Method and means for oil spillage processing
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to removal of spilled oil products from sea or lake surfaces. Absorbent, for example, peat-moss is delivered by whatever transport facility to oil spillage. Said absorbent is sprayed thereto and there above. Said peat-moss absorbs oil phase and separates it from water phase. Obtained with oil encapsulated in peat pores is collected and processed. Absorbent delivery package is composed by bag wherein said peat-moss is compacted and twisted. Said package comprises blast charge intended for its breaking to release absorbent therefrom. Absorbed oil products are collected by means of partially immersed ship drag-net, or slick bars, or oil collectors or pumps. Then, peat-moss with absorbed oil is processed to separate water mechanically or said peat is placed in bags and stored for delivery to shore for further processing.
EFFECT: perfected procedure, improved and simplified processing.
14 cl, 4 dwg
The technical field
The present invention relates to a method for treatment of oil spills at sea or on land, as can be seen from the introductory part of the further independent claim 1 of the claims.
The invention also relates to a device for transporting absorbing agent, as indicated in the introductory part of paragraph 13 of the claims.
In addition, the invention relates to a method listed in paragraphs 11 and 12 of the claims.
More specifically, we strive to provide new ways of applying and collecting and equipment to reduce damage from an oil spill, in the sense that seek to absorb, retain and collect oil pollution and its delivery to the Bank, store, or process it in a safe way. It is also desirable to make the processing independent from weather conditions and to simplify the processing of absorbed oil spill after collection and delivery to the shore.
Oil spills at sea or on lakes occur unintentionally or due to accidents and always lead to pollution of the sea coasts and damage to marine life and birds.
Ways and means according to the invention cannot be used with known and used technology in response to accidental oil pollution.
The level of technology
Currently combating oil pollution mainly about the framework is based on the use of booms, set using ships for detecting oil spills at sea. Located on Board the vessel skimmer device used to remove the layer of oil together with some amount of water. After that, the water is separated from oil, which is then further treated.
Exceptionally large oil spill absorbing agents use the sea/lakes. Also use dispersing agents, which is sprayed from ships, after which the oil is collected and precipitation at the bottom are subject to additional destruction.
When the oil spill reaches the coast, trying to prevent this by placing booms. In bad weather conditions or when there is no time to mobilize, the oil reaches the coast and causes extensive damage that requires high costs for treatment works.
Such treatment works require the removal of viscous oil, the subsequent use of absorbents and washing agents and frequent use materials that stimulate biodegradation.
It is also known that peat moss peat moss, preferably not very rotten, collected from the upper layers of peat, but not with live plants, has a high absorptive capacity in relation to oil and is water-repellent in the dried state (preferably dried at te is the temperature above 100°C). This industrial product is delivered and is used to absorb oil spills on land and in water. 1 cubic meters of dried peat moss with a water content of 10 - 15% weighs approximately 125 -150 kg and can absorb up to 1 cubic meters of oil.
It is known that absorbent peat moss closes the pores when saturated with oil and that the pores do not open up until the hydrocarbons do not decompose to CO2and water. This process occurs naturally as humic acids and enzymes, which in nature are present in the product in the soil/sand/air or in the sea, in contact with existing in nature bacteria. In addition, the documentation adopted by the Agency for environmental protection (EPA) in the USA, it is known that this product meets U.S. requirements to leak (oil) for placement in a landfill after use as absorber oil. Requires a pressure of about 400 kPa (4 bar) on the wall then peat moss to could be any leak.
Therefore, properly dried peat moss peat moss can absorb and encapsulate the oil so that it is in natural conditions do not leach into the environment. Absorbent peat moss is also an ideal container for biological decomposition.
It is also known that dried peat moss put on the oil spill, using who, who Oh by the so-called "blowers". The air is carried out with a high speed through the nozzle and peat moss served in the air stream in front of the nozzle. It is known that with this method scatter peat moss only a few meters and there is a huge cloud of dust, so blowing absorbing agent over the oil spill are rarely used for this product.
Such blowers can be placed on the windward against the pollution side so that the cloud of dust could blow out, for example, over the ocean and with the help of wind deposition on thin films of oil.
The limitation of the current methods is that they cannot be used in bad weather conditions. Wind and wave height impose severe restrictions on the use by the courts of booms and skimmer devices. Wave height of three metres is the maximum acceptable for the majority of booms. In the coastal zone it is impossible to place the boom in bad weather and oil pollution will therefore be freely distributed and cause great damage to the coast and then it will collect with high costs.
When the emergency situation often takes a long time to mobilize all the equipment that is used in modern methods of oil recovery, and the time from the beginning of harvesting to the end of the camp the difference is and the oil is very large, even in good weather. In many cases in poor weather conditions also need to wait for several days before commencement of the work. This increases the amount of damage to birds, and there is a great danger that the oil spill reaches the coast. Spill is potentially dangerous as long as he is not fully assembled.
In known and conventional removing the upper layer of oil containment booms average composition of the mixture that is pumped on Board ships, is 90% water and 10% oil. This means that ships must run back and forth to deliver the mixture of oil and water on the beach. Vessels, equipment and personnel are exposed to oil. Work with slippery oil, which must be delivered on Board the ships, is a danger to the crew, even when the calm sea.
Conventional spraying a light absorbing agent over an oil spill at sea is limited by the fact that the length of the spray with the use of modern jets is only a few meters and they cannot function in a strong wind. The crew and the ships are exposed to clouds of dust, which leads to the fact that currently do not use blowing absorbing agents.
Therefore, the aim of the invention is the provision of a new and improved method and procedure that p is color or in part may eliminate the aforementioned disadvantages of the modern treatment of oil spills.
More specifically, the aim of the invention is the provision of new and improved treatments bring a light absorbing agent into contact with oil spills at sea or on lakes, which immediately can reduce the damage from oil pollution.
In addition, the aim of the invention is the provision of improved method of handling and transportation on the shore of the collected oil pollution.
In addition, the aim of the invention is a simplified processing the collected oil pollution after it landed.
The present invention relates to the supply and distribution of dried peat moss grade sphagnum using a variety of methods, tailored to different situations and weather conditions so that the moss efficiently and quickly sprayed over the oil spill, absorb and isolate the oil from the aqueous phase and, thus, also insulated it so that it does not pollute the marine environment, sea birds and shore line.
The method according to the invention is characterized by the fact that peat moss pressed and Packed in bales, each containing a starting device that is capable of releasing the peat moss out of the package so that it is freely expanding in oil pollution or contamination of the oil, the oil is collected and further treated. Predpochtitelney given in paragraphs 2-12 of the claims.
According to the invention the residue, which is formed from peat moss with attached oil sludge, used for energy production as it burned. This method is well suited for use in combating oil pollution and oil spills at sea or on lakes.
The device according to the invention is characterized in that the absorbing agent is pressed and remain in the package (bag), which provides the means for the destruction of the packaging for the subsequent release of the absorbing agent from the packaging.
Destructive agent preferably is an explosive charge associated with packaging that is configured to rupture of the package with the release of the absorbing agent. It also contains tools to configure time and remote control starting device associated with the destructive agent.
Provided by the present invention method and equipment are well suited for fast and efficient distribution of the absorbing agent from the dried peat moss from dead plant residue peat moss over oil pollution of the sea or lake, regardless of weather conditions, the degree of pollution damage immediately is significantly reduced.
With the way the collection of absorbed supplied by the absorbent oil pollution you can get a substantial decrease which begins production risks, you can act more quickly and at much more bad weather conditions.
In addition, provide equipment and a method for temporary storage in water and subsequent transport to shore pollution, alternative provide a simplified separation of the absorbing oil agent from the water on Board ship so that you can reduce the number transported to the shore of the water.
According to the invention the absorbing agent from the dried hydrophobic peat moss, sphagnum moss, collected from the upper layer of peat moss, in which the peat is only partially rotted, place on the oil spill, which floats on the sea or on the lake so that it absorbs the oil in your pores, after which the pores are closed in a natural way and keep the oil and isolate it from the water in the peat moss.
According to the invention is dried peat moss from slightly decayed sphagnum moss placed on the oil stain or oil spill, in the sense that his roll into large balls with a suitable packing. In the package placed for the destruction of the packing or mechanical, or acting through the expansion of gas, in which the starting device ensures that this occurs at a defined point in time, and it also happens with this effort, in which peat moss visualaid is conducted out of the package and sprayed oil spill.
More specifically, the folded dried peat moss with the specified starting device, and means for breaking, tearing, or ripping the packaging over the area of contamination discharge from the air by plane or helicopter. Thus, the moss dump over pollution, freeing it from its packaging, which happens automatically when balls of moss are on a given altitude, or when reaching the surface of the water, or is it a release from the packaging run manually by using the signal from the remote control unit supplied, for example, the crew of the aircraft or on Board a support vessel.
Alternatively, rolled and dried peat moss can be delivered in the area of pollution from the vessel and tow in the polluted area using booms with plenty of balls with peat moss, continuously arranged in each link, then run the activation of the starter and the destruction of the packaging using an adjustable signal from the remote control unit on Board the vessel.
According to the invention the absorbing agent and the oil pollution can be collected from the sea surface using trawl, more specifically, partially submerged trawl, for example smooth fabric stretch across the area of the sea, covered with peat moss with trapped pollution t is to, what it lead into a sack of fine fabric at the end of the trawl, with cells that are sufficiently small in order to collect fiber peat moss with the absorbed oil.
When located behind Central the bag is sufficiently filled containing oil absorbing agent (sphagnum moss), it can be tightened and attached to the Central bag floating marker buoy. After that Central the bag is released from the main trawl so that it floats freely in the sea with the collected pollution.
Then you can use the new Central bags, which are filled and stored in water with marker buoys, they need to gather together and bring it on Board of a ship or tow to shore.
Absorbed oil pollution can also be gathered through booms, oil recovery devices and pumps for immediate separation from water in mechanical equipment aboard ships and/or save later in the bags that float in the sea and transported to shore for later processing.
Next, in this way, for example on the shore or on Board ship, peat moss can be processed in two stages:
Stage 1) Of peat moss squeeze out the water with absorbed oil pollution with the help of slowly applied pressure from the screw press or similar device, while eloundou pressure does not exceed the pressure destroying the pores with the absorbed peat moss oil.
Stage 2) Oil squeeze and pull, exposing the peat moss with the absorbed oil extra pressure that is greater than the pressure required to fracture the walls of the pores of peat moss, which absorbed the oil. The wall of the pores are then subjected to pressure, which causes the internal pressure in the pore, exceeding the level at which the wall is destroyed so that the oil is released and can be removed. This pressure is typically about 400 kPa (4 bar).
According to the invention thus treated peat moss, which squeeze out the oil and in which you can detect hydrocarbon remaining in the peat moss used for energy production, in particular, the mass burn.
According to the preferred method neutralize damage from unintentional oil spills to the sea or the lake dried, hydrophobic and oleophilic peat moss, preferably from dead and slightly rotten parts of plants from the genus sphagnum, add to the oil film, in the sense that peat moss rolled into balls and placed in the soiled area using a transport plane or helicopter, then balls dipped, and they may be starting device, which destroys the packaging or in the air or on to define the authorized height, if the balls surface water or oil to the surface.
When this application peat moss absorbs oil, encapsulates it in absorbing oil the pores and ensures the absence of application of oil-caused pollution of the marine environment and the birds and the pollution of the coast.
The selected starting device must be installed in the balls in accordance with weather conditions and the extent of the spill.
When the weather and time, peat moss can also be applied using brought with him aboard air heater or other systems water spray with a large radius of action, in which peat moss served in the flow of water through the injector and sprayed over the surface of the water covered with oil.
According to the preferred method of collecting absorbed by the moss spill use partially submerged trawl, which collects spill in the bag, which can be temporarily placed in the water without any subsequent leakage of oil, given that peat moss has encapsulated oil.
Alternatively, absorbed peat moss oil spill can be collected-collecting devices, oil containment booms, or other known equipment, then it is possible to carry out cleaning on Board the vessel, thereby absorbed by the moss oil can be left in storage is at sea in a suitable fine mesh bags or bags made of fabric, then they stick marking buoys so that they could later be harvested for loading onto a ship or to be towed to shore.
Description of the invention
The present invention differs from existing solutions that absorbing agent can be delivered in the polluted area by plane or helicopter, and it may be easier to neutralize the oil spill almost regardless of weather conditions. Use transport planes and helicopters that are able to act quickly with a large scope in almost all weather conditions.
Starting device makes it possible to select the height at which explodes packaging with the release of a prisoner in her weight, at this height, you can also change depending on how high above the spill should explode packaging, easy to peat moss were distributed properly regardless of the wind and the height of the waves.
Oil spills are safe immediately after adding the absorbing agent, as the absorbing agent encapsulates the oil in the pores so that it becomes unavailable to the marine environment or birds and sticks to vehicles, equipment or the sea coast.
Besides, if the situation requires it, the application can occur with the use of alternative methods, such e.g. the measures as the way in which the same twisted balls with peat moss can, if weather conditions permit, be towed to sea by the oil spill in oil containment booms behind the ship, after which they tow in the oil spill and then activate the starting device for explosion packaging and spray peat moss.
In addition, provide a way of collecting oil spill, which collect organic solid material in the form of peat moss instead of liquid oil when trawling, in which the bag is collected absorbed peat moss oil. The collected oil spill can be easily mechanically separated on Board the ship. Using the well-known modern methods of collecting 90% water and 10% oil, and the ships must run to the shore and back for unloading and separation of oil.
In the present invention by using a simple screw presses significantly reduce the water content or temporarily store sulphate pollution in bags in the lake or the sea, as there is no leakage of the absorbed moss oil, and also because this product may be in a floating state for up to three weeks or more.
The accumulated pollution can be collected in bags that can be brought on shore, when weather conditions permit or practical considerations. In addition, contaminated oil weight can be further education is otati on the shore of a simple screw press so water is extracted at low pressure and the oil squeezed from the pores of peat moss with an applied pressure of about 400 kPa (4 bar) so that the extract relatively pure oil.
Absorbing agent - peat moss - with the remnants of the oil after processing pressure, can be used as an energy source, burning him.
When using peat moss, preferably dead parts of plants from the genus sphagnum moss, dried and made oleophilic and hydrophobic using known techniques, roll it in a large, compacted balls of packaging that can be blown up with a device that is mechanical, explosive, or by using a release of gas can blow up the packaging and, at the same time, significantly spray peat moss.
Starting device for explosion and dispersion can be activated at a selected height when the balls fall out of a plane or helicopter, or when they reach the surface of the oil/sea/lake, or by using manual activation when the tow balls in oil containment booms in the area of pollution by ships.
To collect, you can use the well-known ability of peat moss to the above-described qualitative absorption oil spill, separating it from the environment in which the spill is transformed from the liquid phase to the solid phase, and can use the th fine mesh trawl with cells, small enough to capture the fibers of moss.
You can also use the well-known placement technology in the hold, collecting devices and technologies pumping for delivering the goods on Board the ship, where with the help of simple and well-known technologies water can be separated from the solid form. The separated material can then be placed in storage bags, which are placed in the sea for subsequent transport to shore or to collect on Board the ship.
The use of contaminated masses provide, squeezing out water at a pressure lower than tearing pressure 400 kPa (4 bar) for closed pores, which absorbed the oil, then the oil can be extracted using additional compression in the second stage at a pressure higher than can withstand the pores of peat moss so that the extruded relatively concentrated oil.
The use for energy purposes, compressed, used absorbent is the burning of peat moss with the remaining hydrocarbons, as it has a very high calorific value.
The present invention differs in that the peat moss, adapted to absorb oil, Packed in rolled-up balls that contain the starting device, which breaks up the balls and sprays of peat moss over the oil spill in the sea or the lake, and then the oil spill settlement is e absorption in the peat moss is isolated, turns into particles and does not put the environment known harmful effects, and it can be collected, transported and processed as material consisting of particles, and not as a liquid.
The device according to the invention additionally explained with reference to the attached drawings.
Shows Packed peat moss with a starting device and a device for tearing packaging:
(1) Shows the package.
(2) Shows a starting device that starts either from a blow on the sea surface or at a predetermined height above the sea.
(3) Shows the mechanical explosive device, gas or explosive device.
Balloon with a volume of 5 cubic meters of exposed double compression of peat moss, as described above, dropping over the oil spill. Taking into account the conditions characterizing the wind, an explosive charge start at a height that provides optimum atomization of peat moss, depending on the thickness of the layer of oil.
Under optimum spraying on a layer of oil ball peat moss can absorb 10,000 litres of oil. If the oil layer has a thickness of 1 cm, 5 cubic meters of peat moss, subjected to double compression, while theoretically optimal spray can neutralize 1000 cubic meters of oil spills and spill 100,000 liters of oil can be neutralized with 10 balls total the volume of 50 cubic m of peat moss, subjected to double compression. As described above, 1 cubic m of dried moss, subjected to double compression, weighs 150 kg, and military transport aircraft with a device for flushing able to easily transport 125 cubic meters moss subjected to double compression. This means that it is possible for one flight to reset enough moss to absorb 250,000 litres of oil and if the oil layer had a thickness of 1 cm was achieved optimal spraying, one reset capable of covering 50000 cubic meters of oil slick.
Shows an example in which the peat ball dropped from an airplane or helicopter for spraying Packed peat moss with the help of the device shown in figure 1, in which the starting device is configured on the altitude above sea level, where the packaging is torn or destroyed and peat moss is sprayed over the oil spill by air:
(1) the Surface of the ocean.
(2) an Oil slick on the ocean surface.
(3) Shows Packed peat moss with the device, tearing or destruction and triggering device shown in figure 1.
(4) the Dashed line shows the altitude at which the starting device is configured to activate rupture or destruction of the package.
(5) Shows the gap or destruction of the package.
(6) Shows peat moss, which sprays the I through the air and falls to the oil spill in the absence of wind.
Shows the discharge from a plane or helicopter with a strong wind, storm or hurricane for spraying Packed peat moss with the help of the device shown in figure 1, in which the starting device is configured to activate upon impact on the surface of the ocean, when the packaging is torn or destroyed, which leads to decreases in peat moss directly on the oil stain with the movement of waves through the wind as the driving force of this distribution:
(1) the Surface of the ocean.
(2) an Oil slick on the ocean surface.
(3) Shows Packed peat moss with the device, tearing or destruction and triggering device shown in figure 1.
(4) indicate the direction of the wind.
(5) Shows the severance or destruction of the packaging with the direct impact on the ocean surface, in which the starting device is configured to activate rupture or destruction of the package.
(6) Shows peat moss, which he sprayed on the oil stain with the help of wind, waves or directly fixed on him.
Shown partially submerged trawl described in the invention, for collecting peat moss with absorbed oil spill:
(1) Shows the absorbed peat moss oil spill, which swims in the sea or lake.
(2) Shows a device for providing partial immersion, including PLA the surrounding element, which supports the lower part of trawl below the ocean surface in a position sufficient to capture the floating mass trawl and, at the same time, the upper part of the trawl is supported above the water so that the contamination is captured at high tide.
(3) Shows the mouth of the trawl is attached to the floating elements, and fittings to attach the appropriate fabric to sweep.
(4) Shows the socket of a light, smooth material that provides slip absorbed impurities towards the trawl bag.
(5) Shows a removable bag of the trawl, which can tighten and replace while it is being filled. He has a hole in the fabric that allows water to penetrate, but delays fiber peat moss with the absorbed oil.
(6) Shows the point of attachment of the towing ship cable on each side of the boom, which is attached to the mouth of the trawl.
Sweep width of 100 m stretch absorbed through the oil spill with the help of two vessels with a speed of 4 knots (7.4 km/h). This means that gather 740800 cubic meters per hour. If oil prices remain as in example 1, this means that 250,000 liters absorbed moss oil collected per hour of trawling.
1 CC of crude oil distributed in the tank 1 x 1 m, which was partially filled with water, and 10 l moss evenly distributed across the nave is anamu pollution by spraying moss over capacity. The container was placed on a rocking table to simulate small waves.
Observed that the oil was absorbed peat moss for one minute and you can lower the hand in contaminated water without sticking it to the oil. Bird feathers dipped in the mixture and used them for mixing the mixture for a minute. Feathers found no adhesion of oil. Part of the moss with the absorbed oil was put on the rocks and sand. Not watched any allocation of water or oil on the sand or stone. Absorbed by the moss oil from the surface was removed by collecting in a cloth bag for trawl with a hole then 1 mm above the surface in order to simulate the trawl bag. Removed approximately 100% of the contaminated material and after that no oil film is not observed on the surface of the water.
The bag with the collected moss absorbed with their oil from test 1 was closed and placed in the same capacity, however, was fixed so that he could not touch any of the vessel wall. Capacity washed before the test and the water was replaced with fresh sea water. Used shaking table to simulate small waves and the bag was left for two weeks.
Two weeks later, the bag was still afloat, and did not observe any oil film in the tank. One liter of water was collected from the surface for analysis on the content of hydrocarbons. When analysis is e have found no hydrocarbons, and it shows that the moss keeps contamination in the pores within two weeks in the water without any leakage.
1. The method of delivery of the absorbing agent, in particular dried, hydrophobic and oleophilic peat moss, oil spills at sea or on the lake by plane, helicopter or ship so that peat moss is sprayed over the oil phase and it absorbs and isolates the oil phase from the aqueous phase, it can be assembled in the form of a mass consisting of particles, and it can be processed further in the form of a mass consisting of particles to be encapsulated in the pores of oil, characterized in that the absorbing agent is pressed and rolled into a package, which contains the starting device, configured to release the peat moss out of the package so that it is freely dispersed in the oil pollution or over oil pollution, and oil is then collected and further treated, and the starting device includes an explosive device and/or device destruction made with the possibility of destruction of the packaging and release of peat moss.
2. The method according to claim 1, in which the packing shed with an aircraft such as an airplane or helicopter, characterized in that the triggering device is run on the selected predetermined height after reset, and/or starting the device starts up when hitting the surface is the surface of the ocean.
3. The method according to claim 1, in which the packing shed from the ship, characterized in that the triggering device is triggered by a control signal from the transmitting device after delivery of the twisted peat moss in place of pollution by ships.
4. The method according to claim 1, in which deliver dried, hydrophobic and oleophilic peat moss in the oil spill on the sea or on the lake so that it is sprayed over the oil phase, and it absorbs and isolates the oil phase from the aqueous phase, and it can be assembled in the form of a mass consisting of particles, characterized in that the explosive charge and/or device destruction packaging is an explosive, and/or compressed gas, and/or a mechanical device placed in order to destroy the packing material and, thus, to release the peat moss.
5. The method according to claim 1, in which collect absorbed oil pollution from oil spills at sea or on the lake, characterized in that perform additional processing, in which the peat moss with the absorbed oil is collected in a partially submerged trawl with a mesh size that does not allow to pass through them in any significant quantities of peat moss with the absorbed oil so that the contamination is collected in the space reserved for this bag of the trawl.
6. The method according to claim 1, in which the collected oil pollution, the POG is Osenovo of the oil spill on the sea or on the lake, using oil booms, oil recovery devices and/or pumps, characterized in that the peat moss with the absorbed oil is separated from the water in the mechanical separator aboard ship or ashore, after which the aqueous phase is continuously pumped into the sea.
7. The method according to claim 1, in which the oil pollution absorbed from the oil spill on the sea or on a lake, temporarily stored, characterized in that the peat moss with absorbed oil pollution placed and isolated in bags, and mark marking buoys, and then they swim in the sea or in fresh water, then towed to shore all together or in large amounts, or take on Board for transportation to shore all together or in large quantities.
8. The method according to claim 1, which neutralizes the damage to the marine environment, birds or sea coast from oil spills at sea or on a lake, when weather conditions or other circumstances that make the collection impossible, characterized in that the addition is done without immediate collection or subsequent collection.
9. The method according to claim 1. which further process the harvested peat moss with the absorbed oil, characterized in that a significant portion attached water squeezed out of the mass without excess pressure, tearing the pores of peat moss with the absorbed oil is, in which pores are broken and begin to leak, in which the preferred pressure is applied to the containing oil pores is less than 400 kPa (4 bar).
10. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, which further process the collected and dehydrated peat moss with the absorbed oil, characterized in that a significant portion of the absorbed oil is extracted from peat moss, exceeding pressure, tearing the pores of peat moss with the absorbed oil, so that the pores are broken and begin to leak, in which the preferred pressure is applied to the containing oil pores is higher than 400 kPa (4 bar).
11. The use of compressed peat moss according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, in which the peat moss with the remnants of the oil used for the production of energy by burning it.
12. Application of the method according to claims 1 to 8 for response to accidental oil pollution oil spills at sea or on the lake.
13. Device for transporting absorbing agent, such as peat moss, to be sprayed on the spill contaminants such as oil, for its absorption, characterized in that the absorbing agent is compressed and stored in a package, similar to the bag that contains the explosive charge associated with the package mounted to rupture of the package with the release pogodayev the agent from the packaging.
14. The device according to item 13, wherein the remote control starting device associated with the destructive agent.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a set of oil-retention booms connected with generation of a length of a line of oil-retention booms. The line of oil-retention booms contains few distanced from each other anchor bends for securing of an oil-retention boom with an anchor to the sea bed. Between anchor bends and in a connection with an oil-retention boom there is an oil-gathering station for gathering oil directed by booms from water surface. The device also includes a range of package units, in which oil-retention booms, relative oil-gathering stations and equipment for anchor installation are tightly packed and coupled with each other, forming a directly deployable uniform set. The method of oil gathering from water surface consists in installation of a floating oil-retention boom in water perpendicularly to the direction of oil movement, in fact. An oil-retention boom is secured with an anchor to the sea bed, using a range of anchor bends distanced from each other; at that, this distance is obviously less than the length of oil-retention booms between them. Oil-retention booms between two securing points are arranged of V-shape pointed away from approaching oil slick. An oil-gathering station is secured to the angle of a V-shaped oil-retention boom. Gathered in the angle of a V-shaped boom oil is picked up from water surface to the oil-gathering station. Floating oil-retention booms, associated oil-gathering stations and equipment for anchor installation are tightly packed and coupled with each other in a package unit or storage case.
EFFECT: invention facilitates fast and efficient oil gathering and removal from water surface.
13 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises connected with a horizontal shaft hollow drum with holes on its surface and with a central hollow sealed container with a diameter more than a quarter of the drum diameter. The drum volume free from the container is filled with granules of a nozzle made of a material inert to the action of oil-products with a density less than 1 g/cm3. The plant design provides immersion of the drum for at least half its diameter in the purified water. The plant is made with the ability to rotate the drum due to the energy of waves of the water area.
EFFECT: improving the environmental situation in the area of cleaning the surface of the water body from pollution by oil and oil products, while maintaining the natural biocenosis of the water body.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques for removing oil and oil product spills and can be used in the oil extraction and oil refining industry, as well as in transportation. A sorbent is fed to the site of the oil or oil product spill in the water using a flexible or rigid line. The sorbent used is an aqueous solution of microgels of polysaccharides with molecular weight of 20000-200000 Da. Concentration of microgels of polysaccharides at the spill site is kept at least equal to 0.1 g/l. The jelly-like agglomerates formed are then mechanically collected.
EFFECT: high efficiency of localising and collecting underwater and subglacial oil spills while simultaneously increasing the amount of recovered oil, easier assembling of the equipment.
9 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection and ecological recovery of basins, particularly, to collection of contaminants from cut-off basins. Proposed device comprises metallic carcass to house vessel made of polymer and filled with adsorbent. Said vessel has zipper and is secured to said metallic carcass by braces. Filtering screen is arranged at top part of said metallic carcass. Proposed device is equipped with lifting slings.
EFFECT: complex removal of organic and inorganic substances from cut-off basins.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of facilities for cleaning of environment, namely, facilities for cleaning of a water area from contamination with oil and oil products, and may be used whenever oil and oil products get into water environment. The floating plant for biorecycling of oil product films from the surface of water reservoirs comprises at least one hollow perforated drum connected with a horizontally arranged shaft and having a hollow tight reservoir with the diameter of at least 1/4 of the drum diameter, besides, the remaining volume of the drum is filled with granules of an attachment made of a material inert to action of oil products with density of less than 1 g/cm3. The plant design provides for submersion of the drum into water at least by 1/4 of the diameter, and the shaft is made as capable of rotation by means of devices of a mechanical drive of the shaft, supply of air or liquid to the surface of the drum.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of cleaning of water reservoir surfaces from films of oil products, improved environmental conditions.
SUBSTANCE: there proposed is a method for biological treatment of sea littoral zone from oil products. Method includes location of bivalve mollusks in the places of oil and oil products contamination. In the places of contamination parallel to the coast line there mounted are not less than four rows of piles or columns. Large-cell net with mollusks is extended at every two rows of piles or columns in the direction from the coast towards the sea in the form of open wedges with wedges location in staggered manner. The mollusks on the net are grown on it before or set on it after the structure mounting.
EFFECT: increase of reliability and efficiency of littoral zone treatment as well as coastal shallow areas or shallow-water coastal line of the sea.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device for removal of oil-bearing surface fluids. Proposed device comprises floating oil collecting means, stationary frame with drive, drain system composed of scraper, flexible hose and oil products accumulator. Said floating oil collecting means is composed of binary belt conveyor composed by two endless belt with perforated sides fitted in two stepped hollow drums. Float composed of hollow vessel is arranged between hollow drums and belt runs. Drums with sprockets, belts and float are mounted at moving frame. Float walls are connected with moving frame. Said float represents a discrete component not extending to drive drum and scraper. Scraper is an inclined tube with grooves made at its bottom section their width being equal to depth of perforated belts and height of stuck oil products while width at top section approximates to thickness of every belt. Note here that pockets are made at scraper of tube bottom section.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and quality.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a metal tray with a welded cover. There are holes at the tray bottom. One cover angle rises above the other one and a branch pipe is fixed on it. A pipeline, via which gathered oil or oil product is transferred to an onshore accumulation tank, is attached to the branch pipe. Two opposite sides of the tray are bent in upward direction to facilitate movement along the water reservoir bottom. Movement of the device over the pipeline to the ground oil outlet point is performed with ropes.
EFFECT: simpler structure and higher efficiency of oil accumulation immediately over its emergency discharge from the main oil pipeline.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: as per the first cleaning method of water reservoir surface against oil product contaminants, localisation of a contaminated section of water reservoir is performed by creation of directed movement of oil products 2 by means of controlled air flow 3 to convex surface 7 of intake device 6. Convex surface 7 of intake device 6 is restricted with flanges on lateral sides. First, continuous jet water flow 10 is supplied under pressure to convex surface 7 in direction of air flow 3. Water flow is shaped by means of slot nozzle 11 of hydraulic pump 12. Hydraulic pump 12 is located below boundary line of water - oil product phases. Flow of oil products is discharged with continuous jet water flow 10 to receiving accumulator 9. Receiving accumulator 9 is located behind convex surface 7 with formation of a slot between them, through which continuous jet water flow 10 is discharged to water reservoir 1. As per the second method, localisation of contaminated water reservoir section is performed and oil products are discharged to the receiving accumulator with pumping-out device 18. Localisation of the section is performed by creation of directed movement of oil products 2 to the intake device by means of controlled air flow 3. Intake device is made in the form of oil trap 17 with tangential intake of oil products. Oil trap 17 is made in the form of open annular onboard enclosure 19 with grabbing jaw 20. One side 21 of grabbing jaw 20 is made at a tangent to open annular onboard enclosure 19 and by its direction to water reservoir 1 surfaces towards opposite air flow 3. Device 18 for pumping-out of oil products 2 from the water reservoir surface to the receiving accumulator includes cylindrical housing 23, and drive 24 with vertical rotation axis. Cylindrical housing 23 forms cavity 25 of the receiving accumulator. Housing 23 is mounted in wound spiral 28 of strip 27. Strip 27 of spiral 28 is located at an angle to outer surface 29 of cylinder 23 and lower edge 30 of strip 27 of spiral 28 is tightly pressed to outer surface 29 with formation of spiral chute 31.
EFFECT: improving cleaning efficiency of water reservoir surface against oil product contaminations.
7 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of two oil intakes 1, collected oil tanks 2 and float 3. Said oil intakes 1 consist of oil collection drums 4 mounted at carcasses 5 in supports 6. Chutes 5 are provided at carcasses 5 to discharge oil from drums 4 into tank 2. Tank 2 is mounted at carcass 10 and accommodates hydraulic drive 11 with drum reduction gear. Besides it comprises water-driven pump 12 to force collected oil and arrangement of pipelines for power carrier feed and discharge. Carcasses 5 of oil intakes 1 are connected with carcass 10 of tank 2 to allow adjustment of their relative position within 46 to 180 degrees. Float 3 is mounted at the frame connected to carcasses 5 and 10. Outer surfaces of drum inner rings 16 have no grooves and are shorter relative to outer rings 9. Cavities of inner rings 16 and tube spaces 17 of drums 4 on both ends are plugged by bottoms 22. Cavities make chambers 18 to feed power carrier in their tube spaces at one end and, from opposite end, chamber 19 to discharge condensate therefrom. Devices to remove oil from oil intake surface of outer rings 9 are composed of combs 7 secured along drums 5 at chutes 7. Carcasses 5 of oil intakes and carcass 10 of tank 2 are equipped with wheel pairs 35. Collected oil is forced from tank 2 into oil storage tank.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics, acoustics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is used to protect underwater structures and equipment from biofouling. The method includes, at the output of a bypass channel, generating and emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals which act on fish and change their behavioural characteristics; simultaneously emitting noise signals and creating a dense air-bubble screen which rises on the surface of biofouling and impurities. The air-bubble screen and the noise acoustic waves are additional barriers for aggregation of fish near the output of the bypass channel with superheated water. A floating boom is turned on the water surface to form a continuous barrier for biofouling and impurities rising to the surface, which are then collected in form of dirty foam. A mobile system equipped with acoustic radiators is used to forcefully move the aggregation of fish - natural predators for biofouling, from a remote part of a water body to a region adjacent to a supply channel by continuously emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals. Simultaneously, a second acoustic module and a second acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for fish - natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield in the narrowest part of the water body. Recycled water being cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities and fish are not released from this part of the water body. Simultaneously, a third acoustic module and a third acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for juvenile fish- natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield at the input of the supply channel of the facility of the power system. As a result, recycled water cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities. Simultaneously, intense ultrasonic waves and low-frequency electromagnetic waves act on the biofouling at the input of a water-intake window, with simultaneous removal of biofouling from the mechanical protective screen, and at the output of the inlet pipe of the underwater structure. Simultaneously, an acoustic filter mounted at the input of the equipment of the facility of the power system performs fine purification of water from biofouling, as well as biological and mechanical impurities.
EFFECT: high quality of purification and reliability of protecting underwater structures and equipment from biofouling.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption extraction of caesium radionuclides from aqueous solutions. The method of extracting caesium radionuclides includes filtering an aqueous solution through a selective sorbent which is iron-potassium ferrocyanide on a support, desorption of caesium from the sorbent with an alkaline solution containing Trilon B and potassium oxalate. The eluate obtained from desorption is further filtered through a sorbent which is nickel-potassium ferrocyanide.
EFFECT: faster caesium extraction and minimal volume of obtained concentrate containing caesium radionuclides.
1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment by combination of processes including coagulation, sedimentation, flocculation and ballast flocculation additionally perfected by simplified circulation of sediment. Sediment circulation system allows operation at higher density of sediment and with less notable losses of water. Here, sediment accumulated in sedimentation zone bottom part is forced through hydraulic cyclone definite number of times in periodic cycles to increase the density of extracted sediment of solid particles. This system can be controlled also with the help of suspended solid product analyser, flow metre and/or timer.
EFFECT: control over fluid flow behaviour with the help of above described method.
21 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: recycling water system for auto washing comprises technological equipment associated with a system of pipelines with a waste-water purifying apparatus, and includes a storage tank 47, into which waste water flows by gravity, a pump 48 for supplying water from the storage tank 47 into ta reactor 49, a compressor 52 for mixing a medium in the reactor 49, a metering pump 51 of a working solution of a coagulant, a flotation plant 54, a storage tank 59 for collecting the purified water after the flotation plant 54, course 61 and fine 66 mesh filters, a storage tank 63 for collecting the purified water after course mesh filters, a diaphragm pump 55 and a receiving tank of sludge 56.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of waste-water treatment and the overall system performance.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: bacterial strain Exiguobacterium mexicanum RNCIM B-11011 is proposed, having the ability to dispose quickly of oil, diesel fuel, motor oil, gas condensate.
EFFECT: strain can be used to clean soil and water reservoirs contaminated by crude oil and petroleum products in a wide temperature range.
3 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of contaminated water. This method comprises bringing of water in contact with at least one adsorbent powder in zone (2) of preliminary interaction with mixing. Then, follow flocculation with weighted flakes and deposition. Mix of sediment, ballast and adsorbent powder is removed from sedimentation zone bottom (5). Said mix is fed into hydraulic cyclone (11) to displace hydrocyclone (11) top product containing the mix of sediment and adsorbent powder into transition zone (14). Mix of sediment and adsorbent powder are returned from transition zone (14) to zone (2) of preliminary interaction. Process incorporates the step whereat at least one index of adsorbent powder in preliminary interaction zone (2) is obtained. Suspension of green adsorbent powder in water is fed upstream of zone (2) when concentration of said powder in this zone is lower than preset threshold value and the step of acidification of said sorbent.
EFFECT: production of water suitable for drinking.
14 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: sorbent is obtained by thermal processing of sapropel with content of mineral component 54-85%. Thermal processing is carried out at a temperature of 300-350°C in an air medium. The obtained sorbent is bifunctional.
EFFECT: obtaining the sorbent suitable for simultaneous extraction of non-polar substances and heavy metals from water solutions.
5 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of zinc extraction from bottom sediments with an ionic liquid includes preparation of an analytic sample. Extraction of zinc from the solid sample is performed with application of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaphosphate with additives of ammonium thiocyanate and potassium iodide with further quantitative determination of zinc (II) ions in a concentrate of an organic phase of the ionic liquid.
EFFECT: providing degree of element extraction close to one hundred percent.
1 dwg, 2 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for purification of natural waters at production of drinking water. Clarification is made by forcing water through the layer of foam bricks or foamed polystyrene while filtration is performed by forcing this water through quartz sand with grain size of 0.3-1.5 mm and gravel of 2-32 mm grains. Sorption is made on granulated activated carbon with grain size of 0.5-5 mm to decontaminate initial water by primary chlorination with sodium hypochlorite containing up to 19% of active chlorine in amount of 0.9-1.3 mg/l. Then, water is processed by polarisation current of carbon-graphite electrode self-organisation in aluminium oxyhydrate medium for 50 minutes and by aluminium sulphate in amount of 1.8-2.5 mg/l and flocculating agent POLYDADMAX, series FLOQUAT FL 45 in amount of 0.1-0.4 mg/l. Now, secondary chlorination is performed by sodium hypochlorite containing up to 19% of active chlorine in amount of 3-5 mg/l.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of purification and quality of drinking water, non-polluting process.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: flocculant for water purification is obtained by copolymerisation of a monomer mixture - itaconic acid or its anhydride, alkyl ether of itaconic acid and amide of acrylic or methacrylic acid, with content of each component in a mixture equal to 10-80 mol.%. As amides of acrylic or methacrylic acid used are: acrylamide, methacrylamide, N-alkylacrylamide. It is possible to perform copolymerisation in the presence of a solvent.
EFFECT: simplification of the process technology, increase of qualitative characteristics of the flocculant, used for purification of water, which has different values of acidity, salinity, concentration of wide spectrum of pollutants; the flocculant also has low production cost.
4 cl, 4 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.