Development method of diamond-ore deposits
SUBSTANCE: method involves performance of hierarchically real structural deep differentiation of a massif, a deposit (or its section), thus, pointing out the following: different-scale and heterogeneous operational sections based on the most characteristic mining-and-geological peculiar features, including peculiar features of components of mine rocks, and within their limits - ore (mining), ore-porous and rock (overburden) horizons, in them - ore bodies or their parts, operating and rock units, in them - real heterogeneous excavation elements divided into thin and extremely thin layers presented with amenable, temporary non-amenable, non-amenable and low-grade diamond-containing ore, or with rocks; automated production of advance, current and operational express information using a complex method representing a combination of forecasting of probabilistic spatial distribution of diamonds in ore units and in their elements and further direct automated identification of availability, position, quality and quantity of diamonds in thin ore layers by means of an X-ray fluorescence method. With that, crystals of diamonds are automatically extracted from thin ore layers by means of annular hole drilling of each of the crystals separately, without any disturbance of their integrity, and separated from mini-massif of each developed thin layer.
EFFECT: improving ecological and energy efficiency of development of diamond-ore deposits.
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for development as Armatrading and complex ore deposits containing diamonds and some crystals, similar basic properties.
There are various ways of managing the data fields with the use of these or other known methods of extraction and processing crystalstream mineral raw materials [1-5].
The main feature of these methods is the organizational, operational and technological temporal and spatial relative dissociation of main processing in the production of mineral products - operational survey and sampling, Stripping and mining, mineral preparation and enrichment of mineral raw materials and industrial products.
The main disadvantages of the known and used both traditional and advanced technologies in an open, underground and combined development of solid mineral deposits are relatively long terms of project development (5-7 years or more), significant capital and operating material and financial costs of production of mineral products, relatively low labour productivity; the inevitable transfer of the extracted mineral raw materials and concentraton processing complexes (or installation), often considerable distances up to several miles; the need for production of all mineral mass, delivery processing, radiopathology and only then carry out the extraction of useful components in enrichment. It is often in significant quantities to perform the separation from the array is empty rocks, delivery and placing them on the surface. All this leads to a relatively low level of productivity and the increase in capital and operating costs, and negative environmental consequences.
In its technical essence close to the stated is the modern way of development Armatrading fields, widely used in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in open and underground mining and recovery of diamonds [1, 2].
The main disadvantages of this method of development Armatrading fields are extracted all rock quarry field - an open development method, all of the ore mass and partly rock - at the underground method; handling all formed of rock: the rock is in the dumps, conditioned ore - ore pretreatment and processing complexes and installation, sub-ore - specialized stores; implementation of pre-enrichment and enrichment radiopathology and actually enrichment conditioned ore.
The technical result consists in increasing the efficiency of diamond mining during the development Armatrading and kompleksnoznachnym fields through the application of progressive methods open, underground and combined ore mining and extraction of useful components, mainly of natural diamonds.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method development Armatrading fields, including the implementation of hierarchical real-structured in-depth differentiation of the array field (or its part), separation: scale and affine surround operational areas, on the basis of the most distinctive geological features, including the features composing the rocks, and within them - ore (mining), ore-rock and rock (overburden) horizons, they ore bodies or their parts, maintenance, mining and rock blocks, heterogeneous material extraction elements, divided into thin and very thin layers, presents conditional, temporary substandard, substandard and poor diamond ore, or rock; automated acquisition of advanced, current and operational Express information using an integrated way, which is a combination of forecasting likely the local spatial distribution of diamonds in the ore blocks and their elements, and then directly aided establish the presence, provisions, the quantity and quality of diamond ore in thin layers using x-ray method, the diamond crystals automatically extracted from fine ore layers with the aid of a ring drilling of each crystal individually, without disturbing their integrity, and are separated from minimania each working fine or thin layer.
Based on comparable analysis with the prototype of the differences of the proposed method, consisting in the aggregate: in the deep separation of ore array or part into small blocks, the blocks on the excavation items, and the last one on the subtle strata, based on the quantity, quality, physico-chemical characteristics contained in them diamond crystals, nature and the presence (or absence) of the regularities of their distribution in the ore; automated-robotic retrieval of macro - and mini arrays and thin layers of rocks; in the possibility and expediency of leaving pillars in underground mining of ore and waste rock horizons, operational blocks and extraction elements.
Thus, the inventive method of automated and robotic mining of precious crystals when open, underground or combined testing Armatrading fields with direct extraction of diamonds from the ore layers EXT is cnyh units and their elements match the condition of novelty.
The method comprises the following elements: scale mineral body field - geological orebody, mining, Stripping and skrishna-mining operational horizons, operating, mining and rock blocks, excavation elements of blocks of different thickness of the ore and rock layers mining blocks and extraction elements; host and accommodated breed; robotic technical means is the mobile universal lightweight aggregate type, has several working bodies - positioners for automated acquisition, processing and transmission of Express information about the presence (absence) of diamonds in the mineral layers (typically, ore), blocks, excavation elements and their basic properties for the direct extraction of valuable crystals, as well as ensuring sustainable mining mineral interest; robotic technical tools for automated delivery of the extracted crystals on the surface - universal mobile unit for testing mineral interest, including layers, of which the extracted diamonds, automated technical or "soft" (very gentle) blasting of rocks, excavation excavation, loading and displacement of the rock mass.
Implement the method as follows. Pre-field or at ASDI divided into mining, Stripping and a horizons; within them in a hierarchical sequence allocate operational units, and they - production with the conditional, temporarily off-grade and off-grade ore and waste blocks; in mining blocks emit extraction elements with (without) diamonds; in turn, ore extraction elements are divided into very thin or thin layers of different conditionnot. Deep differentiation mining blocks produced on the basis of automated received current and operational Express information using x-ray separation (or other similar and promising physical means) mounted on the manipulator universal mobile unit. Consistently carry out a detailed and automated selective mining mining blocks and excavation of ore elements in the different layers of conditionnot and accordingly her various capacities, highlighting them in trace elements with the conditional, temporary substandard, substandard and poor ore and rock elements; produce automated extraction of ore elements jewelry and diamonds of different technical quality and quantity using individual "ring" of drilling individual crystals without breaking their nature is ne integrity; sequential selective refinement layer, other excavation items and production units (in General) perform automated after extraction of crystals, by placing the ore mass in the respective ore warehouses, and breed in the dumps, the formation of which is produced mainly in the developed space.
The method allows for efficient testing Armatrading fields and their individual sections, presents the ore bodies of different morphology and capacity, diverse patterns, and the complexity or with relatively simple conditions of occurrence; the testing of very low ore bodies, thin conforming veins and rock inclusions; improve the completeness of the extraction and use of diamond-bearing mineral resources in General; deep and rapid differentiation of minerals and useful component in quality, quantity, physical and chemical properties and the nature of their distribution in the array; automated and robotic execution of all information, the actual technological processes and operations, associated with the development of Armatrading fields and their individual mineral objects.
The method allows to reduce the economic, environmental and social costs of production; to improve safety, productivity and comfort of the awn miner labor, the output produced mineral products with units redeemable stock; to shorten or simplify the number of technological processes and operations and, above all, the production of conditioned ore, its transportation and processing (enrichment).
Sources of information
1. Eremenko C. A., Serikov C. M., Particularly the redistribution of the stress state of the rock mass at the recess of the underlying stock tubes "Good" room-and-pillar system development - " GON. - 2011. No. 2 - C. 298-299.
2. Ivanov, E. D., Kovalenko B. C. the efficiency of mining contiguous diamond-bearing pipes through the use of internal dumping GORN. - M - 2010. No. 6. - S. 218-223.
3. Rudakov Centuries, Zlobin, M. N., Novikov centuries prospects for the use of modular units in the processing of kimberlite ores and Szamorodni, non-ferrous and rare metals. The " gon-2011. No. 2 - C. 240-241.
4. Black, A. D., Andreev, B. N., Oshmyany I. B. Open-pit and underground development of mineral deposits. By "Technology", 2010. 574 C.
5. Sekisov Century, the Technology development of the mineral of interest and scientific position of their creation//, Sekisov, V. G. Romanov, Y. N. Zykov / Transbaikalia; Collection of articles. Special issue of " gon. - 2009. No. HIA. - S. 214-222.
Method development Armatrading fields, including the implementation of hierarchical real-structured in-depth differentiation of the array, m is the field (or its part), while highlighting: scale and affine surround operational areas, on the basis of the most distinctive geological features, including the features composing the rocks, and within them - ore (mining), ore-rock and rock (overburden) horizons, they ore bodies or their parts, maintenance, mining and rock blocks, heterogeneous material extraction elements, divided into thin and very thin layers, presents conditional, temporary substandard, substandard and poor diamond ore, or rock; automated acquisition of advanced, current and operational Express information using an integrated way, which is a combination of probabilistic forecasting the spatial distribution of diamonds in the ore blocks and their elements, and then directly aided establish the presence, location, quantity and quality of diamond ore in thin layers using x-ray method, characterized in that the diamond crystals automatically extracted from fine ore layers with the aid of a ring drilling of each crystal individually, without disturbing their integrity, and are separated from minimania each working fine or thin layer.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises an extraction of overburden rocks by longitudinal stripping cuts with placement on their bottom of a free strip, handling of overburdens from working face of the longitudinal stripping cut and their storage in an internal dump. The extraction of overburdens by longitudinal stripping cuts with placement on their bottom of a free strip, handling of overburdens from working face of the longitudinal stripping cut and their storage in an internal dump at the edge of these stripping cuts are performed within the extraction block. Meanwhile along the bottom edge of the internal dump of the extraction block an additional free strip is placed, which is used for storage of overburdens, with forming of internal dump.
EFFECT: improvement of performance of direct mining method at the expense of increase of productivity by minimising of length and time of idle running of the stripping equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in an excavation method of a useful deposit at fan-like advance of scope of mining operations, which involves advancing of a permanent and working trench, installation of transport communications, excavation of a useful deposit and overburden rocks by treatment of wedge-shaped blocks, according to the invention, development of wedge-shaped blocks is performed at two stages as per a shuttle-type scheme without any shifting of transport communications with preliminary formation of an advancing recess at a turning point of transport communications in the direction of the open-pit field boundary on condition of parameters of the advancing recess L, B providing minimum development of a wedge-shaped block by value Bmin.
EFFECT: uninterrupted production of a useful mineral along the whole scope of mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making ramps on the border of working and final pit edges for heavy-duty dump trucks, with the placement of the ramp part on its width on the subrepose remnant of rocks, and on the other part - on the final pit edge. On the working pit edge parallel to the formed ramp for heavy-duty dump trucks the ramp is made for light-duty dump trucks. When it is impossible to locate on the board the ramp for heavy-duty dump trucks under conditions of decreasing with depth career space, a part of this ramp, located on the subrepose remnant of the rocks, is developed with transportation of rock mass to the surface by light-duty dump trucks on the ramp on the working pit edge. On the part of the ramp for heavy-duty dump trucks, located at the final pit edge the ramp is formed for light-duty dump trucks. The ramp for light-duty dump trucks from the working edge is moved to the final pit edge, with the formation on it of the steep ramp for movement on it of dump trucks with articulated frame. The rock mass from the steep ramp is transported to the surface on the ramp for light-duty dump trucks on the final pit edge. At the lower part of the pit under conditions of confined space the steep ramp for dump trucks with articulated frame is formed in a known manner.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of the development of deep-seated deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making a steep trench using a wheel loader and motor transport, capable to climb steep slopes. Making the trench is carried out in several stages, dividing the steep trench to steeply inclined-horizontal layers with height calculated by taking into account the motion trajectory of the loader bucket, which are mined successively downward. When mining each successive layer the rock mass is preliminary loosened, the loader carries out its withdrawal, delivery and unloading to the motor transport placed at horizontal areas as close as possible to the forehead.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of mining.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises formation of the working area, the technology of mining of overburden benches and ensuring of load-transport communication of working horizons with the surface, mining of the overburden benches of the working area is carried out with excavators with elongated work equipment, taking the height of the benches equal to a sesquialteral height of digging of the excavators. At that, to prevent the collapse of deflectors and hangers on the bench slope above the height of the excavator digging the pre-splitting of its upper part is made by a) contour blasting or b) preliminary slit-formation, formation of the working area is carried out with the use of a cascade scheme of mining of overburden benches, at that the scope of work of each bench is divided to the passive with minimal working areas with a width that provides two-way movement of technology vehicles and its manoeuvring, and an active, working platforms of which include minimum working platforms, and volumes of overburden rocks ready for extraction, the relative length of active edge of each overburden bench is determined by the mathematical formula. Blasting of volumes of overburden rocks ready for extraction of the bench is carried out from the calculation for the entire blasted amount can not be completely placed on the working platform of this bench and on the minimal working platform of the underlying bench adjacent to it, opening the working benches is carried out by steep sliding ramps with longitudinal slope to 12-15° with the condition of use of vehicles that can overcome such slope, and the width providing location of collapse of blasted rock mass during their expansion and simultaneously through pass of process of technology vehicles, the expansion of steep ramps is carried out using track and wheel loaders by dividing the collapse of the blasted rock mass to the horizontal and inclined layers with height determined by taking into account the path of movement of the loader bucket.
EFFECT: reduction of current stripping ratio in the initial period of development of the deposit.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the identification of operational field, mineral objects of extraction, inside them - operational blocks with standard, temporarily sub-standard and substandard and sub-standard mineral resources and separation of rocky ones, outstripping, current and realtime automated obtaining of express information, digging of uncovering "wells" or short trenches. The roboting automated extraction of a mineral from formations during their extraction using a mechanical method of separation of minerals and rocks of thin rocky interlayers, automated lifting of a mineral to the daylight area or its bypass to the receiving device arranged in an adit. At excavation of fields of upland type, a rock mass is left in a goaf after excavation of interlayers, the face area is temporarily kept using the automated and roboting ready-made fastening.
EFFECT: improvement of performance of development of non-rocky sheet deposits with medium and steep pitch.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the automated and real-time obtaining and processing of the express information on the structure of array of consistently worked-out parts of ledges, their differentiated separation on the basis of the obtained complex system information into multi-scale structural elements of rocks with natural and technogenic fracturing. Separation of the obtained complex system information into multi-scale structural elements of rocks includes strength, elasto-rheological, thermophysical, structural and mechanical characteristics. The automated combined destruction down of structural members comprises the blasting under a mobile engine driven shelter and subsequent disintegration using an electrophysical method in view of the obtained characteristics. Direct accommodation in temporary storage stockpiles and delivery of the obtained products to consumers is performed after the automated feeding of mined rock into a receiving device of the mobile sorting unit with the subsequent separation of mined rock into respective fractions by coarseness.
EFFECT: improvement of performance of development of fields of building rocks of rocky and semi-rocky types.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in development of large deposits of commercial minerals of hollow and tilting occurrence with use of the technique of continuous action with the open-pit mining. The method comprises permanent and initial trenching, mounting of transportation lines, excavation of commercial minerals by mining with wedged stopes. The mining with wedged stopes is carried out from the maximum width of excavation stope to the stope width BTi, which enables movement of transportation lines to the next wedged stope in accordance with the condition:
EFFECT: increase in productivity of excavation and loading complex in mining of deposits of commercial minerals by fan-mining method.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry and can be used mainly for loading the rock mass in the dump trucks in the implementation of continuous operation of miners. The method comprises implementation of independent processes of positioning hoppers, which occurs simultaneously with the working process of the miner in the automation of the process of orientation of the complex for loading relative to the miner, and the dump truck - relative to the complex. Implementation of independent processes of location of the hoppers is carried out by moving the frames of the hoppers in a vertical plane and the hopper carriages - in the horizontal plane and is controlled by the vertical movement mechanism and horizontal movement mechanism. At that the hoppers by means of articulated linkages with carriages are pivotable in a vertical plane by means of telescopic mechanisms of rotation. The hopper frames when moving interact by sliding bearings with vertical guides. The complex is equipped with vertical guides of the frame of the modules, which interact with the sliding bearings of the frames of the hoppers, the mechanisms of vertical movement connected with sliding bearings, the mechanisms of horizontal movement, mounted on the frames of the hoppers and connected to the hopper carriages for positioning the hoppers in the horizontal plane, and telescopic mechanisms of rotation of the hoppers in a vertical plane relative to the hinge connections, the system of automatic control of mechanisms of the complex functioning. The complex also is equipped with positioning sensors mounted on the frame of the complex and connected to the automatic control system, and to control loading the hoppers with rock mass on the bottoms of the hoppers the control sensors are placed. At that the automatic control system comprises a microprocessor with a control unit, a control panel of hydraulic system and electric generator.
EFFECT: improvement of the process efficiency of the complex operation for loading of the rock mass in the dump trucks.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method in which the quarry along the length is divided by the lines, of which the first is worked out to a target depth with an external spoil disposal and working out of the subsequent ones is carried out using an internal spoil disposal, placing the overburden in the mined-out space of the adjacent line with the common formation of the dump tiers with the development of mining work. And simultaneously with the start of mining operations in the quarry of the first stage within the quarry of the second stage along the deposits the front quarry is built with angles of the slopes of sides close to the angles of reclamation, the cross-overs are located in it for providing cargo communication of the upper working horizons of the quarry of the first stage with the surface, with the reduction of mining operations in the quarry of the first stage on its longitudinal side the loop cross-overs are made adjacent to the bottom of the quarry in the area of the end side, which is formed with a slope towards the temporary side, marking the limit of the quarries of first and second stage, when achievement in the mining operations in the quarry of the first stage of the current depth. The separation of the sides of the front quarry is carried out, turning them into working, and after complete working out the reserves of the quarry of the first stage the working out the reserves of the quarry of the second stage is carried out, while linking its main openings to the main openings of quarry of the first stage in the locations of the loops, the inner dump in the worked-out area of quarry of the first stage is formed as inclined and horizontal tiers, at first directly with the surface from the side not occupied with main openings, the inclined tier is made with bulldozers with width of the platform on top equal to zero, and then using a draglines it is extended by the amount of boom extension, after this the horizontal tiers are dumped in series from the bottom up from the loop cross-overs with the high ensuring their sustainability, to complete formation of the inner dump.
EFFECT: decrease in the distance of inner transportation of overburden from the working area to the inner dump.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mineral dressing and can be used in mining and iron and steel industry. The method of obtaining of bulk concentrate from ferruginous quartzites comprises the grinding of the source ore, its hydraulic classification with obtaining of overflow and sand products, stadial magnetic separation and gravity dressing of tailings of magnetic separation. Magnetic fraction of the base magnetic separation is subjected to thin classification. Oversize fraction of classification is sent for regrinding and cleaning magnetic separation with returning of the magnetic product for classification. Undersize fraction of the product is subjected to additional dressing with separation of magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions. The magnetic fraction is subjected to magnetic and gravitational separation with separation of magnetite concentrate. Nonmagnetic fraction is aggregated with tailings of the previous stages and sent to screw and hydraulic separation with obtaining of hematite concentrate and dump tailings. The tailings of magnetic and gravitational separation are subjected to desliming with separation of draining in tailings, and sands are returned for regrinding. Heavy fraction of the base stage of screw separation is sent for cleaning screw-shaped separation to dump a lighter fraction to tailings and obtaining of rough hematite concentrate, the operational development which is finished out by hydraulic separation.
EFFECT: increase of separation of ferriferous minerals.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry and can be used to increase the extraction of valuable elements from ores and products of their processing, in particular for the recovery of precious metals in mineral form and in part of sulphides of copper, nickel, iron from old tailings of the preserved tailing dump located in the Norilsk industrial district. The method of three-stage process optimisation of the parameters of the centrifugal enrichment for the recovery of precious metals in the mineral form from ores, tailings during processing of embedded copper-nickel ores of Norilsk deposits comprises selection of its own minerals of platinum group metals in the gravity concentrate before the flotation enrichment operation at a weight ratio of the amount of sulphides and magnetite and the amount of oxides of silicon and aluminium in the initial ore or tailings less than 1:2, the size of 30-65% class less than 74 microns. Isolation of own minerals of platinum metals is carried out at the value of the centrifugal Froude number of 11.75 and ratio of this value to the fluidising water pressure of 0.085 kPa. The method of optimising the parameters of centrifugal enrichment comprises the sequence of operations on the centrifugal separators, designed for continuous operation in industrial environments. At the first step an optimum accumulation time of the concentrate is determined. At the second step the optimum speed of jets of water or optimal water flow through the openings to the separator bowl inter-ripple space is selected. At the third stage the speed of jets of water or water flow through the openings to the separator bowl inter-ripple space is stepwise increased, starting with the optimal water flow, defined in the second step and the optimum time interval of accumulation of concentrate defined in the first step.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of the recovery of precious metals from ores, tailings from the processing of ores of Norilsk deposits, as well as improving the efficiency of the optimisation parameters of centrifugal enrichment.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes enrichment of sludge by hydrocycloning, filtration of an obtained pre-concentrate, which represents a mixture of large fractions of a sedimentary and a part of a floated material, dehydration, drying, granulation, drying. To hydrocycloning supplied is sludge with a ratio of S:L=1:2. Hydrocycloning is carried out in 4 stages. Discharges of each stage of hydrocycloning are combined in the pre-concentrate. An initial pulp is supplied to the first hydrocyclone at a temperature of 50÷70°C and under pressure of 2.5÷4 atm. A ratio of sand muzzle to the draining one in all the hydrocyclones constitutes 0.5÷0.66:1. Drying of granules is realised at a temperature up to 150°C to avoid loss of noble metals in sublimates.
EFFECT: maximal extraction of noble metals from the obtained concentrate.
4 cl, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of determining gold mineralisation of rock formation comprises multistage crushing of raw material to fractions of the size not greater than 0.5 mm, the subsequent classification of the resulting material and its processing with bromoform. Classification is carried out by sedimentation with the separation of the material class of -0.05+0.02 mm of water discharges, followed by drying and sieving the remaining material with the separation of the fraction -0.5 +0.1 mm and -0.1+0.05 mm, treating each of the resulting classes with 10-30% alcohol solution of bromoform. Sedimentation is carried out once with the accumulation of sediment for 15-20 min and repeatedly for 3-5 minutes, followed by the integration of the water discharges obtained during it.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of determining of gold areas and determining areas of gold mineralisation.
2 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises ore screening, magnetic separation to obtain magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions, grinding, hydraulic classification, thickening and drying. Martite ore is first subjected to screening with separation to three size classes, i.e. coarse, intermediate and fine. Coarse class is directed to sensory separation to obtain tails and concentrate to be additionally ground and screened to intermediate and fine classes. Intermediate class is conveyed to metallurgical processing while fine class is subjected to pelletising. Hydrohematite ore is first subjected to screening with separation to three size classes, i.e. coarse, intermediate and fine. Coarse class is directed to sensory separation to obtain tails and concentrate to be additionally ground and screened to intermediate and fine classes. Intermediate class is conveyed to metallurgical processing. Portion of fine class is directed for pelletising while another portion is directed to magnetic separation, its magnetic fraction is fed for pelletising. Nonmagnetic fraction is ground with mixing by grinding medium and directed to hydraulic classification of the first stage. Classification sands are returned to the mill. Sink is fed to second stage of classification, its sink being used as 3rd grade pigment after thickening and drying. Sands of second classification are fed to second stage of grinding with mixing by grinding medium. Product ground at second stage is subjected to 3rd stage hydraulic classification, its sands being dried and used as 2nd grade pigment. Thereafter, sink is thickened, dried and used as 1st grade pigment.
EFFECT: simultaneous production of several grades of iron oxide pigment and finished stock for metallurgy.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of dressing of hard minerals, namely, to methods for enrichment of rare-metal ores. The method of dressing of eudialyte ores includes application of electromagnetic separation in intense field with separation of nepheline-feldspar concentrate into non-magnetic fraction and subsequent electric separation of magnet fractions with production of aegirine and eudialyte concentrates. In the head of the process they perform separation of ore with total secondary characteristic radiation Kα1-series of elements of strontium, yttrium, zirconium and niobium in the energy range of 13.0-17.5 keV.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of extraction of eudialyte concentrate, reduced costs for grinding and crushing of ore, and also reduced quantity of cleaning operations.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to concentration of minerals and can be used to increase the yield of valuable products, particularly, zinc and lead, by flotation. Proposed method comprises flotation, processing of pulp-bearing solution by pulse discharges and precipitation of solid phase. Processing of pulp-bearing solution is carried out by pulsed high-voltage discharges of specific energy of 8.6-11.2 kJ/dm3 fed directly into pipeline communicating flotation machine with settle-thickener. Action of pulsed high-voltage discharges is brought about provided that: R/Ro=10.4 where: R is the radius of efficient wave effects; Ro is the spacing between electrodes and R.
EFFECT: higher intensity and rate of deposition of disperse particles from foam after flotation.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of coal extracted from coal deposits for opening of its splices with rock. At the same time the coal is placed in layers at the intermediate storage, arranged on the southern slope of a knoll (mountain, hill) or a pit heap, the site of which has an angle of inclination 10-25°, exposed in spring-autumn periods to solar radiation with the number of "thawing-freezing" cycles with transition of temperature via 0°C equal to at least 7. Besides, the thickness of the coal layers is taken on the basis of the calculation sufficient for daily heating-cooling, and after thermal processing the coal is shipped from the warehouse for subsequent demineralisation.
EFFECT: increased opening of coal splices with rock.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed machine comprises cylindrical housing, initial material feed pipe, material discharge pipe and rotor drive. Initial material distributor composed of fixed cone is arranged directly above the rotor. Circular flanges are arranged at housing sidewall while fine dusty fraction discharge pipe is arranged at housing top section. Rotor fitted on the shaft in said housing is shaped to cylinder in height equal to rub-off zone and equipped with radial blades. It includes industrial blower is communicated with pipe discharging the fine dusty fraction along with airflow. Initial material feed pipe is arranged directly above initial material distributor. Finished product discharge pipe is arranged at housing bottom section.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of rubbing-off and separation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined methods of separation of solid materials, particularly, to processing of radio electronic scrap. Proposed method comprises primarily two-step separation of solid materials by hammer crushers to required size, magnetic and screen separation of ground scrap with subsequent pneumatic classification by bulk density of oversize and undersize products of screen classification. Note here that ground scrap fraction of boundary size obtained at pneumatic classification is subjected to additional grinding at ball mill to size of nonmetallic component of not over 1 mm. To isolate metallic component of processed scrap aforesaid ground fraction is subjected to pneumatic classification by bulk density.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing.
FIELD: concentration of minerals.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes disintegration of dust at simultaneous preparation of pulp and removal of foreign admixtures; operations are performed in scrubber-washing drum. Then pulp is admitted to pulp line in counter-flow; aeration of pulp is performed in pulp line by means of air bubbles of one size and duration of life no less than 1-2 minutes; proposed method includes also forming standing acoustic waves perpendicularly to pulp flow at frequency ωac corresponding to resonance frequency ω0 of air bubbles of one size 10. Action of centrifugal and acoustic fields on pulp is performed in acoustic chamber at hydrostatic pressure of 4-5 atm. Acoustic field is formed in acoustic chamber by waves of final amplitude at frequency ωac corresponding to resonance frequency ω0of air bubbles of one size 10 by means of acoustic radiators smoothly distributed over surface of acoustic chamber.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of entrapping fine gold.