuvring. Functional linkage of main submarine docking unit is positionally located in its aft part and temporarily fixed with fore part of auxiliary submarine for subsequent uncoupling in case of missile attack danger. Aft part of the main submarine and middle part of auxiliary submarine are temporarily - up to the moment of missile attack danger occurrence - fixed by streamlined device with conical surface.
EFFECT: improvement of submarine mobility characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: device is proposed to damage ice cover comprising an underwater vessel equipped with ballast cisterns, due to drying of which a trim is created to a stern and buoyancy force. In the bow there is a container with a reservoir in it, walls of which are made of corrugated elastic material. Inner sides of the container are equipped with remotely controlled relief valves, and the reservoir itself with the help of a flexible hose is connected with a source of compressed air, is attached to the bottom of the container with the help of slings, and being straightened by supplied air it acquires toroid shape.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of ice cover damage by an underwater vessel.