Method to manufacture panel for furniture or floor
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method to manufacture a panel, in particular, a panel for furniture or floor. On at least one surface of a plate substrate they apply a decorative finish, preferably, the decorative finish that imitates wood. The substrate or the decorative finish is equipped with a planar 3D structure. To produce the structure, a liquid and/or powder-like applicable material is applied onto the substrate or the decorative finish in one layer or in multiple layers. The applied applicable material is in some places strengthened at least with the help of a device that is digitally controlled. The device is controlled using the structure data available in a digital form.
EFFECT: invention provides for manufacturing of decorative panels with a 3D surface structure of high quality.
15 cl, 4 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The invention relates to a method of manufacturing panels, in particular panels for furniture or floor, in which at least one surface of the plate substrate is applied decoration, mainly decoration, imitating the tree, and in which the substrate or the pattern supplied planar three-dimensional structure. Further, the invention relates to manufactured in this way the panels, in particular panels for furniture or floor.
The level of technology
There are various ways by which of the chipboard is made with the floor panels, in particular panels for the floor. The known method is, for example, that fibreboard or chipboard cover printed and impregnated with melamine resin decorative paper and then on the press when applying structured sheets for stamping to provide a structured surface. Decorative paper is usually Packed full of imitation wood, for example, pattern parquet riveting or wooden flooring. Caused by the embossing structure then must simulate the porous structure of natural wood. In particular, in this regard, well-known selection of decorative finishes that mimic wood, and structured sheet for stamping to each other, so is it done with the help sheet for stamping structure as possible simultaneously formed with decorative trim, simulating the tree, i.e. that the structure is carried out in exactly the right overlap with the intended decorative finishes that mimic wood. Appropriate installation sheet for stamping in respect of decorative paper, however, is difficult. Moreover, this raises the problem that in the press decorative paper changes under the pressure and temperature in their sizes. Accordingly, we talk about the growth of paper.
Another known method of manufacturing a three-dimensional structured surface on the plate workpiece is that decoration, in particular, decoration, imitating the tree is printed using the print roller directly on the plate to the workpiece and then the decorative finish by applying a fluid medium by means of an engraved roller-burnishing roller is applied to a transparent covering layer. Thanks to this procedure avoids the problem of the growth of the paper, but the quality of the thus obtained structure, in particular, the depth patterns, achieved with the help of rolling of the roller in respect to a relatively thin structure, is still unsatisfactory.
To achieve the depth of the structure significantly more than 10 μm (micrometer), for example, the depth of the structure 50 (DE 102007019871 A1) proposes a method in which coating is of Echuca environment by using engraved rolling roller so that rolling the roller in its engraved recesses, and (without engraving) of the protruding areas wetted by a fluid medium. Thus, must be attained by the three-dimensional structure with depth structure from 5-500 μm. The disadvantage with this known method, however, is that for each decoration, imitating the tree requires at least one roller for drawing and one matching engraved rolling roller to create surface patterns. Manufacturing panels with a variety of decorative finishes that mimic wood, in particular, the change of printing rollers for decoration, as well as rolling rollers, creating a three-dimensional structure, are extremely costly.
Further, from DE 2005046264 A1 is known a method for manufacturing panels with three-dimensional coating surface at which the upper side of the chipboard coated with imprinting decorative paper supplied untreated porous layer, i.e. the layer itself does not have any pores, in which then - if necessary, after hardening by laser processing vygravirovany pores. Later in DE 102005046264 A1 variant of the method, in which a chipboard first supplied thermosetting primer coating, which then with OSU engraving laser creates a porous structure. Then using a digital printing device, in particular an inkjet printer, applied to the final decorative finish.
Disclosure of inventions
The basis of the present invention is the task to create a method, which can be made decorative panels with three-dimensional surface structure of high quality and favorable in terms of value and in relatively small quantities.
According to the invention this problem is solved in the way that signs of paragraph 1 of the claims.
When proposed in accordance with the invention, the method on at least one surface of the plate substrate is applied decoration, mainly decoration, imitating wood. Next, the substrate or decorative finish supplied planar three-dimensional structure. Three-dimensional structure may be applied, in particular, also before applying a decorative finish to the substrate. But exactly the same is applied to the decorative finish only after applying it. According to the invention to obtain a structure on a substrate or decorative trim one or multilayer can be applied liquid and/or powder applied material, and caused damage to the material is hardened with at least managed digital pursue the MD device, and moreover, the device is controlled in the application presented in digital form the data structure.
Using the proposed in accordance with the invention method can generate three-dimensional structure with a large depth patterns. It turns out, in particular, if liquid and/or powder applied the material is applied in several layers on a substrate or decorative finish, in particular, on the respective surfaces of decorative finishes can be created in various region of the surface of the respective panel with different height of the structure and/or depth of the structure. Thanks to the use of controlled digitally device and its control using the digitized data structure on a single production facility may be manufactured panel with a variety of decorative finishes, in particular with decorative finishes that mimic wood, stone, and fantastic drawings, without the need to implement when changing decorative finishes, requiring replacement of the rolling roller or sheet for stamping. The use of digital data patterns and digitally controlled device for coating, sealing and/or hardening of the coating material makes it possible, in particular, favorable about the carrying value flexibly modifiable production of panels with different individual decorative finishes, respectively, structures, and it is in different formats, and different values of the series. In addition, proposed in accordance with the invention, the fabrication of three-dimensional structures makes it possible that in places the future of the recess patterns mostly without any coating material or the removal of excess coating material in these places, and it again can be applied, resulting in a significant saving of material as compared with existing methods, in which the pores (cavities) are created by burning, displacement or seal coating material.
The preferred implementation is proposed in accordance with the invention, the method provides that the quality of coating material applied liquid and/or powder applied material, which is hardened by radiation, mainly light and/or thermal radiation, and deposited on a substrate or decorative finish applied material on the subject to create the structure, partially hardened in place by means of the above-mentioned radiation.
Another implementation is proposed in accordance with the invention, the method consists in the fact that it is the amount of coating material applied liquid and/or powder applied material, which is hardened under the influence of binder and deposited on a substrate or decorative finish applied material in the area of the framework in turn is limited by means of a supply mentioned binder.
Proposed in accordance with the invention, the method includes, in particular, an implementation option, in which liquid and/or powder applied material is directionally several layers only on the region of the spin-off elevation of the three-dimensional structure. Alternatively, the applied material is used to create a three-dimensional structure, can also according to the invention is applied with a significant excess or even over the entire surface, and then is limited by the hardening of coating material to create elevations of the three-dimensional structure. After a limited place of hardening of the coating material then non-reinforced, the excess of the applied material is removed from the plate substrate. Excessive damage to the material is again used mainly for other sections of the structure.
Another preferred implementation proposed in accordance with the invention the method is characterized by the fact that the decoration on the plate substrate is printed using digital printing the disorder. This makes possible high flexibility with respect to the production of panels with various decorative finishes and three-dimensional structures, different formats and different values of the series.
Another preferred implementation of the invention in this regard is that the obtained digital data of decorative finishes for managing printing device using scan samples made from natural products, mostly real wood or natural stone. Thanks to this simple way may be collected by a large number of different decorative finishes and stored in the form of digital data sets in memory to control the printing device. In another implementation proposed in accordance with the invention, the method provides that the resulting data structure for managing digital device that facilitates the deposition, compaction and/or hardening coating material by scanning the samples made from natural products, mostly real wood or natural stone. Thanks this may be achieved by the optimal precision register (synchronicity) decorative finishes and three-dimensional structure.
Optimal precision register decorative finishes and three-dimensional structures in the inelastic performance of the proposed in accordance with the invention can be achieved also, if the data structure for managing digital device that facilitates the deposition, compaction and/or hardening coating material, obtained using scanning applied, if necessary, before the plate substrate of decoration.
Another preferred implementation proposed in accordance with the invention the method is characterized by the fact that damage caused material hardened seats with multiple managed digitally devices, and devices that cover different areas of the substrate surface. This performance makes it possible to significantly improve the performance of the proposed in accordance with the invention the manufacture of three-dimensional structure.
Brief description of drawings
Below the invention is explained in more detail using the drawings showing several embodiments and schematically showing:
figure 1 - a device for implementing proposed in accordance with the invention method;
figure 2 is another device to implement the proposed in accordance with the invention method;
figure 3 - panel manufactured by the method proposed in accordance with the invention, in vertical longitudinal section; and
4 is a view of a panel made by the method proposed in accordance with the invented who eat in the perspective image.
The implementation of the invention
Presented in figure 1, the device includes a transport device 1, for example, a plant with belt conveyor, which is subject to supply decorative trim, and a three-dimensional structure of the substrate 2 is applied to several positions of the processing. The conveying direction of the substrate 2 shown by an arrow R.
Plate the substrate 2 is, for example, chipboard, mostly from having a medium density or high density fibreboard. Want to supply a decorative surface of the corresponding substrate 2 is first provided with a primer coating. The primer coating is to reduce the absorbency of the carrier plate 2 and improves the adhesion of subsequently applied finishes. Primer coating color be linked to the application of decorative finishes. For example, a primer coating is made of beige or reddish if you want to applying decorative finishes it comes to decoration, imitating oak or cherry. If, on the contrary, applied decoration, imitating stone, the primer coating can be, for example, a gray shade. Primer coating on the plate is Yu substrate 2, strengthened mainly by means of light and/or heat radiation and then in another position of the handle (not shown) is polished.
So, pre-treated plate substrate 2 serves for applying decorative finishes the printer. Printing device mainly includes at least one digital printing device 3, for example, printing device, made according to the principle of the inkjet printer.
Digital printing device 3 is controlled by using the digital data of decorative finishes that are stored, respectively, can be stored in the storage device 4 of the data, mainly in the Central storage device. The digital data of decorative finishes (data to control) are obtained mainly by scanning (optical reader) samples. In the case of samples we are talking in particular about the designs, made from natural products, for example, real wood or natural stone (original sample). This mainly applies scanner 5 with high resolution. Thus obtained data of decorative finishes are stored in the storage device 4 and data are transmitted as control signals via the control unit 6 of the printer 3. This legitamize in the framework of the invention, first of all, the treatment received, respectively, the stored data of decorative finishes. This processing may include, for example, processing data ornamental trim in pieces defects underlying the original sample, for example holes of knots and/or inclusions. Further data processing decorative finishes may include changing the tint and/or color contrast.
For the printing device 3 may be followed by a device for drying (not shown)through which at least partially hardened deposited on an appropriate substrate 2 decorative finishes. Drying, respectively hardening is carried out, if necessary, again using light and/or heat radiation.
Then the printing device 3 may follow the application device (not shown), by which a decorative finish over the entire surface is applied a transparent, generally uniform covering layer.
Printed (and, if necessary, sealed over the entire surface) decorative finish then supplied planar three-dimensional structure. According to the invention, the structure 8 is created by using a single or multilayer coating material (cf. figure 3). This is through having a digital control device 7, which is controlled by the application of mausica in digital form the data structure.
These patterns again obtained using scanning (optical reader) samples produced from natural products such as real wood or natural stone, and are stored in the storage device 4 of the data.
Data transfer decorative finishes, and structural data from the storage device 4 data the printer 3, respectively, the digital device 7 for receiving the three-dimensional structure via the data network, for example, the internal network or the Internet or using a mobile/transportable environment storage device, which is connected with the printing device 3, respectively, the digital device 7 or loaded in a given data reader (not shown) and can be read.
In the embodiment according to figure 1 as a coating material for obtaining a three-dimensional structure 8 is applied powder, hardened by means of light and/or heat radiation of the applied material, which can be applied by having a separate digital control device.
Transparent structure 8 is constructed from a transparent hardening material. As shown in figure 3, the structure of 8 defines a small rise 8.1 and deepening 8.2 (pores), and the position of the elevations 8.1 and recesses 8.2 alignment is s with decorative trim. For example, in the areas of decorative finishes that mimic wood, cavities (pores) patterns, respectively representing the pores of the wood, are an exact fit. This attitude say about synchronous pores or structure with synchronous pores.
Three-dimensional structure is created mainly layers through having a digital control device 7 when using existing digital data patterns. The device 7 for this includes the following for the printing device 3 (first) head for 7.1 application of powder coating material, which is hardened under the influence of light and/or heat radiation.
The device 7 includes mainly two, three or more such heads 7.1, a 7.2 for the application. The corresponding cylinder, 7.1, 7.2 for application combined with a device, 7.3, 7.4 for hardening the liquid coating material.
Using head 7.1 for applying, educated in figure 1 in the form of the scattering of the head, mainly on the entire surface on the upper side of the corresponding plate of the substrate 2 with printed decorative trim, apply the first layer of powder coating material. For the scattering cylinder 7.1 is the position of the handle, which has a cylinder and 7.3 for processing, which directs the focused beam 9 energy, for example, the laser beam for a certain partial area of the applied coating material.
This ensures that printed on the decorative finish applied material on the subject to create the structure, partially in place strengthened through the supply of the mentioned light and/or heat radiation.
For the cylinder, 7.3 can be followed by the second one or the other cylinder, 7.2 for the application (scattering head) for the second application, respectively, of another layer of powder coating material, which then again is irradiated, partially in place melts, respectively strengthened beam 9 energy head 7.4 for processing that follows the scattering cylinder 7.2 in the conveying direction P of the bearing plate 2. To achieve hardening of the powder coating material by means of light exposure, it contains, for example, photopolymer.
The cylinder, 7.3, 7.4 for processing, for example, the laser head can be moved in the direction R of the transport plate of the substrate 2, and across the direction of transport. The movement and operation of the respective heads 7.3, 7.4 for processing are controlled depending on the in-memory data structure by means of the control device 6. Not hardened after a limited place of hardening, respectively melting excess coating material applied material is removed from the corresponding the soup plate substrate 2. This is done mainly with the help of the suction device 10. The suction device includes, for example, exhaust fan 10.1, team capacity 10.2 and leading to the team's capacity suction pipe 10.3. The hole for the suction of the suction pipe 10.3 is located a short distance above provided by coating the substrate 2. Sucked away from the substrate 2, caught in a team capacity 10.2 of the applied material can further be used to create other layers, respectively, plots of the three-dimensional structure produced by the panel. Accordingly to the team capacity 10.2 attached return line 10.4, which is equipped with a transport auger 10.5 or other suitable transport device. Return line 10.4 comes out in at least one boot or team capacity, which is given scattering cylinder, 7.1, 7.2 respectively. Between the combined capacity of 10.2 and an exhaust fan 10.1 is the valve or shut-off device 10.6. Similarly, between the combined capacity of 10.2 and pump 10.5 (transport auger) is a valve or shut-off device 10.7. Valves (shut-off devices) 10.6, 10.7 can be controlled protivohode, i.e. if the valve 10.6 opened, the valve 10.7 closed, and Vice versa.
Applied material from which to create the three-dimensional structure using one is lologo or multilayer) presents lacquer or synthetic resin, which is cured transparent. The applied material may contain particles that increase the abrasion resistance, for example, particles of corundum. Increase the abrasion resistance of the particles should not be applied with each of the heads 7.1, 7.2 for the application. For example, are applied with the first head 7.1 for the application of the applied material may not contain any particles that increase the abrasion resistance, while the applied material, which is applied using the second and/or last head 7.2 for application contains such particles.
After creating the three-dimensional structure of the corresponding plate, the substrate 2 is divided into a large number of panels. This is done, for example, using a sawing device (not shown)having multiple saw blades. Further also provided for processing the edges of the panels, in which at least their longitudinal edges by means of milling supplied connecting elements, for example, elements of groove-tongue.
Figure 2 schematically shows another example implementation of a device for carrying out proposed in accordance with the invention method. This device differs from the device according to figure 1 that at least one of the digital printing device 3, which UE is assetsa using digital data of decorative finishes, located in the direction R of the transport plate substrate 2 below the at least one digital device 7 to create three-dimensional structures. In this embodiment, therefore, the first substrate 2 creates three-dimensional structure and then on the three-dimensional structure using a digital printing device prints decorative finish, such as decoration, imitating wood or natural stone.
In terms of design and operation of the digital printing device 3, and receiving and processing data of decorative finishes to avoid repetition, we can refer to the above description.
In the example implementation presented in figure 2, the device proposed in accordance with the invention, the method provides the opportunity to opt-out primer coating plate substrate 2 or as a coating material to create a three-dimensional structure of use of the applied material, which also has the properties of a primer coating.
Applied before the decorative finish on a substrate and hardened seats for obtaining three-dimensional structure with at least one having a digital control device 7 of the applied material color matched to the decorative finish. For example, anatimy material after its local hardening has a beige or reddish tint, if in the case of decorative finishes that will then be printed, it comes to decoration, imitating the tree.
Device 7, shown in Fig. 1 and 2, is formed, for example, so that it works on multi-pass method. Alternatively, the device 7 may be designed so that it works the way in one pass. The way in one pass, there are several devices 7, respectively 7.3 and/or 7.4, which are in the direction 7 of the transporting substrate 2 located close by and, respectively, overlap certain working width, i.e. different region of the surface of the plate substrate 2. In multipass method of operation is provided, opposite the at least one device 7 respectively 7.3 and/or 7.4 that thither is moved over the surface of workpiece, and feeding the substrate 2 is carried out by cvazitotale.
Figure 3 schematically shows in vertical longitudinal section of a panel made in accordance with proposed according to the invention method. The panel consists of chipboard 1, for example, chipboard or fibreboard. On the visible side of the chipboard 1 serving as the substrate, located first layer 11 a primer coating. The layer 11 gruntovec the th cover printed decorative trim, for example, color decoration, imitating wood, stone or fantasy figure. Decorative finishing, forming a relatively thin layer 12, sealed with a transparent protective layer 13. The protective layer (covering layer) 13 is deposited structure 8, is made of several layers 8.11, 8.12, 8.13. Layers 8.11, 8.12, 8.13 three-dimensional structure 8 are exactly the same from a transparent material such as transparent cured synthetic resin or varnish. At least in the top layer 8.13 can be terminated improve the abrasion resistance of the particles of corundum or something similar. Thanks to the multi-layer structure 8 can be made decorative panel named species with a relatively large depth of the structure. As can be seen in figure 3, proposed in accordance with the invention, the method also results in a very changing performance side surfaces 8.21, 8.22 recesses (ERP) 8.2. Side surfaces 8.21, 8.22 then, thanks to the multi-layer structure 8 to be particularly steep. Further, the side surface 8.21, 8.22 can be determined using various widths similar to the terrace scarps 8.23 layers. In particular, it may be realized with different angles of inclination α1α2on the respective side surfaces 8.21, 8.22 time.
Figure 4 schematically shows a section of the panel, and is made on the preferred option proposed in accordance with the invention method, moreover, layers, respectively, the elements that correspond to the layers and elements shown in figure 3, labeled the same positions. You can see that oblong elevation 8.1 planar three-dimensional structure can be limited as oblong holes (pores) 8.24, and relatively short, perpendicular holes (pores) 8.25.
The implementation of the invention is not limited to the above described embodiments. Rather, there are many options that can be used when deviating from the invention shown in the attached formula execution. Thus, also in the framework of the invention, for example, is that as the coating material is applied liquid and/or powder applied material, which is hardened under the influence of binder or binder component substances, in particular hardener and applied material, deposited on a substrate or decorative trim in areas subject to a structure, partially hardened in place by filing mentioned binders, respectively, of the component of the binder. In particular, the hardener at the same time before and during the wedding ceremony applying liquid or powder applied material can have a liquid consistency and, for example, is applied in the form of finely the liquid stream through having a digital control of the spray head.
In principle it is sufficient if the three-dimensional structure 8 is created by applying a single layer of coating material. To obtain the structure 8 with a relatively large depth of the structure, however, is favorable to the creation of structure 8 using a multilayer, for example two-layer or three-layer deposition of coating material.
Used to create patterns 8 of the applied material can during phase deposition to have a powdery and/or liquid consistency. In particular, the applied material may be applied to a substrate or printed decorative trim in the form of a dispersion and then places to prosnetsja.
If the coating material is applied liquid applied material, it is applied on a substrate predominantly through one or more rolling rollers. In this case, the cylinder for applying (diffuser head) 7.1 and/or 7.2 is replaced by one or more rolling rollers.
1. A method of manufacturing a panel for furniture or floor, in which at least one surface of the plate substrate (2) print decorative trim, imitating wood or stone, and in which the substrate (2) or decorative trim, imitating wood or stone, provide the planar three-dimensional structure (8), characterized in that for obtaining p is ctory (8) on a substrate or decorative finish is applied in a single layer or multi-layer liquid and/or powder applied material, and caused damage to material places reinforce using at least one device (7) with digital control, the control device (7) is carried out with the use of existing digital data patterns, and after a limited place hardening coating material non-reinforced, unnecessary damage the material removed from the plate substrate (2).
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the coating material used liquid and/or powder applied material, which reinforce under the influence of radiation, mainly light and/or thermal radiation, and deposited on a substrate or decorative finish applied material reinforce a limited place in the field, subject to obtaining patterns with the supply of radiation.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the coating material used liquid and/or powder applied material, which reinforce under the influence of the binder component or binder and deposited on a substrate or decorative finish applied material reinforce a limited on-site using the supply of the binder component or binder.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the remote excessive damage to the material is again applied to the floor is to be placed in other sections of the structure.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the decorative trim plate on the substrate (2) or three-dimensional structure (8) is printed using a digital printing device (3).
6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the digital data of decorative finishes for managing printing device (3) are obtained by scanning the samples made from natural products, mostly real wood or natural stone.
7. The method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the data patterns are obtained by scanning the samples made from natural products, mostly real wood or natural stone.
8. The method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the data patterns are obtained by scanning decorative finishes applied on the plate substrate (2).
9. The method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the data structure is stored in a storage device (4).
10. The method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the applied material is applied over the entire surface on the carrier (2) or decorative trim.
11. The method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the quality of coating material applied powder applied material, which is applied on a substrate (2) or decorative finish using one or more dispersion devices (7.1, 7.2)
12. The method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the quality of coating material applied liquid applied material, which is applied on a substrate (2) or decorative finish using one or more ink-key settings.
13. The method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the damage caused reinforce material in places with a few having a digital control device (7)and the device (7) overlap different areas of the surface of the substrate (2).
14. The method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the applied material applied to the substrate or decorative trim layered.
15. The method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the used of the applied material contains solid particles, in particular particles of corundum.
SUBSTANCE: raw material mixture for natural stone imitation includes, wt %: Portland cement 26.0-30.0; sifted through No5 net carbonate sand 33.1-35.9; milled and sifted through No014 net broken ceramic products 8.0-10.0; lignosulfonate technical 0.2-0.3; sodium methylsiliconate 0.6-0.9; sienna 1.0-1.4; mummy 1.6-2.0; water 16.0-18.0.
EFFECT: increased strength of stone which imitates natural one.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of artificial materials which imitate natural materials. The crude mixture for imitation of natural stone contains slag portland cement, granular blast-furnace slag ground until passage through sieve No5, potsherd ground until passage through sieve No10, water, quartz sand, glass fibre cut into 10-20 mm pieces and naphthenate soap, with the following ratio of components, wt %: slag portland cement 25.0-30.0; said blast-furnace slag 10.0-15.0; said potsherd 5.0-10.0; quartz sand 48.4-53.85; glass fibre cut into 10-20 mm pieces 1.0-1.5; naphthenate soap 0.1-0.15, with water-to-cement ratio of 0.5-0.6.
EFFECT: high strength.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of artificial materials which imitate natural materials. The crude mixture for making material which imitates natural stone contains the following, wt %: coal dust 12.0-16.0; mica which is ground and sieved through sieve No 5 12.0-16.0, water 20.0-24.0; portland cement 20.0-24.0; superplasticiser S-3 0.6-1.0, diamond beneficiation wastes sieved through sieve No 5 23.4-31.0.
EFFECT: high water resistance.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of construction materials. The crude mixture for producing material which imitates basalt contains, pts.wt: portland cement 0.9-1.1; dark gray granite or marble chips, with grain size of 10-15 mm 0.5-0.7; black granite or marble chips with grain size of 5-10 mm 1.3-1.5; quartz sand 1.3-1.5; superplasticiser S-3 0.05-0.1; ground silicate glass with grain size of 0.5-1 mm 0.5-0.7; glass fibre cut into 5-50 mm pieces 0.05-0.1, with water-to-cement ratio of 0.9-1.1.
EFFECT: high water resistance.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of construction materials. The crude mixture for making artificial rock contains the following, wt %: portland cement 32-35; calcium carbonate sand 10-12; water 24-26; superplasticiser S-3 1.0-1.4; malachite processing wastes ground until complete passage through sieve No 008 26-32.6.
EFFECT: high frost resistance.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a crude mixture for making artificial rock and can be used in the industry of construction materials. The crude mixture for making artificial rock contains the following, wt %: portland cement 22-24; iron sulphides 2-4; water 22-24; powdered water treatment sludge formed from removing hardness salts during water treatment at thermoelectric plants, with packed density of 850-900 kg/m3 48-50.5; superplasticiser S-3 1-1.5.
EFFECT: improved workability of the crude mixture.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of artificial materials which imitate natural materials. The crude mixture for imitating natural stone contains the following, wt %: wood dust 15.0-20.0; coal dust 10.0-15.0; ground mica 10.0-15.0; gypsum binder 42.0-60.0, with water-gypsum ratio of 0.5-1.0. The crude mixture for imitating natural stone additionally contains ground silicate glass in amount of 10.0-15.0 wt %.
EFFECT: easy imitation of natural stone.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of structural materials. The crude mixture for making artificial rock contains the following, wt %: portland cement 25-30, calcium carbonate-based sand 12-22; carbon silicides 10-15; glass fibre 10-15; sodium ethyl siliconate or sodium methyl siliconate 3-5; water 25-30.
EFFECT: high strength and obtaining environmentally safe structural material.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of building materials. The artificial rock contains the following, wt %: cement 25-30, calcium carbonate sand 12.8-18.8, iron oxides 1-5, ferrous quartzites in form of 10-20 mm chips 25-30, naphthenic soap 0.2-0.3, water 25-27.
EFFECT: obtaining strong and environmentally safe artificial rock.
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture an artificial stone includes application of a binder onto a prepared setup with a thin layer on the basis of a translucent polymer resin and a filler in the form of a granulated material, hardening of a composition and surface polishing. The specified resin is acrylic or non-saturated polyester resin. The filler in the form of a granite or marble crumb with dimensions of fragments from 1 to 4 mm is laid on a layer of a binder after its hardening to a gel-forming condition. After full hardening of the composition a colour substrate is applied on it from a mixture containing a binder, a material on the basis of glass fibre is laid and impregnated with a polyester resin.
EFFECT: improved operational and strength characteristics of products with reduction of consumed used materials.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture a tabular product with a decorated surface (2.2, 2.2'), in which on the base (2, 2'), formed by a bearing board from wood material, a flaky material and/or a compact board, by means of at least one roller printing device (4.1, 5.1) they print decor (2.2, 2.2'), at the same time by means of at least one digital printing head (6.1) on one or more sections of the base (2, 2') they print at least one decorative element (2.3, 2.4), so that the decor (2.2, 2.2') printed by at least one roller printing device (4.1, 5.1) remains, at least partially visible or surrounds at least one decorative element (2.3, 2.4), if it, by means of at least one digital printing head (6.1), is printed on the base (2, 2') before the decor.
EFFECT: development of a method and a device, which at relatively high efficiency and low production prime cost would provide for unlimited possibility of decor individualisation.
26 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in process of method realisation at first on the surface (2) of the clamping plate they create (1) fine ledges (3), afterwards a layer of chrome is applied onto the surface of the clamping plate to give identical shine to the entire surface, the specified fine ledges (3) are coated with a material resistant to further surface treatment, after realisation of which they remove material, which is resistant to surface treatment, from the clamping plate. At the same time the specified surface treatment is made so that fine ledges (3) have lower roughness of the surface compared to surrounding sections of the clamping plate surface, or so that fine ledges (3) have higher shine, compared to the surrounding surface of the clamping plate.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce a clamping plate for making floor panels, the surface structure of which on pressed sections differs from the surface structure on adjacent sections, also for making floor panels with a pattern imitating wood and other natural materials, for instance, stone.
6 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the method of large-size panel manufacturing. The method to manufacture a large-size panel (1) equipped with a decorative layer with a repeating pattern (5) of the decorative layer and a repeating pattern (4) of surface texture, where the frequencies of patterns repeating in the surface texture and the decorative layer are different. The invention also relates to a set of individual panels (3). Individual panels (3) are cut from the large-size panel (1), and they may be assembled and grouped as a set. The set comprises at least multiple individual panels (3) with the identical pattern (5) of the decorative layer, but with the different pattern (4) of the surface texture.
EFFECT: provision of the method to manufacture a large-size panel that imitates natural materials in a better way.
19 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: woodworking industry.
SUBSTANCE: fixed surface of workpiece is processed with a wire grinding tool. The tool is moved uniformly along the workpiece and turned about its own axis. Rotation speed is approximately 2500 rpm. MDF workpiece is used as the above workpiece.
EFFECT: invention allows obtaining decorative surfaces on MDF workpieces, which imitate natural wood.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of sandwiched materials used in thin-film instruments and devices. Proposed levelling film comprises levelling ply containing binding polymer resin and inorganic filler as components, at least, on one side of transparent polymer substrate. Note here that the number of foreign particles with mean diameter of 20-100 mcm on levelling air surface does not exceed 5 per m2.
EFFECT: decreased amount of linear defects at production of thin-film transistor on film surface.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building board comprises inorganic base material, having textures of wood boards on their surface, a lower layer coating, an upper layer coating, an ink-jet coating and a transparent coating, serially shaped on the surface of the inorganic base material, in which the lower layer coating has higher content of the pigment that the upper layer coating, the lower layer coating and the upper layer coating have different shades, textures of wood boards have different colour depths as a result of variations in arrangement of the upper layer coating and its thickness, and various shades as a result of partial application of the ink-jet coating, having a shade that differs from the shade of the upper layer coating. Also the method is described to manufacture the building board.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to create a building board that resembles wood and reproduces its appearance in three dimensions.
14 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the area of art and color design, painting of such textiles as panels, shawls, scarves, ties, towels, etc. made of all types of textile fibers. The marbling method of textile materials comprises application of paints on a viscous substrate. Then, with a tool, a decorative pattern is created. After that the textile material is connected with the decorative pattern surface. As a viscous substrate, a mixture of thickener and textile auxiliaries is used. Substances are dissolved in hot water at a temperature of 50-70° C. Then they are stirred in a high speed mixer to form stable foam. The mixture is added into 15-30 g / kg of dry sodium chloride. Then it is re-mixed in a high speed mixer for 5-10 minutes. After connecting the textile material with the composition of colors obtained on the substrate, the excess paint is removed from the surface of the textile material. Removal is carried out mechanically and through the adsorbent material. The dye is dried and the heat-conducting fixation is carried out. Then it is washed.
EFFECT: increased clarity, brightness and resistance to wet treatments of the artistic images.
6 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of forming frost work involves feeding water into an airtight housing, feeding hydrate-forming gas under pressure, maintaining given pressure and temperature conditions for the entire duration of formation of gas hydrate deposits. Hydrate-forming gas is fed at pressure a little higher than equilibrium, needed for formation of gas hydrate compounds at given temperature of the surface of the walls of the housing. Given temperature and pressure conditions are maintained for the entire duration of formation of gas hydrate deposits. Water is applied on the translucent walls of the housing by spraying. Maintenance of temperature and pressure conditions continues for the entire duration of retention of the frost work on the walls in form of gas hydrate deposits. The frost work can be altered via dissociation of the formed gas hydrate deposits by reducing pressure of the hydrate-forming gas to a value below the equilibrium value. Frost work is formed once more.
EFFECT: simple, fast programmed change of frost work and display of frost work at any temperature.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: protective device comprises assemblage of n>1000 magnetically smoothed flakes that make image. Said flakes rest on substrate in first pattern to form ring or curve. Note here that said flakes are inclined at first angle to substrate while planes that extend flakes surfaces intersect to make image look like 3D object. Note here that bright or dark spot displaces over image on inclining protective device.
EFFECT: optically varying images using magnetically smoother flakes in presence of magnetic fields.
18 cl, 74 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dark-colour coats with minimum absorption of radiation in near IR spectrum, and may be used in automotive coats, construction paints, industrial coats, spacecraft coats and flexible coats. Proposed system comprises first IR-reflecting layer that contains IR-reflecting pigments in gummy binder. Second layer absorbing visible radiation features dark colour and is IR-translucent. Second layer comprises a shade in gummy binder and nano-sized pigments with mean particle size of 100 nm. Coated article comprises multilayer coat system. Method of controlling temperature increase in substrate subjected to IR radiation comprises applying composition of IR-reflecting coat on substrate, to make the first layer, and applying second layer of composition absorbing visible radiation and identical to second layer in multilayer dark composition. In compliance with second version, aforesaid shade may also have maximum milkness of 1 %, while coat system features blackness index of, at least, 240. Coated article comprises above described coat system.
EFFECT: coat system does not absorb IR-radiation.
22 cl, 1 dwg, 6 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to optically modified pigments, films, devices and images, and in particular to alignment or orientation of magnetic flakes, for instance in process of painting or printing, to produce illusory optical effect. Method is described, as well as image produced with the help of method, in which non-spherical magnetically aligned flakes of optical pigment in transparent carrier are applied onto substrate and aligned by means of magnetic field application onto substrate. Pigment flakes are aligned along power lines of magnetic field, and tool is applied to subregion of substrate for impression or engraving of flakes to change orientation or remove flakes from desired area. For instance, it is possible to use engraving tool to trace signature or other symbols inside magnetically aligned flakes. Then flakes harden, and image is produced, which has optical and tactile criteria.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to create tactile image, where it is possible to feel tactile transition between the first and second distinguishable areas, creation of bank note or secured document, which has tactile properties for assistance to blind people in verification of bank note or document authenticity, and also creation of image having optically modified area and having tactile areas above optically modified area.
19 cl, 13 dwg, 5 ex