Paired optically variable protective element with characteristic reflected radiation wavelengths

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed element comprises first and second optically variable element including the first and second optically variable thin-film laminar interference devices. Note here that said the first and second optically variable thin-film laminar interference devices are located so that they can be viewed together. The band covered by second device 3rd and 4th lengths waves lies in the band covered by first device 1st and 2nd lengths waves. This allows determination of definite light incidence angle whereat peaks of k-order of reflection of said 1st and 2nd interference coincide. Said 1st and 2nd optically variable interference devices feature identical interference structures so that they display true spectral matching at said preset light incidence angle while at other angles they feature different spectra.

EFFECT: high degree of protection against counterfeit.

19 cl, 3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field related documents with protection. The invention relates to paired optimeerimine (with changing optical characteristics) of the protective element, which includes first and second optimeerimine interference device that represents optimeerimine foil or optimeerimine printed signs, applied printing ink, comprising optimeerimine interference pigments, and the first and second interference device are matched spectrum when light is incident at a certain angle. The invention also relates to kits optimeerimine devices or optimeerimine printing inks or coating compositions comprising pigments with varying optical characteristics, designed to be paired optimering protective element, and a protective element for the protection of documents and goods, the secured documents and goods that are of such a protective element.

PRIOR art

In the field of printing techniques with protection against forgery known: optimeerimine foil, optimeerimine pigments (OPP, English abbreviation OVP from "optically variable pigment") and composition of the coatings, including the OPP, as well as optimeerimine printing KRA is Ki"optically variable ink", OVI®). Such optimeerimine elements have a color depending on the angle of view or the angle of the light, and the preferred security features of banknotes and other documents with protection from illegal copying performed using public office equipment for color scanning, printing and copying.

To increase security against counterfeiting and improve the ease of visual authentication of documents protected aplikovatelnymi protective elements, it was suggested that the use of combinations involving more than one optimering element in the same document. In patent publication WO 2005/044583 described the inclusion of the same optimering protective element in more than one part of the document protection. In patent publication WO 96/39307 described pair optimeerimine device comprising first and second optimeerimine device, located at a distance from each other on the same surface that includes first and second optimeerimine pigments found in the above-mentioned first and second optimeerimine devices, respectively, and optimeerimine pigments have the same color when a certain angle of incidence of light and different colors at all other angles of incidence of light.

The device described in patent pub the paths WO 96/39307, differs in that design paired optimeerimine pigments selected such that the diagrams (CIELAB)and*b*, in which color pigments are presented as a function of the angle of view or the angle of the light, there are points of intersection corresponding to the angles or angles of incidence of light, in which the two mentioned optimeerimine pigment have the same hue. The first and second optimeerimine pigments discussed in patent publication WO 96/39307, implemented in fully dielectric interference pigments, in the form of a different quarter-wavelength structures corresponding to approximately the same wavelength. In the case of interference pigments, including metal and dielectric, the first and second pigments are implemented as different half-wave structures corresponding to approximately the same wavelength.

The main drawback of the device described in patent publication WO 96/39307, is that the first and second pigments at one particular angle of incidence of light should have the same tint with different spectral characteristics as to obtain the same spectral characteristics, using different quarter-wave or half-wave design, it is impossible. The observed hue is simply a projection features is the spectral reflectance of the pigment, i.e. the intensity of the reflection as a function of wavelength, three-dimensional perception of color human, and, as known to a person skilled in the technical field different spectral characteristics can give the same projection of three-dimensional perception of color human (meta-matter of color).

The consequence of this fact is that the perception of colors of the first and second optimeerimine pigments used in document WO 96/39307, different depends on the spectral characteristics of the light source, i.e. the point of intersection at which two optimeerimine pigment have the same hue, can only be observed with the illumination light of the light source of a particular type (e.g., light bulb) and not appear when illuminated by the light of the light source of another type (e.g., fluorescent light).

The present invention is to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art and the creation of this pair optimering protective element, which exhibits a color matching when light is incident at a certain angle which is not dependent on the type of light source.

The INVENTION

Below the invention is described using the following description and the accompanying claims.

Under this is obreteniyu presents technical problem is solved by applying the pairwise optimering protective element, including first and second optimeerimine interference device, implemented, for example, in the form of first and second optimeerimine foil or the first and second optimeerimine pigments in the printing ink or coating composition, and device are arranged in such a way that they can be considered (i.e. visible to the user) together and show the true agreement on the spectrum when light is incident at a certain angle, but have different spectra at all other angles of incidence of light.

Thus, a pair opticprimary protective element according to the present invention includes at least first and second optimeerimine interference device, and the interference devices have different types of color transitions and manufactured or a dielectric multilayer packs, or in a multilayer packs-type metal-insulator, or in the form of a cholesteric (i.e. chiral nematic) liquid crystal films, or combinations thereof. The interference device is additionally distinguished by the fact that they are the same, for example, a quarter-wave or half-wave interference construction, when light is incident at an angle corresponding to the matched spectrum (point of intersection), and at least one of sostavlyajushie is the dielectric layers has a refractive index, different from the refractive indices of the other layers.

The present invention is based on the fact that the color change in the interference device depends on the refractive index of the dielectric materials in the device. This dependence is expressed by the law of physics related to the difference between the velocity of propagation of light inside and outside the various layers of the interference device, and thus, it is applicable to all types of Zlatopramen optical interference devices, as fully dielectric multilayer thin-film devices and multilayer thin-film devices such as metal-insulator or devices cholesteric liquid crystal type.

In the proposed description, the terms "color transition" and "color shift" refers to the color change that occurs when moving optimering interference device so that the direction of incidence of light is changed from perpendicular to the moving (falling under small angles). "Color transition" to more accurately indicates the color of the device depending on the angle or the light falls in the chart (CIELAB)a*b*, while the "color shift" shows only the visual color change of the device. In the context of the proposed description, the term "opticprimary" refers to the depending changes color depending on the angle of view or the fall of light.

"Perpendicular light incidence" means the consideration at an angle, comprising from 80° to 90° to the plane of the interference device. "Moving the falling light" means looking at an angle, comprising from 0° to 10° to the plane of the interference device. It is usually assumed that the angle of incidence of the beam coincides with the direction angle of sight.

"The point of intersection represents the angle or incidence of light, in which the first and second optimeerimine devices have the same shade on the chart (CIELAB)a*b*.

In the proposed description of the "agreement on the spectrum" means that the characteristics of spectral reflectance or transmittance depending on the wavelength, qualitatively similar, i.e. that the spectral characteristics of the first and second optimeerimine interference devices contain the same spectral band of the same width at the same wavelengths. Below in the description of the proposed alignment along the spectrum" does not mean that the spectral bands of the first and second optimeerimine interference devices have the same absolute intensity. Indeed, the present invention includes obtaining different values of the absolute intensities of the reflectance or transmittance of the first and second devices, which can be attributed to the use of razryhlitelem or different concentrations of the pigments.

The origin of the reflected color, and the observed color shift as the angle in the proposed interference devices explained below when considering the example of a half-wave thin-film interference device type metal-dielectric. Similar explanations, as amended, applicable to the color, noise interference devices operating on the principle of transparency, as well as for interference devices of other types, namely, a quarter-wave designs, fully dielectric thin film device, a cholesteric liquid crystal films and combinations of such devices and structures.

Half-wave thin-film interference device type metal-insulator differs in that it includes a layered structure of the absorber / dielectric / reflector, in which the layer of absorber partially transmits and partially reflects light, the dielectric layer transmits the light, and a reflecting layer reflects incident light. An illustrative embodiment of such a device is a sequence of layers with specific thickness: "chromium (5 nm) / magnesium fluoride (400 nm) / al (40 nm)".

Figure 1 shows that the observed optical thickness (optical delay" OL) in the layer (D) of the dielectric with pokazatel the m of refraction n> 1 is equal to OL=n*d*sin(θ', where θ' is the angle of incidence of the light relative to the plane of the layer within the layer (D). The highest value of the optical delay (lag) (n*d) is observed at normal light incidence (θ'=90°), and it decreases with decreasing angle of incidence of light to the minimum value of zero at grazing incidence of light (θ'=0°). As can be seen from the inside of the layer (D), with the passage of light waves through the dielectric (D), its reflection from the reflective layer (R) and repeated passing back through the dielectric (D) results in the delay of the light wave reflected from the upper layer (A) of the absorber, the amount of 2*OL=2*n*d*sin(θ').

According to the law of refraction Snell's law, sin(θ') can be expressed as a function of the angle of incidence of the beam 6 on the plane of the layer outside layer. Provided that the refractive index of the external environment is 1 (air), optical delay, as a function of θ, is OL=d*√(n2-cos2(θ)). The optical delay in the dielectric layer (D)observed from the outside layer has a maximum value of (n*d) at normal light incidence (θ=90°), and it decreases with decreasing angle of incidence of light to the minimum value of d*√(n2-1) under grazing incidence of light (θ=0°). As can be seen from the outside of the layer (D), with the passage of light waves through the dielectric (D), its reflection from the reflective layer (R) is repeated passing back through the dielectric (D), results in the delay of the light wave reflected from the upper layer (A) of the absorber, the amount of 2*OL=2*d*√(n2-cos2(θ)). Mathematical notation √ means that the quantity indicated in brackets, take the square root.

The full intensity value (R) of light reflected interference device, expressed as a function of the incident wavelength (λ)will change in a wide range according to the equation R(λ)=Imax*cos2((2*OL*π)/λ), where Imaxrepresents the maximum intensity reflection. In addition to reflections at large values of λ (the reflection of the radiation of the order of the wavelength) the device has a pronounced maximum reflection at OL=λ/2 (first order), λ (second order), 3λ/2 (third order), 2λ (fourth order), 5λ/2 (fifth order),... k*λ/2 (k-th order), i.e. for all values that are multiples of "the wave".

From the above series can be seen that the half-wave device that uses the reflection of light with a wavelength of 660 nm, i.e. with the first peak reflectance at a wavelength of 660 nm (red region of the spectrum)will have a second peak reflectance at a wavelength of 330 nm (UV region), while a half-wave device that uses the reflection of light with a wavelength of 1320 nm, i.e. with a second peak reflectance at a wavelength of 660 nm, will have the Tr is Tille maximum reflectance at a wavelength of 440 nm (in the blue area spectrum), and a half-wave device that uses the reflection of light with a wavelength of 1980 nm, i.e. having a third maximum reflectance at a wavelength of 660 nm, will have the fourth highest reflectance at a wavelength of 495 nm (in the green region of the spectrum). Thus, it is clear that seemingly reflected the same color obtained by using the interference devices of different half-wave structures, must be one metameric, i.e. their consistency or inconsistency will always depend on the lighting conditions.

The above allows us to conclude that two of the reflectance spectrum pair optimering protective element, described in the publication WO 96/39307 constructed on the basis of the first and second optimeerimine pigments, which are based on different quarter-wave or half-wave design, cannot be reconciled with each other (compare, for example, Figa and Figs, which shows the spectra of the third order of the green area and the second order green areas, respectively). In this case, the color matching is based only on the projection of these reflectance spectra of three-dimensional perception of color human, and perceived color depends entirely on used lighting conditions.

According to the present invention is a pair opticprimary protective element is of alocen on the basis of the first and second optimeerimine pigments, obtained on the basis of one of the interference structure, for example, the same quarter-wave or half-wave structure, when light is incident at an angle corresponding to the matched spectrum (point of intersection). To obtain the intersection point on the chart (CIELAB)a*b*, in which the first and second optimeerimine pigments have the same hue, the refractive indices of at least one of the components of the dielectric layers of the first and second optimeerimine pigments should be selected are different, thus, leads to a different color shift with angle of incidence of light, but they have the same spectral characteristics of reflectance or transmittance, i.e. the true same color at the point of intersection.

This is true for the angle or incidence of light 9, which can be calculated by the equation d1*√(n12-cos2(θ))=d2*√(n22-cos2(θ)), where d1n1and d2n2represent the thickness and the refractive indices of the dielectric layers of the first and second interference devices, respectively.

Thus, in this case, the color matching is true, accurate matching of the spectral reflectivity or transmittance when light is incident at a certain angle, and the authentication of the document is the object by matching colors on both parts of the pair optimering protective element when light is incident at a certain angle, considered in this description, does not depend on the selected lighting conditions.

The value of "color shift"taking place as changing the angle created optiquement interference device strongly depends on the refractive index of the constituent layers or dielectric layer; to consider the half-wave type design metal-insulator it can be determined from the ratio (r(n)) the observed optical thickness (optical delay") and perpendicular incidence of light, r(n)=n/√(n2-1), which is a function of the refractive index n dielectric layer and which corresponds to the ratio of the wavelength of peak reflectance at normal and grazing incidence beam angle (symbol √ indicates that the value specified in brackets, take the square root).

Table 1 shows the calculated values of r(n)=λperpendicularmovingdepending on the refractive index n:

Table 1
nr(n)nr(n)nr(n)nr(n)
1,00endlessly.1,251,671,50of 1.341,751,22
1,053,281,30of 1.571,551,311,801,20
1,102,401,351,491,601,281,851,19
1,152,031,401,431,651,261,901,18
1,201,811,451,381,701,24endlessly.1,00

Thus, a pair opticprimary protective element according to the present invention includes n is pout optimeerimine interference device, including the first dielectric with a lower refractive index (nlow), for which the maximum reflection of the k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having a first wavelength (λ1), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a second, shorter wavelength (λ2), and the second optimeerimine interference device comprising a second dielectric with a higher refractive index (nhigh), for which the same maximum reflection k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having the third wavelength (λ3), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a fourth, shorter wavelength (λ4), and the protective element differs in that range, overlapping waves of the third and fourth length of the second device is within range, overlapping waves of the first and second lengths of the first device. The latter is a necessary condition for the existence of the angle of incidence at which the maxima of the reflection k-th order of the first and second interference devices are the same.

To implement the matching range of the first and second optimeerimine interference devices should be obtained on the basis of one and the same half-wave or quarter-wave designs and they can be made on the basis of design, selected from the group consisting of fully dielectric multilayer packs, multi-packs-type metal-dielectric cholesteric liquid crystal films and their combinations.

In one example implementation of the protection element according to the present invention the interference devices made from optimeerimine foil. In the case of interference devices such as metal-insulator optimeerimine foil may include a sequence of layers of the absorber / dielectric / reflector", which after layer of the reflector may be additional layers, and means for attaching the foil to the substrate (the base) so that the layer of absorber represents the outer layer.

In another specific embodiment, the protective element according to the present invention the interference devices made from optimeerimine pigments found in the relevant printing inks or coating compositions, which are applied to the protected document or product. In the case of interference devices such as metal-insulator optimeerimine pigments may include a sequence of layers of the absorber / dielectric / reflector / dielectric / absorber, in which the reflector layer may optionally include an internal layers.

Another con is the specific example of implementation opticprimary pigment included in the polymer foil, resulting optimeerimine foil of another type. In this case opticprimary pigment can be introduced into the polymer mass used for casting foil, and is focused by means of an adjustable tension foil (for example, by calendering). Alternatively opticprimary pigment can be obtained by laminating two layers of a polymer foil with the formation of one layer optimeerimine foil.

To obtain a protective element according to the present invention can also be applied to the combination of printing inks or coatings, including optimeerimine pigments, foil containing opticprimary pigment, and several layers optimeerimine foil, provided that the condition of approval by the spectrum.

In addition, the protective element can be fabricated in or on a transparent or translucent substrate for cross-examination or on an opaque substrate for consideration in the form of reflection.

In particular, the protective element according to the present invention can be manufactured in the form of optimeerimine printed signs, printed ink on a substrate, layers optimeerimine foil attached to the substrate, protective threads introduced in the substrate, or a transparent window in the substrate.

Izobreteny is also relates to a method of obtaining fresh optimering protective element, which includes the following steps:

- applying to the substrate (S) of the first optimering interference device comprising a first dielectric with a lower refractive index (nlow), for which the maximum reflection of the k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having a first wavelength (λ1), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a second, shorter wavelength (λ2);

- drawing on the same substrate (S) of the second optimering interference device comprising a second dielectric with a higher refractive index (nhigh), for which the same maximum reflection k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having the third wavelength (λ3), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a fourth, shorter wavelength (λ4);

while the first and second optimeerimine device is selected so that the range covered with the waves of the third and fourth length of the second device is within range, overlapping waves of the first and second lengths of the first device.

The first and second optimeerimine interference devices include the same half-wave or quarter-wave design is and and is preferably located so they can be considered (i.e. visible to the user) together.

Pair opticprimary protective element according to the present invention can be applied to protect against forgery of a document, such as banknotes, securities, identity cards, badges, labels or excise stamps (stamp on excise duty), and for marking of goods.

The invention also relates to instrument of protection, for example, banknotes, securities, identity card, pass or excise stamp (the stamp on excise tax), which includes a pair opticprimary protective element according to the present invention.

The present invention also relates to a kit comprising first and second optimeerimine interference devices forming a pair opticprimary protective element, and the first optimeerimine interference device includes a first dielectric with a lower refractive index (nlow), for which the maximum reflection of the k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having a first wavelength (λ1), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a second, shorter wavelength (λ2), and the second optimeerimine interference device includes a second dielectric with more height is Kim refractive index (n high), for which the same maximum reflection k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having the third wavelength (λ3), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a fourth, shorter wavelength (λ4), and thus the range, overlapping waves of the third and fourth length of the second device is within range, overlapping waves of the first and second lengths of the first device.

In particular, the first and second optimeerimine interference device can be selected from the group consisting of optimeerimine foil, optimeerimine thread and optimeerimine Windows.

The invention additionally relates to a kit comprising first and second optimeerimine composition of coatings, in particular, printing inks, for receiving a pair optimering protective element, in which the first coating composition contains the first opticprimary interference pigment comprising a first dielectric with a lower refractive index (nlow), for which the maximum reflection of the k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having a first wavelength (λ1), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a second, shorter wavelength λ 2), and the second coating composition contains a second opticprimary interference pigment comprising a second dielectric with a higher refractive index (nhigh), for which the same maximum reflection k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having the third wavelength (λ3), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a fourth, shorter wavelength (λ4), and thus the range, overlapping waves of the third and fourth length of the second pigment is within range, overlapping waves of the first and second lengths of the first pigment.

In particular, the first and second optimeerimine composition of the coatings can be selected from the group consisting of a printing ink for screen printing, printing inks for gravure printing with copper printing plates and printing inks for gravure printing.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 shows the derivation of the observed color and the color shift in the example multilayer stack absorber / dielectric / reflector/ thin film, which can be used according to the present invention.

Figure 2 shows the physical principle of operation of the protective element according to the present invention:

(a) spectrum of the interference stack-type metal-oxide Cr/MgF 2/Al at perpendicular incidence of light;

(b) spectrum of the interference stack-type metal-oxide Cr/Y2O3/Al at perpendicular incidence of light;

c) spectrum of the interference stack-type metal-oxide Cr/Y2O3/Al under grazing incidence of light;

d) spectrum of the interference stack-type metal-oxide Cr/MgF2/Al under grazing incidence of light.

Figure 3 schematically shows a pair opticprimary protective element according to the present invention, made from the first (right side of image) and the second (left side of image) interference devices:

a) a pair of protective element that is observed at normal incidence of light (90°): left and right side are different colors;

b) a pair of protective element that is observed when light is incident at an angle of 45°left and right side have the same color;

C) a pair of protective element that is observed when light is incident at an angle of 30°left and right side are different colors.

INFORMATION CONFIRMING the POSSIBILITY

IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION, AND the DESCRIPTION of embodiments of the INVENTION

Below the invention is described with reference to the drawings and some illustrative examples of implementation.

Figure 1 shows the derivation of the observed color and the color shift in the example multilayer stack absorber / dial ctric / reflector/ thin film, which can be used according to the present invention: layer (R) reflector, which may have an internal layered structure comprises at least one layer (D) of the dielectric on the outer surface which, in turn, is a layer (A) of the absorber. Incident light (I0)entering the device at an angle of incidence θ, is cleaved in the layer (A) of the absorber to the primary reflected beam (I1and the primary transmitted beam (I2); the latter passes through the layer (D) of the dielectric at an angle of incidence θ', the changed refractive reflected from the layer (R) reflector, passes back through the layer (D) of dielectric and the layer (A) of the absorber and, finally, exit the device in the form of a secondary reflected beam (I3with an angle of θ. The primary reflected beam (I1and a secondary reflected beam (I3) interfere with each other, leading to partial or full repayment of waves of a certain length, without changing the light having a wavelength other lengths (absorbing and amplifying interference), resulting in color due to selective reflection of certain parts of the spectrum of white light.

Examples of dielectric materials suitable for obtaining the interference device is fully dielectric construction or construction-type metal-insulator known to specialists in this is blasti technology and are available in the literature, for example, in the publication by N. Angus Macleod, "Thin-Film Optical Filters, third edition, Chapter 15; below, in Table 2, the optical parameters of some examples of dielectric materials suitable for implementing the present invention.

Table 2
Data are taken from the publication M. Ohring, The Material Science of Thin Films, Academic Press, Inc.. Boston, 1992
TrackThe packing densityThe transmission range (ám)Refractive index
NaF10,15-141,3
LiF10,10-81,3
CaF20,57-1,000,15-121,23-1,46
1F30,640,2-141,23
MgF20,72-0,800,11-41,32-1,39
LaF30,800.25 to 21,55
CeF30,800,3-51,63
SiO20,90,2-91,45
A12O310,2-71,54
MgO10,2-81,7
Y2O310,3-121,89
La2O310,3-121,98
CeO210,4-122,2
ZrO20,670,34-121,97
ZnO10,4-32,1
TiO210,4-31,9

As is well known to specialists in this field of technology, optimeerimine thin-film interference device having a fully-dielectric or metal-dielectric structure can be obtained serial (layer) physical deposition from the gas phase (physical vapor deposition, short PVD) of various materials constituting the thin-film device on a suitable carrier substrate, such as described in patent publications US 4705356; US 4838648; US 4930866; US 5084351; US 5214530; US 5278590; EP 0227423 In EP 366380 B1, and related documents.

The carrier preferably is a flexible leaf, for example, a foil of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)coated with a separating layer. Deposition from the gas phase can be performed by way of roll-to-roll through the machine for coating in a high vacuum. Materials subjected to evaporation, using specific material suitable evaporation sources and methods known to experts in the art, for example, sputtering, reactive sputtering, magnetron sputtering, thermal evaporation, and evaporation under the action of electron beam or laser beam.

Other methods of deposition of the layers is anaplerotic devices include chemical deposition from the gas phase (the English designation: chemical vapour deposition, abbreviation: CVD) and coating the wet method, in particular, coating the Sol-gel method. While physical deposition from the gas phase (PVD)precipitable material simply evaporates from the source and condenses on the substrate, the chemical deposition from the gas phase (CVD) involves the chemical reaction of one or more compounds of the predecessors for (usually heated or activated in another way) the surface of the substrate. The boundary case of reactive sputtering, in which the material-precursor (e.g., Ti) is sprayed from a source, and it reacts with the existing gas phase (e.g., O2under reduced pressure, deposited on a substrate in the form of a reaction product (e.g., Tio2), then considered a physical deposition from the gas phase, since it occurs in conditions similar to the conditions of the PVD method, and leads to the deposition, similar to the deposition of PVD.

Cholesteric liquid crystal film described in patent publications WO 9409086 A1, EP 0601483 A1, US 5502206, EP 0661287 B1, EP 0686674 B1, US 5683622, EP 0709445 B1, EP 0712013 A2, WO 9729399 A1, EP 0875525 A1, EP 0885945 A1, and related documents, known to specialists in this field of technology. Such a foil is obtained by applying the foil-media coverage of a mixture of the polymerized precursor cholesteric is Idaho crystal, with the subsequent orientation of the liquid crystal in a cholesteric phase, and at a suitable temperature, and it is fixed by polymerization, for example, by curing under the action of UV radiation. The respective cholesteric liquid crystal polymer (HICP) pigments derived from such foil grinding to particles of the desired size. The coating composition containing such pigments are described in patent publications US 5807497, EP 0758362 A1, WO 9532247 A1, EP 0887398 A1, and related documents, known to specialists in this field of technology.

The refractive index of the cholesteric liquid-crystal polymer can be modified by appropriate choice of its chemical properties. It is known that in suitable conditions, cholesteric phase forms a large number stitched monomers and oligomers, and these phases can be "frozen" in a particular state by using the reactions of cross-linking occurring during the initiation of radiation or other agent. The monomers and oligomers, containing no aromatic residue such as benzene, naphthalene and other paired cycles, form a cholesteric liquid crystal polymers 'low refractive index. Examples of liquid-crystalline polymers of this type are liquid crystal polymers, in which scientists from cholesterol. On the other hand, the monomers and oligomers containing aromatic residues such as benzene, naphthalene and other paired cycles, form a cholesteric liquid-crystal polymers with high refractive index. Examples of liquid-crystalline polymers of this type are polymers described in patent publications EP 0685749 IN EP 0760836 Century

In one particular example implementation using the foil carrier with a pre-applied in relief and a separating layer, for example made of PET. Application of convex relief is carried out by means of the heated strip for stamping, well-known specialist in the field of machinery manufacture of surface holograms. Convex relief deposited on a foil carrier, then played optiquement multilayer interference device, which is applied by deposition from the gas phase on the foil carrier, or a liquid-crystal film applied to such a foil carrier.

Foil carrier with a coating of optimering interference device can also be converted, in accordance with known procedures, in foil for image transfer hot or cold embossing to protect documents from being copied.

However, most preferably, the film optimering of interferents is as a device separate from the foil carrier and crushed with the formation of the pigment, getting the pigment particles, the thickness is from 200 nm to 3000 nm, preferably from 400 nm to 5000 nm, and the diameter of the particles is from 5 to 50 micrometers. Such grinding is conveniently carried out in a jet mill, and then the particles are preferably separated into fractions suitable size.

Received opticprimary pigment is preferably introduced into the composition of the printing ink, which, along with at least one organic polymer or a polymer precursor that is used as the binder may include, if possible, in amounts comprising from 1% to 25 wt. -%, the pigments of other types, in particular, particles with a coating and/or iridescent pigments traditionally used dyes, inorganic and organic pigments for printing, for example, described in the publication of O. Luckert, Pigment+Fullstoff Tabellen, fifth edition, Laatzen, 1994), as well as fillers, additives that improve the rheology, solvents, photosensitizers and driers (dryers). In the printing ink may also be present other protective materials, for example, magnetic pigments, fluorescent pigments or dyes, pigments or dyes that absorb infrared radiation, etc.

The ink composition preferably is prepared for application by screen printing method, for example, its viscosity at 40°Nahoditsya in the range from 0.5 to 2 PA·s; however, other preferred options include printing ink for gravure printing with copper printing plates, a viscosity at 40°C. is in the range from 2 to 20 PA·s, and printing inks for flexographic gravure printing, the viscosity at 40°C. is in the range from 0.1 to 0.5 PA·S. the Making of such printing inks are known to specialists in this field of technology.

Received optimeerimine printing ink can be used for printing marks on the protected product, for example, document protection, and such marks are made in the form of a pair optimering devices so that they can be considered (i.e. visible to the user) together. Thus obtained opticprimary protective element is easily discernible by the human eye, for example, a comparison of both optimeerimine devices forming a pair opticprimary element, and verification under a certain angle of incidence at which they have the same spectral characteristics of reflectance or transmittance. This comparison really does not depend on the lighting conditions and allows using a simple visual examination to determine the authenticity of a document, which caused the pair opticprimary protective element according to the present invention.

In another embodiment of the present invention applied magnetic opticprimary pigment (for example, described in patent publications US 4838648 or EP 366380 B1), and the particles of the magnetic pigment in the printing ink is additionally oriented (for example, in accordance with the description of the EP 641624 B1), during or after completion of printing, by a corresponding magnetic field, and the provisions of the oriented particles are then fixed by curing the ink. Preferably, in this case, use of printer's ink curable under the action of UV radiation; such dyes can be obtained by methods known to experts in this field of technology.

EXAMPLE

The first and second optimeerimine interference devices were obtained consequent physical deposition from the gas phase different layers, each of which represented a symmetric half-wave interference construction type metal-dielectric, foil carrier from PET with the separation layer.

Chromium (CR), magnesium fluoride (MgF2; n=1,35), yttrium oxide (Y2O3n=1,89) and aluminum (Al) were deposited by a method known to experts in the art and described in the cited literature, using the evaporation source under the action of the electron beam in a high vacuum.

The first device

The symmetrical design of the absorber / dielectric / reflector / dielectric / popot the tel consisted of the following sequence of layers:

1. The layer of absorber: SG, 3,5 nm

2. The dielectric layer: MgF2, 490 nanometers (n=1,35)

3. Layer reflector: Al, 40 nanometers

4. The dielectric layer: MgF2, 490 nanometers (n=1,35)

5. The layer of absorber: SG, 3,5 nm

The design with the maximum reflectance of the second order (k=2) at 660 nm at normal incidence of light, gives maximum reflection of the second order at 445 nm at grazing incidence of light. Color shift for the first interference devices - from green (perpendicular to the fall) to Magenta (sliding drop).

A second device

The symmetrical design of the absorber / dielectric / reflector / dielectric/absorber consisted of the following sequence of layers:

1. The layer of absorber: SG, 3,5 nm

2. The dielectric layer: V2About3, 315 nanometers (n=1,89)

3. Layer reflector: Al, 40 nanometers

4. The dielectric layer: V2About3, 315 nanometers (n=1,89)

5. The layer of absorber: SG, 3,5 nm

The design with the maximum reflectance of the second order (k=2) at 660 nm at normal incidence of light, gives maximum reflection of the second order at 510 nm at grazing incidence of light. Color shift for the second interference device from purple (perpendicular to the fall) to green (running fall).

The physical principle of operation of the PA is nogo optimering protective element according to the present invention is discussed below with reference to the accompanying Figure 2 and Figure 3.

At perpendicular incidence of light (Figa, right), the interference packet type metal-insulator Cr/MgF2/Al first device has a reflection spectrum shown in Figa containing the maximum reflection of the third order in the blue-green region at 500 nm. The maximum reflection (k) of the second order is in the red range at 660 nm (first wavelength, λ1). When the inclination of the first devices to receive incidence of light (Figs, right), the spectrum at Fig.2d, the maximum reflectance of the second order is moved to the blue area at 445 nm (second wavelength, λ2).

At perpendicular incidence of light (Figa, left), the interference packet type metal-insulator SG/V2About3/Al of the second device has a reflection spectrum shown in Fig.2b containing the maximum reflection of the third order in the orange area at 600 nm, the third wavelength, λ3). When the inclination of the second device to obtain the incidence of light (Figs, left), spectrum on Pigs, the maximum reflectance of the second order is moved to the blue-green region at 510 nm (fourth wavelength, λ4).

Thus, the range of overlapping waves of the third and fourth length of the second device is within range, overlapping waves of the first and second lengths of the first device. As a consequence, have the ol of incidence or angle of view, in which path the colors of the first and second devices must intersect; the point of intersection of the spectra, and thus, the colors of the two devices are the same and not dependent on lighting conditions.

In the proposed example, the intersection point is at an angle of view or the light incidence 9 of 40°, where both optical interference path through the dielectric layer of the first and second interference devices are equal. The maximum reflectance of the second order is at 545 nm, and both devices have the same grass-green interference color (Fig.3b).

Thus obtained interference device can be turned into a foil for stamping together to form a bundle that includes first and second optimeerimine interference devices forming a pair opticprimary protective element according to the present invention.

Alternatively, the received interference device can be removed from the foil carrier, crushed with the formation of the pigment particles and converted into a printing ink by methods known to experts in the art and described in the existing literature, and together to form a bundle that includes the first and second optimeerimine composition of coatings to obtain porn the th optimering protective element according to the present invention.

Some examples of the compositions of the inks can be obtained in the following way:

Printing ink for gravure printing with copper printed forms:

Product fitting Tung oil and maleic acid-modified phenolic resin, high-boiling mineral oil PKWF 28/31)35%
Fatty alkyd resin7,50%
Alkylphenol resin, modified raw Tung oil in the solvent for printing inks 27/2916%
Polyethylene wax3,30%
Aerosil 200 (Degussa-Huels)2,00%
Opticprimary pigment according to the invention30%
The solvent 27/29 for ink (Shell Industrial Chemicals)6%
Octoate cobalt (11% metal)0,10%
Octoate manganese (10% metal)0,10%

Printing ink for silk-screen printing (drying under the action of UV irradiation is Oia):

Epoxyacrylate oligomer40%
Trimethylolpropane-triacrylate monomer10%
Tripropyleneglycol-diacrylate monomer10%
Genorad 16(Rahn)1%
Aerosil 200 (Degussa-Huels)1%
Irgacure 500 (CIBA)6%
Genocure EPD (Rahn)2%
Opticprimary pigment according to the invention20%
Dowanol PMA10%

Printing ink for flexographic printing (drying under UV irradiation):

The urethane-acrylate oligomer40%
Propoxycarbonyl glycerin-triacrylate monomer10%
Tripropyleneglycol-diacrylate monomer15%
Florstab UV-1 (Kromachem)1%
Opticprimary pigment according to the invention25%
Aerosil 200 (Degussa-Huels)1%
Irgacure 500 (CIBA)6%
Genocure EPD (Rahn)2%

Pair opticprimary protective element according to the present invention can be printed by using the appropriate set of such printing ink in the form of characters on the document is protected, for example, a banknote, a valuable paper, ID card, badge, label or excise stamp (the stamp on excise duty), or on a commercial product.

On the basis of their technical knowledge, the content of the cited documents of the prior art and offer descriptions, specialist in the art can generate additional embodiments of the present invention. It should be noted that the present invention is not limited examples of the absorptive, reflective and dielectric materials or examples of interference structures, but may be implemented using other materials and interference structures, in compliance with the above principles.

1. Pair precopulatory protective element, including:
first optimeerimine interference device comprising a first dielectric with a lower refractive index (nlow), for which the maximum reflection of k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having a first wavelength (λ1), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a second, shorter wavelength (λ2), and the second optimeerimine interference device comprising a second dielectric with a higher refractive index (nhigh), for which the same maximum reflection of k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having the third wavelength (λ3), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a fourth, shorter wavelength (λ4),
moreover, the first and second optimeerimine interference devices are arranged in such a way that they can be considered together,
characterized in that range, overlapping waves of the third and fourth length of the second device is within range, overlapping waves of the first and second lengths of the first device, thereby determining a specific angle of incidence at which the maxima of the reflection k-th order (k) of the first and second interference device is ist coincide;
and the first and second optimeerimine interference devices have the same interference structures in such a way that they show the true agreement on the spectrum when the light falling below a certain angle, whereas at all other angles have different spectra.

2. The protective element according to claim 1, in which the first and second optimeerimine interference device obtained from the interference structure selected from the group consisting of fully dielectric multilayer packs, multi-packs-type metal-dielectric cholesteric liquid crystal film and any combination thereof.

3. The protective element according to claim 1, in which the first and second optimeerimine interference device selected from the group consisting of optimeerimine foil, foil containing opticprimary pigment, optimeerimine pigments in the compositions of the coatings, and combinations of layers optimeerimine foil and optimeerimine pigments.

4. The protective element under item 1, in which the interference device is interference devices such as metal-insulator obtained from optimeerimine foil, comprising the following sequence of layers: "absorber/dielectric/reflector".

5. The protective element under item 1, in which interfer Lonnie device is interference devices such as metal-insulator, obtained from optimeerimine pigments, comprising the following sequence of layers: "absorber/dielectric/reflector/dielectric/absorber, where the reflector layer may include additional internal layers.

6. The protective element under item 1, in which the first and second optimeerimine interference device located on a substrate selected from the group consisting of transparent substrates, transparent substrate and an opaque substrate.

7. The protective element under item 1, in which the protective element is made in a form selected from the group consisting of optimeerimine printed signs, printed ink on a substrate, layers optimeerimine foil attached to the substrate, protective threads introduced in the substrate, and a transparent window substrate.

8. A method of obtaining a pair optimering protective element, comprising the following steps:
a) applying on a substrate (S) of the first optimering interference device comprising a first dielectric with a lower refractive index (nlow), for which the maximum reflection of k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having a first wavelength (λ1), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a second, shorter wavelength (λ2); b) drawing on the same substrate (S) of the second optimering interference device comprising a second dielectric with a higher refractive index (nhigh), for which the same maximum reflection of k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having the third wavelength (λ3), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a fourth, shorter wavelength (λ4);
moreover, the first and second optimeerimine interference devices are arranged in such a way that they can be considered together;
wherein the first and second optimeerimine interference device is selected so that the range covered with the waves of the third and fourth length of the second optimering interference device is within range, overlapping waves of the first and second lengths of the first optimering interference device for determining the angle of incidence at which the maxima of the reflection k-th order (k) of the first and second interference devices are the same;
and the first and second optimeerimine interference devices have the same interference design so that they are the true agreement on the spectrum at the specified specific angles pad is tion, while all the other angles have different spectra.

9. The method according to claim 8, in which the first and second optimeerimine interference device obtained from the interference structure selected from the group consisting of fully dielectric multilayer packs, multi-packs-type metal-dielectric cholesteric liquid crystal films and their combinations.

10. The method according to p. 8, in which the first and second optimeerimine interference device selected from the group consisting of optimeerimine foil, foil containing opticprimary pigment, optimeerimine pigments in the compositions of the coatings, and combinations of layers optimeerimine foil and optimeerimine pigments.

11. The method according to p. 8, in which the interference device is interference devices such as metal-insulator obtained from optimeerimine foil, comprising the following sequence of layers: "absorber/dielectric/reflector".

12. The method according to p. 8, in which the interference device is interference devices such as metal-insulator obtained from optimeerimine pigments, comprising the following sequence of layers: "absorber/dielectric/reflector/dielectric/absorber, where the reflector layer may include complement the performance communications internal layers.

13. The application of the protective element according to any one of p. 1-7 for protection against forgery of a document, such as banknotes, securities, identity cards, badges, labels or tax stamps, or for marking of goods.

14. The document is protected, for example a banknote, a valuable paper, ID card, badge, label or stamps, or bulleted item, characterized in that the document is protected or bulleted item includes a protective element according to any one of p. 1-7.

15. The kit includes first and second optimeerimine interference devices forming a pair opticprimary protective element according to any one of p. 1-7, where the kit includes:
first optimeerimine interference device comprising a first dielectric with a lower refractive index (nlow), for which the maximum reflection of k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having a first wavelength (λ1), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a second, shorter wavelength (λ2); and
second optimeerimine interference device comprising a second dielectric with a higher refractive index (nhigh), for which the same maximum reflection of k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light, Meuse what about the third wavelength (λ 3), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a fourth, shorter wavelength (λ4),
characterized in that range, overlapping waves of the third and fourth length of the second device is within range, overlapping waves of the first and second lengths of the first device, thereby determining a specific angle of incidence at which the maxima of the reflection k-th order (k) of the first and second interference devices are the same;
and the first and second optimeerimine interference devices have the same interference structures in such a way that they show the true agreement on the spectrum when the light falling below a certain angle, whereas at all other angles have different spectra.

16. The kit of clause 15, in which the first and second optimeerimine interference device selected from the group consisting of optimeerimine foil, optimeerimine thread and optimeerimine Windows.

17. The kit includes first and second optimeerimine coating composition to obtain a pair optimering protective element according to any one of p. 1-7, where the kit includes:
the first coating composition containing the first opticprimary interference pigment comprising a first dielectric with bol is e low refractive index (n low), for which the maximum reflection of k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having a first wavelength (λ1), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a second, shorter wavelength (λ2); and
a second coating composition that contains a second opticprimary interference pigment comprising a second dielectric with a higher refractive index (nhigh), for which the same maximum reflection of k-th order (k)obtained at normal incidence of light having the third wavelength (λ3), under grazing incidence of the light is shifted to the maximum reflection of light having a fourth, shorter wavelength (λ4);
characterized in that range, overlapping waves of the third and fourth length of the second pigment is within range, overlapping waves of the first and second lengths of the first pigment, thereby defining a certain angle of incidence at which the maxima of the reflection k-th order (k) of the first and second interference pigments are the same; and
the first and second optimeerimine interference pigments have the same interference structures in such a way that they show the true agreement on the spectrum when light is incident under certain specified at the scrap, while all the other angles have different spectra.

18. Kit 17 in which the first and second optimeerimine composition coatings represent the first and second optimeerimine ink.

19. Kit 17 in which the first and second optimeerimine printing ink selected from the group consisting of a printing ink for screen printing, printing inks for gravure printing with copper printing plates, flexographic printing inks and printing ink for gravure printing.



 

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