Radioactive waste storage

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: proposed radioactive waste storage (RWS) comprises a foreshaft 1, fixed with the steel shell 2, the well 4 drilled through this foreshaft 1 in rock mass 3, cased with the metal casing 6 with the bottom 7, the thermoinsulator 11 of inert waterproof and heat-resistant material, located on the inner generant of the metal casing 6, the external engineering protective barrier 9 with the lower protective screen 10 of bentonite-cement monolith, the internal engineering protective barrier 12 with upper protective screen 13, the aggregate state control system 14 of the material of the internal engineering protective barrier 12, made of pipes 15, tripping column 16 with containers 17, 18 placed on it with RWS, the radioecological monitoring system 20 and the lid 21 of the casing 6. The bottom 7 is provided with alighting bearing-centring hubs 8. The external engineering protective barrier 9 is created by grouting the annulus. The internal engineering protective barrier 12 with the upper protective screen 13 is formed inside the metal casing 6 with inert material which is solid in natural conditions, but able to change its aggregate state (solid-liquid) under the thermal effect.

EFFECT: invention improves environmental safety, area usage factor of land allocation intended for RW storage, increases the amount of waste of increased activity in the storage, reduces the labour intensity of RW storage decommissioning at the end of its period of use.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of environmental protection, and more specifically to the field of conservation radioactive waste (RW) in rock masses. Most effectively the proposed device can be implemented at the conservation of solid radioactive waste of low and intermediate level waste in storage borehole type.

Known repository of radioactive waste used in the method of disposal of radioactive waste in rock masses with heterogeneous geological structure (Patent 2143759 (Russia)6 G21F 9/24, 9/34, B09B 1/00, 22.07.98, published. 27.12.99. Bull. No. 36 [1]), including drilled in a rock mass well with the perimeter wells in zones of occurrence of water-saturated rocks annular cavities overlying the capacity of these layers and having an increased cross-section, placed in the borehole by means of the tripping device containers with radioactive waste, engineering protective barrier height of the well created by bridging the space between the containers and the inner generatrix of the bore hole bentonite mortar, and sealed the mouth created by pouring cement material is tar, bitumen or similar thermoplastic material.

The disadvantages of the known repositories are:

- low environmental security in the long term to operate the tion due to the presence of the only engineering protective barrier storage (monaberry environmental protection) and the possibility of violating its integrity during emergency situations, in particular the displacement of the rocks composing the rock mass;

- low environmental safety due to the impossibility of recovering waste from a repository when an emergency situation and after the expiration of this store.

It is known store RAO, used in the way of long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the wells of large diameter with a three-layer reinforced concrete the casing (Patent 2212720 (Russia)7 G21F 9/34, 11.03.2002 published 20.09.03 RKF. Bull. No. 26 [2], including drilled in a rock mass hole, cased three-layer reinforced concrete lining, consisting of two concentrically arranged shells, made of carbon steel with a space between them filled with bentonite mortar, concrete bottom, hood with air intake device, the embankment of clay and placed in the storage containers (2).

The disadvantages of the known repositories are:

- low environmental safety during long-term operation due to the presence in the lower part of the facility engineering barrier lower reliability - concrete bottom, associated with support for the liaison between the metal-cement", narasayya depending on the temperature of spent fuel because of a difference of coefficients of thermal expansion of the metal and concrete, which leads to the formation of cracks and the channel is, assists the penetration of the repository groundwater;

higher cost and greater complexity of manufacturing and installation, to prevent the spread of this type of store to store waste at various levels of activity.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed storage of radioactive waste is radioactive waste repository (Prozorov LB, Litinsky J.V., A.V. Tkachenko "New store RAO; wells of large diameter". //The security barrier. - M.: "radon-Press, 2005, No. 3-4, p.47-50 [3]), including forsaitu fixed steel shell, drilled through this forsaitu in a rock mass hole, cased metal casing with a bottom, an external engineering protective barrier from the lower protective screen from bentonite-cement monolith created by plugging the annulus, inner engineering protective barrier from the upper shield formed inside the casing, bentonite-cement monolith, lifting column, containers with radioactive waste, mounted on the lifting column, the system of radiation monitoring system, posted in the channels of internal engineering protective barrier, and the cover of the casing string.

The disadvantages of the known repositories are:

- low environmental security in the long-term E. the decommission storage with internal engineering protective barrier, educated, bentonite-cement monolith, due to the lack of ability to promptly retrieve the inside of containers with radioactive waste during the deformation, and integrity of the engineering barriers caused by movement of the rock massif and, correspondingly, reduce the reliability of the system of environmental security, there is no possibility of restoring the integrity of internal engineering protective barrier with minor violations of this barrier caused by technological hazards identified during monitoring, increased risk of fracture internal protective barrier of the store when the misalignment of the casing and lifting columns with containers because of possible violations of verticality well, and the result is an uneven gap between the walls of the casing columns and containers and, respectively, the thickness and the strength of internal engineering protective barrier consisting of bentonite-cement monolith;

- increased complexity o storage of radioactive waste from operation at the completion of the period of its use due to the complexity of the extract inside of containers with radioactive waste, located in bentonite-cement monolith forming internal engineering protective barriers is;

- low coefficient of efficiency of use of the area of land allocated for storage, due to restrictions on the depth and storage capacity, due to the strength characteristics of the lifting columns and the capacity is used when you load lifting equipment, and, as a consequence, the lack of ability to store significant volumes of waste increased activity, the depth of which is regulated by the normative documents of the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) (General Safety Guide. Classification of Radioactive Waste. GSG-1. IAEA-2009 [4]).

The advantages of the proposed radioactive waste repository are improving environmental protection, increase the utilization of the area of land to be allocated for the storage of radioactive waste, the possibility of placing in storage increased the amount of waste increased activity, reduced the labor intensity of output storage of radioactive waste from operation at the completion of the period of its use.

These advantages are achieved by the fact that the storage of radioactive waste includes forsaitu fixed steel shell, drilled through this forsaitu in a rock mass hole, cased metal casing with a bottom provided with landing support-C is strenuosity shoes, the insulator of the inert waterproof and heat-resistant material placed on the inner forming a metal casing, external engineering protective barrier from the lower protective screen from bentonite-cement monolith created by plugging the annulus, inner engineering protective barrier from the upper shield formed inside a metal casing inert material that is solid under natural conditions, but are capable of altering its physical state (solid - liquid) under the effects of heat, the control system state of aggregation of the material internal engineering protective barrier made of pipes, lifting column placed on the containers with radioactive waste, the radioecological monitoring system and the cover of the casing string.

Distinctive features of the proposed radioactive waste repository is that the bottom of the metal casing is equipped with landing support-centering shoes made with the guide bevels and ensuring the coaxiality of the location of tripping and casing that allows you to achieve equal thickness and accordingly the same strength and protective characteristics of internal engineering protective barrier around the perimeter of the store; thermo is solator of inert waterproof and heat-resistant material, posted by inner forming a metal casing, reduces the impact of temperature factors in the internal and external engineering protective barriers and capacity of the array; inner engineering protective barrier formed of inert material that is solid under natural conditions, but are capable of altering its physical state (solid-liquid) under the effects of heat (e.g. bentonite, tar, and other similar thermoplastic materials or silicates), which allows during operation of the store to ensure a reliable insulation of containers with radioactive waste in the internal engineering of the protective barrier formed by solid waterproof material, and the translation of this material in the liquid state of aggregation enables fast retrieval containers with waste from the store when the conclusion of a storage operation and the emergency situation and to restore the protective properties of the internal engineering of the protective barrier, because bringing it into a liquid state leads to the filling and elimination of cracks and other deformations produced during operation of the store, in addition, the use of thermoplastic material for internal engineering protective barrier allows the construction of radioactive waste storage increased the GLA is in to allow placement of waste containers of different levels of activity recommended depths without the use of technology increased capacity because in the process of placing containers with waste at the radioactive waste repository material forming the inner engineering protective barrier is in a liquid state and partially compensates for the weight of the loaded containers with radioactive waste; management system state of aggregation of the material internal engineering protective barrier made of serially connected in a single communication system U-tubes evenly positioned on the inner forming a metal casing and connected through an underwater device with technological complex preparation used fluid (water, steam or air), and the upper parts of these pipes is provided with end walls with sealing lids, providing during operation storage access in the internal cavity of these pipes and the allocation of system radiation monitoring system, this design of the control system state of aggregation of the material internal engineering protective barrier allows translation from one aggregate state to another and to provide opportunity for radioecological monitoring of the total volume of radioactive waste storage.

Thus, the present invention provides the improvement of environmental safety of radioactive ododo the creation of an effective and reliable mnogoseriynoy environmental protection, excluding the possibility of migration of radionuclides in the rock massif and groundwater, reduces the labor intensity of output stores this type of operation, and also allows you to increase the coefficient of efficiency of use of the area of land allocated for storage, due to the construction of stores increased depth and capacity and placement of waste containers of different levels of activity recommended depths.

The proposed radioactive waste repository are presented in figures 1, 2, 3 and 4, where figure 1 is a view of a repository for radioactive waste in section; figure 2 is a view of radioactive waste storage in cross section along A-A, figure 3 - scan control system state of aggregation of the material internal engineering barrier in direction of the arrow B of figure 2, figure 4 - example of layout of the system of radiation monitoring in the pipe system management state of aggregation of the material internal engineering protective barrier.

Storage of radioactive waste includes forsaitu 1 fixed steel shell 2, drilled through forsaitu 1 in a rock mass 3 well 4 depth (Lt), made with the expansion in the zones of occurrence of layers 5, presents a weak unstable and watered rocks, metal casing 6 with a bottom 7, is equipped with landing support-centering b is makami 8, external engineering protective barrier 9 with the lower protective screen 10, created by plugging the annulus, the insulator 11 of the inert waterproof and heat-resistant material placed on the inner forming metal casing 6, internal engineering protective barrier 12 with the upper protective screen 13 formed inside the metal casing 6 inert material that is solid under natural conditions, but are capable of altering its physical state (solid-liquid) under the effects of heat, the control system state of aggregation 14 material internal engineering protective barrier 12, made of pipes 15, tripping the column 16 is placed on the containers with RAO - containers of low-level waste 17 and the waste of increased activity 18, processing facility (not shown in the figure) preparation (heating or cooling) used in the process fluid (water, steam or air), linked through an underwater device 19 with the control system state of aggregation 14 material internal engineering protective barrier 12, a lifting device (not shown)providing lifting operations lifting column 16, and a system of radiological monitoring, the cover 21 of the metal casing 6. Depth (L1wells 4 exceeds the height (L2metal casing 6 to the thickness of the lower protective screen 10, which is determined depending on the geological situation at the place of storage facilities and radiation characteristics that are placed in this store radioactive waste, height (L2metal casing 6 is greater than the total height (L3containers of waste increased activity 18 placed in this store, recommended for waste data minimum depth (L4) (for waste intermediate level this depth is 30÷35 m) [4]; the material used to create internal engineering protective barrier 12, is a thermoplastic (e.g. bentonite, tar, and other similar materials or aluminosilicates) and is capable of changing its physical state (solid-liquid) under the effects of heat; control system state of aggregation 14 internal engineering protective barrier 12 is made of serially connected in a single communication system U-shaped tubes 15, evenly placed on the inner forming metal casing 6 storage (figure 3) and is provided in the upper part of the end walls 22 with a sealing lid 23 that PR is the process of operation of the storage access into the internal cavity of the tube 15 of the system of radiation monitoring system 20 state of the engineered barriers, and is connected through the pipe 19 with the technological complex preparation of the carrier; reference-centering 8 shoes made with the guide bevels, ensuring the coaxiality of the mutual arrangement of the metal casing 6 with lifting column 16 is placed on the containers with waste.

The radioactive waste repository is used as follows - in the metal casing 6 is loaded selected to create internal engineering barrier 12 of thermoplastic material sufficient to fill the entire free containers with waste space, then through technological complex preparation of fluid through the pipe 19 to the pipe 15 of the control system state of aggregation 14 is fed into the heated coolant. Under the effects of heat placed in a metal casing 6 of thermoplastic material passes into the liquid state of aggregation, and the insulator 11 reduces the effect of the temperature on the external engineering protective barrier 9 and the heat loss to the external environment. After bringing thermoplastic material in a liquid state of aggregation is done loading repository for radioactive waste, for which the above metal casing 6 is mounted lifting column 16, where ustanavlivaut the containers with radioactive waste, in the lower part of the lifting columns 16 are the waste containers increased activity 18 with such a condition that the top of the top row of these containers when placed in storage will be at the level not higher depth (L4) over the waste of increased activity 18, tripping on the column 16 are containers of low-level radioactive waste 17 which limits the depth of placement do not apply. Such arrangement of containers with radioactive waste at the radioactive waste repository allows the most efficient use of the useful volume of this store, because the waste containers of different activity levels are placed at depths regulated by the normative documents for the disposal of this level of activity, which provides both a full download of the store, and the most rational use of its depth, while ensuring environmental safety. Filling tripping columns 16 containers with radioactive waste can be carried out fully before its descent into the metal casing 6, and during this descent. Lifting column 16 containers with radioactive waste, the lifting device is lowered into the metal casing 6 and is mounted on the centering shoes 8, which sposobstvuyuschih mutual coaxial location and provide equal clearance between containers with radioactive waste and the walls of the metal casing 6. Lowered the containers with waste displace up the metal casing 6 excess liquid thermoplastic material, which fills all the technological cavities and gaps, as well as free space in the upper part of the metal casing 6 above the containers of low-level radioactive waste 17. The density is in a liquid state thermoplastic material partially compensates for the weight of the lander in a metal casing 6 lifting columns 16 containers with radioactive waste. After completion of the descent of the lifting columns 16 in the metal casing 6 by changing the temperature of the coolant supplied to the control system state of aggregation 14, thermoplastic material is transferred into the solid state, forming a reliable waterproof internal engineering protective barrier 12 with the upper protective screen 13. Then the flow of coolant in the system management state of aggregation 14 is stopped, the coolant is removed from the pipe 15 through the pipe 19 and the metal casing 6 is closed by a cover 21.

Monitoring the status of the barriers of engineering protection system of ecological safety of radioactive waste during operation is performed by the system of radiation monitoring system 20, for which the CSO is ovcov 22 removable sealing cover 23 and the pipe 15 is a system of radiation monitoring system 20 (figure 4), the arrangement of the pipes 15 around the perimeter of the store provides the possibility of obtaining information on the status of the engineering protection barriers around storage.

At the conclusion of radioactive waste from operation by means of a flow of the coolant in the system management state of aggregation 14 of thermoplastic material forming the inner engineering protective barrier 12, is converted into the liquid state of aggregation and lifting column 16 with containers with waste tripping device is removed from the metal casing 6, then extracted thermoplastic material, and the inner volume of the metal casing 6 is filled with a material that is able to fix the remaining radionuclides, such as bentonite-cement, clay.

In the result of the analysis of the projected and existing stores shaft type and modeling of performance of engineered barriers these stores, it was found that the radioactive waste repository shaft type with the proposed system of environmental security provides a significant increase in the reliability of the localization of radioactive waste in various mining and geological conditions and the most complete and efficient use of land.

Store radio is active waste including forsaitu, fixed steel sides, drilled through this forsaitu in a rock mass hole, cased metal casing with a bottom, an external engineering protective barrier from the lower protective screen from bentonite-cement monolith created by plugging the annulus, inner engineering protective barrier from the upper shield formed inside a metal casing, a lifting column placed on the containers with radioactive waste, the system of radiation monitoring system and the cover of the casing, characterized in that the bottom metal casing provided with landing support-centering shoes, the inner surface of the metal casing provided with a heat insulator of inert waterproof and heat resistant material, the internal engineering protective barrier from the upper protective shield inside a metal casing formed of inert material that is solid under natural conditions, but are capable of altering its physical state (solid-liquid) under the effects of heat, and has a control state of aggregation of the material forming the internal engineering protective barrier, made in the form of a series of U-shaped tubes, placed on the inner forming a metal casing to the pubic, and the system radioecological monitoring during operation storage of radioactive waste is placed in the pipe system management state of aggregation of the material of the inner engineering of the protective barrier.



 

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3 ex

FIELD: environmental protection; methods of the environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the environmental protection, in particular, to the methods of decrease of the soil, ground and atmosphere pollution in the places of formation of the uncivilized dumps of the domestic and the industrial wastes and the adjoined territories and may be used at realization of the nature- protective and nature conservation measures. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and quality of the environmental protection: the soils, the ground and the aerosphere from pollution caused by the domestic and industrial wastes at liquidation of the uncivilized dumps due to prevention of propagation of contaminants on the territory adjacent to the dumps, permeation into the ground and the underground water-carrying layers and propagation in the air. The substance of the invention consists that prior to the beginning of the process of the dumps liquidation conduct the pilot survey of the territory abutting to the uncivilized dump and determine the character and the degree of pollution of the soils and the deep ground layers, as well as the availability and the parameters of the water-carrying layer; then they form the protective barrier around the dump in the soil and on the surface; at that in the soil the protective barrier is made to the depth of the of the penetrated pollution, and at availability of the water-carrying layer - up to the water confining layer, and on the surface - up to the height equal to the height of the dump. Then conduct removal of the wastes by their loading with the help of the loading mechanisms into the garbage trucks with the subsequent transportation to the garbage-processing works or to the civilized polygon of the solid wastes. Then the polluted soils and the ground of the dump territory is cut and removed into the depth of the pollution and their transportation to the special polygon remote from the habitation settlements, the rivers and basins for stacking, or to the operational civilized polygon of the solid waste for utilization as the intermediate insulating layer. Then the upper part of the indicated barrier is removed.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and quality of environmental protection.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: environmental protection; decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the environmental protection, in particular, to the decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes and may be used for collecting and withdrawing of the biogas formed in the depth of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW) polygon. The technical result of the invention is expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the DIW and decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment due to reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts in the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap. For this purpose on the polygon of the solid domestic and industrial wastes perform the preparation of the foundation, mounting of the system of the vertical gaseous drain from the net of the located on the polygon area wells with the perforated walls and the external filtrating earth-bank formed with the help of the sliding sheathing, the layer-by-layer placing of the wastes with the intermediate insulating layers, raising the wells in height of each layer of scrap; withdrawal of the biogas from the wells of the vertical gaseous drain is realized using the tubular drains of the horizontal drainage in the foundation of the DIW polygon. At that the lower links of the tubes of the wells of the of the vertical gaseous drain connect with the drainage wells of the horizontal tubular drains, and the upper ends of the wells of the vertical gaseous drainage shut by the plugs, which are installed after each cycle of the raise on the upper end of the sliding sheathing.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW), decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment, reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts into the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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