Method of purification of solutions containing disperse and colloid particles

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical technology of purification of disperse media and colloid solutions. The method of purification of solutions is claimed. It contains disperse and colloid particles, using superhighmolecular element-organic floculant or inter-polymer complexes based on it, general formula where m=1-9; Radicals: R1=(CH2)nPol, where n=2-4; R2 and R3 are selected from H; CH3; C2H5; C3H5; C3H7; C4H9; R4 and R5 are selected from CH3; C2H5; C3H5; C3H7; C4H9; C6H5; OH; OM; M=Na; K; Cs; R6=(CH2)k, O; where k=1-4; R7=R4; [NR1R2R3]O; Pol=Organic polymer, for instance, polyacrilate. Invention can be used for purification of liquid vegetable, mineral and synthetic oils, purification of sugar-containing solutions, preparation and purification of sewage waters, as well as in all industries, where it is necessary to purify solutions from disperse and colloid components.

EFFECT: simplification and increase of effectiveness of the process of purification of disperse media and colloid solutions with reduction of power expenditure.

3 cl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to chemical treatment technology of dispersed media and colloidal solutions and can be used for purification of liquid mineral, vegetable and synthetic oils, purification of sugar-containing solutions, the preparation and wastewater treatment, as well as in all industries that require cleaning solution dispersed and colloidal components.

A known method of purification of waste lubricating oil by heating, distillation, water and light fractions recovered from the oil by treatment of the latter with a solvent, followed by vacuum distillation of the separated oil, characterized in that the solvent is used polymethylsiloxane at a volume ratio of solvent and oil 2-10:1, and the processing is carried out at 15-50°C, a pressure of 1.0 to 1.5 kgf/cm2, vacuum distillation is carried out in thin-film evaporator at 240-350°and a pressure of 2-20 mm Hg (EN 2061741 C1, 10/06/1996).

The disadvantage of this method is its limited applicability only for used lubricating oils, high cost due to costs associated with the need to use high temperatures, pressure, vacuum and expensive polymethylsiloxane used as solvent. This method uses the principle of the different solubility of oils and impurities included in its composition, however, is that in this way the waste oil from all impurities impossible to clean. This explains the need for vacuum distillation of the desired product. In addition, the application of this method is possible only for low molecular weight polymethylsiloxanes, which can be distilled in a vacuum.

A known method of purification of acidic solutions from silicon, including handling when mixing the silicon-containing substance and subsequent separation of the formed product from the solution, characterized in that as the silicon-containing substance use silicone flocculant selected from compounds of the class of organosilicone alkali metal or metallaorganosiloxanolates alkali metals and mixtures thereof. The volume ratio - processed solution: flocculant 1:0,0001-0,015. The method differs in that in the compounds of class organosilicone or metallaorganosiloxanolates organic radicals are methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, vinyl or phenyl; metal selected from the range: aluminum, zinc or magnesium, and the alkali metals are sodium or potassium. (EN 2077506 C1, 20/04/1997).

The disadvantage of this method is its limited applicability, only for the purification of acidic aqueous solutions from silicon by the method of causing the polymerization of silicic acid.

The closest analogue of the proposed method is the method of purification and separation of dispersed media and colloidal solutions, Inc is committed to handling them when mixing the silicon-containing substance and subsequent separation of the formed product from the solution, characterized in that as the silicon-containing substance use silicone flocculant General formula

where the indices R=(1-8); k, l=(0-1); m=(0,05-0,5); n=(0,0-0,8); the sum k+l+m+n=1.

The radicals R1, R2, R3=CH3;2H5;6H5;3H7;4H9O-[SiO2]qOJ, where q=1-9;

R4, R5=CH3;2H5;6H5;3H7;4H9;3H4F3;3H5;3H4Cl3;3H8N;

R6, R7, R8=H; CH3;2H5;3H7;3H5;

J=Li; Na; K; Cs.

The active group and M=J; R6;

the complexing agents: G=Cl; Br; I (EN 2246447 C1, 20.02.2005).

The disadvantage of this method is the high cost of the product related to the fact that even for the same process in response to changing external factors, such as quality of raw materials, it is necessary to re-do the calculation of the number of links (k, l, m, n) and the hydrocarbon radical. This, in turn, leads to the synthesis of a wide range of flocculants for each process that severely limits the applicability of this method in almost all areas of the cleaning solution is in dispersed and colloidal particles.

The technical result of the invention is to simplify and improve the efficiency of the cleaning process solutions from a variety of dispersed and colloidal particles, accessibility and ease of use in various technological processes, reduce energy costs due to low temperature and treatment time.

This technical result is achieved by a method of cleaning solutions containing dispersed and colloidal particles, involves the application of ultra-high molecular weight organic flocculant containing framed main chain functional group, which provides its solubility in different media, education lasting relationships not only with the surface of the dispersed phase, but also with other macromolecules, the General formula

where m=1-9;

radicals: R1=(CH2)nPol, where n=2-4;

R2and R3selected from H; CH3;2H5;3H5;3H7;4H9;

R4and R5selected from CH3;2H5;3H5;3H7;4H9;6H5; IT; OM;

M=Na; K; Cs;

R6=(CH2)kO; k=1-4;

R7=R4; [NR1R2R3]O;

Pol = organic polymer from a number of polyvinylene, the floor is of allylamine, poly-N-vinylamides, polydimethyldiallylammonium halides, polyacrylates, polymethylacrylates, as well as copolymers and copolymers of the monomers corresponding to the above-mentioned polymers.

Ultra-high molecular weight organic flocculant (SWAP)containing as one of the radicals connection of a complex nature, Quaternary ammonium salt, provides a synergy of intermolecular interactions and dispersion of colloidal particles, reducing the magnitude of the potential gradient of the electric charges, provides for the destruction of the structural-mechanical barriers and adhesion to the surface of the particles, while maintaining links with other high molecular weight molecules.

When using SWAP for the purification of vegetable oils obtained by pressing, removal of colloidal particles meal and hydroceramic phosphatides occurs in a wide temperature range (from 0 to 90°). Therefore, the cleaning process can be conducted without heating, with R4=R5=C3H5;3H7;4H9;6H5, R4=OM, m=1-4, which provides high compatibility SWAP with vegetable oils, promotes deep conversion of carboxylic acids in the excretion of salt and dissolved in the oil phosphatides from the zone of interaction in the form of insoluble in oil sludge. Skin is SWAP provides complete cleaning of oils, good filterability, obtaining oil with an acid number of up to 0.6 mg KOH per gram of oil, which corresponds to gidratirovannom rafinirovannom oil.

Used transmission and engine oil can be purified from fine impurities, oil sludge, metal particles and other entities in two stages. In the first stage to the mixture under stirring introduces a polybasic acid (sulfuric, sulfurous, phosphoric, etc.), after which the mixture is heated to a temperature (70-90°). In the second stage, with stirring, the mixture is neutralized with base to a pH of 6.5-7.5, then enter SWAP, with R4=R5=C3H7;4H9;6H5m=3-5, n=3. This scheme is applied SWAP allows you to remove impurities in the form of sludge, cleaning the oil up to the original optical transparency.

Sugar-containing solutions can be purified by this method in one or several stages, including the processing when mixing SWAP and the subsequent removal of the resulting precipitate in the presence of Cao or without him at the following values of R4=R5=CH3;2H5;3H5;3H7; HE, m=4-9. The value of R6depends on pH. For pH<7 R6=0, for other values of pH R6=(CH2)k. The proposed method allow you to plug the em clean with a sugar-containing fluids with a purity of less than 80%, and in the case of purification of diffusion juice in the technological process of processing sugar beet most of nasarov printed with the chips already in the process of extraction of sucrose in the diffusion apparatus. In addition, the proposed technology allows to stabilize the process and make it less sensitive to changes in the quality of raw materials and other technological parameters. Due to the high cleaning effect (45-60%), there is no need in such stages of the technological process, as sulfite, the second defecation and saturation, etc.

Example 1. To 1 kg of vegetable oil, obtained by cold pressing at a temperature of 18°add with stirring, 25 ml, 5% solution SWEP under the following index values: R1=(CH2)3Pol, R2=R3=C3H5, R4=R7=ONa, R5=C2H5, R6=O, m=2, Pol = polyacrylate. The mixture is stirred for 15 minutes, the precipitate is removed by means of filtration or centrifugation. The purified oil has an acid number of less than 0.4 mg KOH per gram of oil, which corresponds to gidratirovannom rafinirovannom oil.

Example 2. To 1 kg of spent engine oil with stirring, add 8 ml of 40% solution of orthophosphoric acid, the mixture is heated to 80°Since, then, under stirring injected 20 ml of zvetkova milk, then add 2 ml of 10% SWAP under the following index values: (CH2)3Pol, R2=C4H9, R3=C3H5, R4=CH3, R5=C6H5, R6=(CH2)2, m=1, Pol = polydimethyldiallylammonium. The mixture is stirred for 10 minutes and filtered or centrifuged, and then remove boiling fraction at a residual pressure of 2-10 mm Hg and a temperature of 70-90°C. Then heated the mixture is filtered on a suction filter. Clarified butter is a transparent viscous liquid without mechanical impurities and odors.

Example 3. Purification of sugar-containing solution obtained from raw sugar with purity 98,0% is held in the apparatus with stirrer. To 1 kg of sugar containing solution with a solids content of 56% was added with stirring to 1.5 grams of Cao and 0.05 gram SWAP under the following index values: (CH2)2Pol, R2=CH3, R3=C3H5, R4=CH3, R5=C2H5, R6=(CH2)2, R7=[NR1R2R3]O; m=9, Pol = poly-N-vinylamide. The mixture is stirred for 10 minutes, the precipitate is removed by filtration or centrifugation. The effect of bleaching was 92,5%.

1. The method of cleaning solutions containing dispersed and colloidal particles, including the processing of their lane when is mesheanii ultra-high molecular weight organic matter and subsequent separation of the resulting precipitate, characterized in that as ultra-high molecular weight organic substance use silicone substance or interpolymer complexes based on it containing in the frame of a main chain functional group, which provides its solubility in different media, as well as the formation of strong relationships not only with the surface of the dispersed phase, but also with other macromolecules, the General formula

where m=1-9;

R1=(CH2)nPol, where n=2-4;

R2and R3selected from H; CH3;2H5; C3H5;3H7;4H9;

R4and R5selected from CH3; C2H5;3H5;3H7;4H9;6H5; IT; OM;

M=Na; K; Cs;

R6=(CH2)k, O; where k=1-4;

R7=R4; [NR1R2R3]O;

Pol - organic polymer from a number of polyvinylene, polyallylamine, poly-N-vinylamides, polydimethyldiallylammonium halides, polyacrylates, polymethylacrylates, as well as copolymers and copolymers of the monomers corresponding to the above-mentioned polymers.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the purification is carried out in the presence of alkaline agents such as sodium hydroxide and ka is ice.

3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the pre-treated medium is injected oxidant, for example sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, polyphosphoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite or calcium.



 

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2 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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25 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; mining industry; coal industry; other industries; methods used for concentration of the coal or ores.

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8 cl, 1 tbl

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