Method for manufacturing of high-speed electric machine rotor

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: plates are cut of sheets made of non-magnetic material of austenite-martensite grade, which is able to change in process of cold deformation from non-magnet phase to magnet phase, and when further heated - back to non-magnet phase. Such material may be alloy on the basis of austenite-martensite corrosion-resistant steel. At first stock non-magnet sheets are exposed to at least 65% cold pressing, shaping material change over to magnetic phase with magnetic permeability µ>100 Gs/E. Afterwards, with the help of heating by laser radiation up to 1000 - 1200°C, reverse conversion of material phase is carried out in local sections, corresponding to location of non-magnet zones of rotor plates with magnetic permeability µ=1 Gs/E. Previously prior to heating, absorbing coating is applied onto sections of surfaces that correspond to arrangement of non-magnet zones, and the coating increases thermal effect at least 2.5 times. For reliable preservation of material magnet phase resistance it is optimal that its temperature is at least 500°C below temperature of converted local sections heating. After heating and further natural cooling on air, coating is removed, rotor plates are cut as per program and are fixed to each other in axial direction into packet, which is installed on rotor shaft. Heating with laser radiation is carried out by means of sheet surface scanning by focused or non-focused laser beam. Gradient material has high mechanical characteristics (yield point on both phases is at least 80 kG/mm2) while magnetic permeability of magnetic material is at least 100 Gs/E, and non-magnetic - 1 Gs/E.

EFFECT: increased permissible peripheral speed of rotor rotation and increased utilisation ratio of electric machine.

5 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, in particular to electrical engineering and can be used for designing high-speed electrical machines.

A known method of manufacturing a rotor for high-speed electrical machine containing alternating-pole magnetic system consisting of a magnetic core on which set of magnetized in the radial direction of the permanent magnets of alternating polarity. Between the permanent magnets are installed on their external surface of the pole pieces are non-magnetic gaps (1). The disadvantage of this method of manufacture is the complexity sold them the design due to the necessity to install the retaining elements and the use of external bandage.

The relative simplification of the device (1) is achieved by performing the magnetic system in the form of permanent magnets installed in the Windows package from evenly alternating ferromagnetic and paramagnetic plates. Depending on the choice of the design of the permanent magnets can be magnetized in the radial (2) radial or tangential (3) direction.

Closest to the invention is a method of manufacturing the high-speed rotor of the electric machine (3), containing mounted on the shaft alternating-pole magnetic systems is, consisting of permanent magnets mounted on the yoke with the formation of the pole and the interpolar regions. Permanent magnets installed in the Windows, made in the package of drawn to each other in the axial direction uniformly alternating magnetic and non-magnetic annular plates. The necessity of using two types of plates made of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic materials, leads to a decrease in mechanical strength of the structure and, consequently, limit the allowable peripheral speed of rotation of the rotor. In addition, the known device has a low rate of use of electric cars.

The technical result, which can be achieved by the use of the invention is to increase the mechanical strength of the structure, increasing the permissible peripheral speed of rotation of the rotor and increase the utilization of the electric machine.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the method of manufacturing the high-speed rotor of the electric machine, whereby the shaft strengthen alternating-pole magnetic system consisting of magnetized in the tangential or radial direction of the permanent magnets that are installed with the formation of polar zones alternating around the circumference of the rotor polarity and the interpolar zones, and the permanent magnet is placed in the Windows, made in a batch of identical annular plates, each of which in accordance with the location of the pole, the interpolar zones form the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic zone, an annular plate made of a sheet made of a paramagnetic material austenitic-martensitic class that is capable of transition during cold deformation from the paramagnetic state to the ferromagnetic and subsequent heating - back to paramagnetic, while the sheets are first subjected to cold deformation by compression of not less than 65%, allowing the transition material in the ferromagnetic state with magnetic permeability µ≥100 g/e and the saturation magnetization Hs≥13000 Gauss, after then by heating to a temperature of 1000-1200°C implement the inverse transformation of the material condition of local areas corresponding to the location of the paramagnetic zone plates with magnetic permeability µ=1 GS/e, while before heating to the areas of the surfaces corresponding to the placement of paramagnetic zones, are absorbing coating that provides increased thermal impact on them not less than 2.5 times, followed by heating with subsequent natural cooling. When the magnetization of permanent magnets in the tangential direction in each of the plates from the paramagnetic zones issue is lnewt in the form of covering the shaft ring, and the rest at the location of the interpolar zones located on the outer diameter of Windows.

When the magnetization of permanent magnets in the radial direction in each of the plates paramagnetic zone formed in places corresponding to the interpolar regions, located between the end surfaces of adjacent Windows and reaching between the outer diameter of annular plates of their geometrical continuations.

Heating can be done by scanning the surface of a cold deformed sheet defocused laser beam, the spot diameter D (cm) and the scanning speed V(cm/s) associated with the thickness d (cm) of a processed sheet the following relationship:

V<DK/10d2where

K (cm2/s) is the coefficient of thermal diffusivity cold deformed sheet.

Heating can also be accomplished by scanning the surface of a cold deformed sheet is focused to a spot diameter D (cm) of the laser beam, the value of which is linked to the thickness d (cm) of the sheet, the velocity V (cm/s) scan and step S (cm) scan, ratio: S=(D/d)(KD/V)1/2.

Sources of information known about the possibility of the formation of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic regions in solid massive structural elements of rotors of electrical machines using temperature effects on the local shall castke (Handbook "Permanent magnets" Ed. Ummatin, M., Energy 1980). However, in the known technical solution described process only and irreversible transformation of one state to another by heating, while in the invention trick used double conversion state (paramagnetic-ferromagnetic-paramagnetic). It is through this acceptance (through the use of relevant impacts) managed to form zones with the desired magnetic permeability µ≥100 g/e and µ=1 GS/e). Thus, the known information is not obvious evidence of obtaining characteristics of the rotor, matching the values of its mechanical strength and magnetic properties, which allows to make a conclusion about the adequacy of this invention, the criterion of "inventive step".

Figure 1 and Figure 2 shows a cross-section of the rotor in its execution with permanent magnets magnetized in the tangential direction and radial, respectively.

A device that implements the method (figure 1, figure 2) includes a shaft 1 with a fortified it alternating-pole magnetic system consisting of magnetized in the tangential or radial direction of the permanent magnet 2 mounted on the yoke 3 with the formation of polar zones 4 alternating around the circumference of the rotor polarity and the interpolar zones 5. Permanent mA the magnets 2 are placed in the Windows, made in a batch of identical annular plates, each of which in accordance with the location of the pole, the interpolar zones and the yoke 3 is formed of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic zone.

When the magnetization of permanent magnets in the tangential direction (Figure 1) in each of the plates from the paramagnetic zones are in the form covering the shaft of the ring 6, and the other at the location of the interpolar zone 5 located on the outer diameter of Windows. Ferromagnetic zones function as pole zones 4, which are located between the side surfaces facing each other of the same poles of adjacent permanent magnets in the standard constructions of the rotor (3).

When the magnetization of permanent magnets in the radial direction (Figure 2) in each of the plates paramagnetic zone formed in places corresponding to the interpolar zones 5, located between the end surfaces of adjacent Windows and reaching between the outer diameter of annular plates of their geometrical sequels. Ferromagnetic zone package annular plates perform the functions of the yoke 3 and pole pieces, and paramagnetic zone nonmagnetic gaps in standard designs of rotors (2).

An annular plate made of a sheet made of a paramagnetic material austenitic-martensitic class, about latausha switching during cold deformation (compression) of the paramagnetic state to the ferromagnetic, and subsequent heating - back to paramagnetic. This material can be, for example, based alloy austenitic-martensitic steel containing (%) 16,5-17,5; Cr; 7,0-7,5 Ni; 0.1 to 0.15; 1,0-2,0 Mn; the rest is iron.

Alloy sheet in the paramagnetic state is first subjected to cold deformation by compression of not less than 65%, allowing the transition material in the ferromagnetic state with magnetic permeability µ≥100 g/e and the saturation magnetization Hs≥13000 Gauss. After that, by heating with a laser beam to a temperature of 1000-1200°C implement the inverse transformation of the material condition of local areas corresponding to the location of the paramagnetic zone plates with magnetic permeability µ=1 GS/E. On parts of the surfaces corresponding to the placement of paramagnetic zones, are absorbing coating that provides increased thermal impact on them not less than 2.5 times. The increased heating of these areas is necessary to ensure a reverse phase material. For sure save the durability of the magnetic phase material optimally, so that its temperature would be at least 500°C below the temperature of the converted local areas that are exposed to temperatures of 1000-1200°C. After heating and subsequent cooling, the coating is removed, then according to the plan you who taut the contours of the plates and Windows. The finished plates are fastened to each other in the axial direction in the package, which is installed on the shaft 1.

Heating can be done by scanning the surface of a cold deformed sheet defocused laser beam. The spot diameter D (cm) of the laser beam and the scanning speed V (cm/s) associated with the thickness d (cm) of a processed sheet the following relationship: V<DK/10d2where

K (cm2/C) is the coefficient of thermal diffusivity cold deformed sheet.

Heating can also be carried out by scanning the surface of a cold deformed sheet is focused to a spot diameter D (cm) of the laser beam, the value of which is linked to the thickness d (cm) of the sheet, the velocity V (cm/s) scan and step S (cm) scan by the relation: S=(D/d)(KD/V)1/2.

For example, when the diameter of the laser beam D=0,03-0,04 cm and power of laser radiation is 1000 W and the scanning speed V is chosen of the order of 10000 cm/s To ensure the full depth of heating, for example, 1 mm thickness of the sheet scanning pitch select 10 microns.

The ratio between the thickness of the sheet, the speed of the scan and step scan helps to equalize the amount of heating of the material throughout the thickness of the sheet (the surface exposed to radiation to the back side of the sheet) and provide the necessary field gradients fact is erator to create its non-magnetic phase and the conservation of the magnetic phase.

For heating can be used serial lasers like Nd; YAG. When heated, the defocused beam with a low scan rate zone boundaries are more blurred than using a focused beam that in some cases the most appropriate.

As a result of the research showed that the obtained gradient material has high mechanical properties (yield strength on both phases is not less than 80 kg/mm2) when the magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic material is not less than 100 g/e, and paramagnetic - 1 GS/E. Such mechanical and magnetic parameters provide the possibility of increasing the allowable peripheral speed of rotation of the rotor and increase the utilization of the electric machine.

A method of manufacturing a rotor, alternating-pole magnetic system which contains permanent magnets, placed in the Windows package from the same monolithic annular plates, which formed (defined according to the design of the rotor) magnetic and nonmagnetic zones, allows to considerably simplify the design of the rotor to increase to 30-40% of its mechanical strength and to provide the possibility of increasing the allowable peripheral speed of rotation of the rotor.

The invention can be used to create high-speed electrical machines is wide destination for example, aircraft generators.

Sources of information taken into account in drafting:

1. SU 1534640 A2, H02K 1/28, 1988

2. EN 2212748 C2, H02K 1/28, 2001

3. 66603, H02K 1/28, 2007

4. EN 2223585 C1, H02K 1/28, 2002

1. The manufacturing method of high-speed rotor of the electric machine, whereby the shaft strengthen alternating-pole magnetic system consisting of magnetized in the tangential or radial direction of the permanent magnets that are installed with the formation of polar zones alternating around the circumference of the rotor polarity and the interpolar areas, and permanent magnets are placed in the Windows, made in a batch of identical annular plates, each of which in accordance with the location of the pole, the interpolar zones form the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic zone, and an annular plate made of a sheet made of a paramagnetic material austenitic-martensitic class that is capable of transition during cold deformation of the paramagnetic state in ferromagnetic and subsequent heating - back to paramagnetic, while the sheets are first subjected to cold deformation by compression of not less than 65%, allowing the transition material in the ferromagnetic state with magnetic permeability µ>100 g/e and the saturation magnetization Hs>13000 Gauss, and then heat the and to a temperature of 1000-1200°C. implement a reverse transformation of the material condition of local areas, the corresponding location of the paramagnetic zone plates with magnetic permeability µ=1 GS/e, while before heating to the areas of the surfaces corresponding to the placement of paramagnetic zones, are absorbing coating that provides increased thermal impact on them not less than 2.5 times, followed by heating with subsequent natural cooling.

2. A method of manufacturing a rotor for high-speed electric machine according to claim 1, characterized in that when the magnetization of permanent magnets in the tangential direction in each of the plates from the paramagnetic zones are in the form covering the shaft ring and the rest at the location of the interpolar zones located on the outer diameter of Windows.

3. A method of manufacturing a rotor for high-speed electric machine according to claim 1, characterized in that when the magnetization of permanent magnets in the radial direction in each of the plates paramagnetic zone formed in places corresponding to the interpolar regions, located between the end surfaces of adjacent Windows and reaching between the outer diameter of annular plates of their geometrical continuations.

4. A method of manufacturing a rotor for high-speed electric machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the heating is carried out by scanning the Ergneti of cold sheet defocused laser beam, the spot diameter D (cm) and the scanning speed V (cm/s) associated with the thickness d (cm) of a processed sheet by the following ratio:
V<DK/10d2,
where K is the coefficient of thermal diffusivity of cold sheet, cm2/s

5. A method of manufacturing a rotor for high-speed electric machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the heating is carried out by scanning the surface of cold sheet focused to a spot diameter D (cm) of the laser beam, the value of which is linked to the thickness d (cm) of the sheet, the velocity V (cm/s) scan and step S (cm) scan ratio S=(D/d)(KD/V)1/2.



 

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