Tide power system

FIELD: electric power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electric power engineering and may be used for generation of electric power at the account of ocean tides, ocean waves, wind from the shore by integration of tide energy with hydrogen technology. Barrage for energy extraction from potential energy contained in ocean tides, consists of multiple support stands installed with the same interval from each other in the ocean along the perimeter line and attached to the sea bottom. Panels are installed one above the other and fixed between pairs of neighboring support stands. Gaps between every panel and support stands are leak-tightened. Pairs of support stands from two rows of support stands for caissons. Support panels are placed between every pair of opposite support stands from the mentioned two rows so that caisson is supported by support panels, so that they form platform between two rows for caissons. In every caisson there are turbines with facilities that provide for water passing through the turbine by operator command. Electric generators are connected to at least one turbine. Barrage has no gaps or slots. As a result the ocean is separated from the area inside the barrage, excluding time, when operator provides water passing through turbine for electric power generation. Invention works at different loads and functions as power complex with electrolyzers and fuel elements for generation of electric power by request, excluding by that impulse character of traditional tide energy. Hydrogen may be produced as target product.

EFFECT: reduces cost of works.

6 cl, 17 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to generation of electric energy by ocean tides, ocean waves, wind from the shore and by integrating the energy of the tides with hydrogen technology.

The level of technology

Basic principles of electric energy production due to the energy of the tides are quite simple. Known tidal power plant envisages the building across the estuary barrages (dams). The dam acts as a dam, shut off the water at the mouth of the river from the ocean water. The dam creates the difference between the water levels in the ocean and at the mouth of the river, caused by the tides. Energy is generated due to the fact that water is passed through a set in a dam turbine generator.

The dam consists of three elements: (1) turbine and generator, installed below the lower water level, (2) culvert channels that regulate the flow of water between the ocean and the mouth of the river, and (3) passive section of the dam, the function of which is only in the Department of ocean from the mouth of the river. There are two basic modes of electricity generation: (1) a single mode of action and (2) dual mode of action. In the first stage of power generation in the regime of single steps rising in the ocean in the Yes tide fills the mouth of the river through the drain channel. When the tide reaches its maximum, begins the second stage or phase out. The paddles are installed on the way to the water outlet channels and turbines, cover and leave in this position until such time as the tidal water in the ocean reaches a level close to the minimum. The third stage - the stage of electricity generation. When the tidal water in the ocean reaches its minimum, the difference in water levels in the ocean and estuary maximum, and the result is the maximum differential pressure. Then the gates leading to the turbines with generators, open, allowing water to flow through the turbines and to put them into action. The turbine in turn actuate the generators that produce electrical energy. Thus, in the generation mode with a single action electric energy produced by the energy of water flowing from the mouth of the river into the ocean, and is not produced during the flow of water in the opposite direction. For energy in the single mode of action is needed unidirectional turbine action. Each day will receive two pulse energy. Generation of electric power in dual mode is bidirectional. One pulse of energy received at a high water level in the ocean and the water level is low in the mouth of the river, and the other pulse energy is get when the position of these levels varies in the opposite way. Thus, the power generation mode double action is bidirectional, in which electrical energy is generated by overflow of water from the ocean to the mouth of the river and Vice versa. The generation of energy in dual mode of action produces four pulse of electricity. In modes, both single and double action, when working turbines as pumps, allowing for even greater difference between the water levels in the ocean and estuary, get extra energy. It can be shown that when using water pumped by the pump, the generation mode double action only produces about 10% more energy than the single acting (rather than twice, as might be expected) [see Clark, Robert H., Tidal Power in Energy, Technology, and the Environment, Wiley Encyclopedia Series in Environmental Science, pp.2467-2673].

Although the basic principles of energy production due to tides is quite simple, and stored in the tidal energy is sufficient to multiple excess to meet the global needs in electrical energy, there are some factors that hinder the widespread tidal energy, namely: (a) cost: known tidal power plants are expensive. is mi and rarely cost-effective, (b) a limited number of suitable sites for the construction of tidal power plants: in the world there are very few suitable locations, which has all the qualities needed to create a cost-effective power plants, (C) the interests of environmental protection and (d) pulsed nature of tidal energy.

(a) the Factors influencing the high cost of known tidal power

The cost of construction of tidal barrages are very high, with two-thirds of the total costs necessary for the construction work. Tidal dams are usually constructed from pre-fabricated units, called caissons. These caissons are waterproof boxes, made of reinforced concrete or steel. They are made on the shore, alloys of place and set side by side, thus forming the length of the dam. A typical caisson has a length of 80 m and a width of 50 meters Using three types of caissons: (i) the caissons with culvert channels with valves to regulate the flow of water flowing between the ocean and the mouth of the river, (ii) power caissons, which are aggregates of the turbine/generator, (iii) the caissons with a solid surface, which provide a connection between the other two.

Construction methods, described below, based on the methods that were to use the project to dam the river Severn The Severn Barrage Project, General Report by the Severn Tidal Power Group, Energy Paper 57, Departament of Energy, UK, pp.vii-x]. This project is expected to build across the mouth of the river Severn in Wales dam with a length of 15.9 km and cost 8280 million pounds sterling. According to the draft produced by the electric power component 8640 MW (single action), should provide more than 17,000 TWh (terawatts·h) per year or 7% of the total electrical power consumed in the UK. The project was completed in 1981. However, due to the high cost and in the interests of environmental protection dam for the river Severn was not built. The proposed methods of construction are included in the prior art. It is in light of the preparation of the project dam to the river Severn advantages of tidal energy systems become most obvious. The construction of dams proposed under the draft Severn, provides for three basic steps [The Severn Barrage Project, Ch.2, pp.16-25].

The first step is to create along the sea bottom horizontal surface on which to place the caissons. The work begins with dredging that is carried out using suction troglobites with a cutting tool. As soon as the entire length of the boom prepared a suitable surface level down gently placed a layer of crushed stone for the formation of the horizontal area of the DKI, which supports each of the caissons. Unlike conventional hydroelectric, dam, which should cover the short distance across the river, the dam for the tides must cover a much greater distance across the mouth of the river. Excavation preparatory work for the tidal dam, therefore, should be carried out at a considerable distance. If the project Severn when creating a horizontal platform with the seabed must be raised 18 million cubic meters of soil. The alignment of the seabed in the preparatory process for the placement of caissons is, therefore, a primary and very expensive part of the ongoing construction.

The second stage is the placement of caissons. Placement of caissons start after preparation of the horizontal platform. This stage is an intensive and time demanding procedure. Caissons made previously on equipment, which is near to the shore, and the water is transported to the position of their installation, using three or four offshore tug. After the accurate positioning of the caisson is lowered to the bottom by ballasting with water and material raised from the bottom of the first phase of the works. If the caisson is positioned accurately, it must again raise from the bottom, put in a floating state, and then PR is the installation procedure be repeated. Because the size of the caissons are large (typically 80×50 m), their exact placement can be carried out only in good weather. In addition, to ensure delivery to the place of large caissons should be the minimum speed of the tidal streams (typically less than 1 m/s). Therefore, the installation of caissons carried out at the quadrature tide. (Quadrature called tides, in this location the minimum height.) The dam project for Severn was planned with the implementation of the installation of two caissons per month. Low speed, with which you want to install caissons, causes a very long time structure of platinum. In the case of dams for Severn accommodation 370 caissons required to overlap the mouth of the river, would have taken at least 84 months. Such a long duration of construction increases the cost of financing. In fact, the time factor can be a major component of the cost of financing the construction of a tidal barrage.

The third step is to install the electrical system and connect it to the network.

The structure created in accordance with the disclosures provided above methods of construction, hereinafter will be referred to as known tidal dam or known tidal power plant.

Now you can identify the following main factors affecting high value of the ity of construction known tidal dam.

1) a Large amount of material required to create a tidal barrage. - There are two reasons why you need a large amount of material. First, the caissons must be massive in order that they were held in place under the force of the tides and other external conditions. Secondly, the known tidal barrages must cover a large distance across the mouth of the river. A large number of required concrete is the main component of the high cost of known tidal dam.

Basic training with the excavation required for installation of the caissons. The caissons required horizontal surface on which they relied. Excavation preparatory work is a complex operation that requires removal from the seabed large quantities of material and alignment of the seabed. This work is in the difficult conditions of the ocean and covers a considerable distance, which need to block the dam.

2) a Long time structure. - Due to the large size of the caissons can be set only when the optimal tidal and weather conditions. The time structure of known tidal dams is therefore very long. The time factor makes a significant contribution to the financing and obuslovlivayushchaya portion of the costs of financing.

For tidal energy was viable from a commercial point of view, the construction costs (which account for two-thirds of all costs) should be reduced [Clark, R ].

(b) Factors limiting the number of suitable sites for construction of known tidal power

Although the amount of available energy of the tides is very large, that her part that can be extracted with the help of modern technology, very small. To produce electrical energy in amounts that are profitable from a commercial point of view, tidal power plant must produce large amounts of energy when using the dam is relatively small length. These requirements limit the number of potential sites for the construction of the mouths of the rivers, with certain particularities. First, the tidal range must be very high so that was a significant disposable energy. Secondly, you need a wide mouth of the river, because the available energy is proportional to the square of the tidal basin, bounded by the dam. Thirdly, since the cost of the dam is proportional to its length, tidal dam is economically advantageous only if it was built across the mouth with a narrow neck. Globally, the number of estuaries with high tidal large areas and narrow neck is very small. Their list of worldwide includes, as a rule, less than thirty potential construction sites. In addition, designated for the construction of tidal dams should be located at high latitudes and in remote areas. When such restrictions are known tidal station will never be the main contributor to world energy production. It is clear that a new approach is needed that is able to realize the enormous potential of tidal power.

(c) the Negative impact of known tidal power plants on the environment

Famous dam tidal stations being constructed across the mouth of the estuary, resulting in violations and tidal currents, which plays an important role in the ecology of the estuary. Because estuaries are vulnerable and ecologically important sites, concerns related to the environmental consequences of the construction of tidal barrages are an obstacle to their construction. One solution to this problem is to create a closed tidal basin located entirely at some distance from the shore. The Company Tidal Electric Ltd. proposed to create a similar coastal basin, bounded on all sides by a wall of freehand stones [www.tidalelectric.com]. However, this design creates its own environmental problems. Wall of freehand stones indispensable which is massive and isolated construction and should be treated as long-term. Construction of a massive long-term coastal structures create a new a number of environmental problems. In addition, it is not clear how such designs are cost-effective.

(d) Pulsed nature of tidal energy

Turbine tidal stations require for its operation a large difference in water levels across the dam. Therefore, electric energy is generated within short periods of time, when this difference is sufficient. In the tidal energy is supplied (in the network) in the form of pulses and, therefore, it must be supplemented by other energy sources, depending on the desired load, for example, thermal or nuclear power plants.

The essence of the invention. Objectives and advantages of the invention

Tidal energy system and the modular design of the dam

For the wide use of tidal energy must overcome the above obstacles: (a) must be reduced by the cost of tidal power plants, in particular, it is necessary to reduce the cost of construction, (b) tidal power plant shall be designed such that it was possible to increase the number of places where they can be built, (C) tidal power plant should be designed with minimal impact on the environment, (d) it is desirable to find a solution to the problems that arose, associated with the pulsed nature of the energy of the tides. Tidal energy system is a tidal power plant, which satisfies the first three conditions simultaneously. It is being built using modular construction of the dam, i.e. the method that greatly reduces the cost of construction. Tidal energy system can be built in a wide range of selected locations. In addition, such systems are aimed at addressing the problem of influence of the tidal power station on the environment.

Tidal energy system. The reduction in the cost of construction

Tidal energy system that uses a modular design of the dam, you can reduce the cost of construction due to the different characteristic aspects when using it, which are as follows.

Tidal energy system that uses a modular design of the dam, reduces the required amount of material on a certain percentage of the amount of material required for construction of the famous dam of the tides.

Tidal energy system that uses a modular design of the dam, eliminates the need to align the bottom of the sea. Therefore, it eliminates a large amount of excavation preparatory work required is x for known tidal dams.

For the construction of a tidal energy system that uses a modular design of the dam, a part-time, required for a construction known tidal dam. The result is proportionally reduced financing costs.

A large amount of the material used, the need to provide a horizontal surface for the caissons and the length of time of construction are the main components of the high cost of known tidal dam. The calculations suggest that the cost of construction works on the construction of a tidal power system is equal to half the cost of a construction known built dams with equal power output.

Tidal energy system. The increase in the number of suitable sites for tidal energy

The modular design of the dam due to the lower cost makes it cost-effective for the construction of a more extended structures of the dam. The increased length of the dam leads to the possibility of creating different layouts tidal energy system (see figa and figv). It can be built entirely at some distance from the shore, or part thereof may be limited coastline. Completely eliminates the need for the presence of estuaries is, and thereby creates the possibility of building a tidal power systems almost everywhere, provided a sufficiently high tides. This significantly increases the number of suitable sites for construction.

Tidal energy system. Reducing the impact on the environment while generating electricity through tidal energy

Due to the fact that tidal energy system eliminates the need for construction in the direction of the throat to the mouth of the river, hydrology and, therefore, the ecology of the estuary are not violated. This eliminates the main environmental constraint to the use of tidal energy.

Tidal energy system has an explicit separate advantages over the wall of the pool, made of thrown stones, developed by Tidal Electric Ltd. This wall is a great design, which, once built, should be considered as a long-term structure.

Tidal energy system, built using modular construction of the dam is much less massive structure. In addition, the technology used in the modular construction of the dam, enables the output of the power plant out of service and dismantled. The cost of decommissioning can be easily calculated. sledovatelno, tidal energy system has a much smaller impact on the environment.

In addition, in relation to three main problems that need to be addressed in connection with the use of tidal energy, tidal energy system has additional benefits.

Tidal energy system. Electricity generation through the use of other energy sources ocean

Tidal energy system can be made with the possibility of obtaining energy through the kinetic energy of tidal currents (see Fig.9). Where applicable, this arrangement adds energy to the generated power tidal energy system.

Tidal energy system can serve as a platform for the wave energy Converter. These converters include generators operating due to the energy of the oscillating water column (OWC), such as Waven Ltd s Limpets (see Fig) [www.waven.co.uk/what_we_offer_limpet.htm]. Tidal energy system provides a suitable platform for hosting OWC converters. In addition, since the wave energy Converter absorb this energy, they serve to protect tidal energy systems from the destructive action of waves and at the same time make an additional contribution to the total produced power.

Can also easily be integrated in the tidal energy system and wind turbines, additionally increases the total generation of electric power.

Tidal energy system. Solve the pulsed nature of the energy of tides

The pulsed nature of the energy of the tides has always been one of its shortcomings. Tidal energy system reduces the severity of the problem.

In contrast to the known construction of the dam, the modular construction of the dam contributes to the economic efficiency of electricity generation in dual mode of action. Energy generation in dual mode of action creates flexibility when negotiating period of time energy production with the period in which this energy is required.

Thus, the modular design of the dam when it is used with the production of energy in dual mode of action reduces the problem of pulse generation of energy using the energy of the tides.

Although the modular design of the dam contributes to the mode of energy production, which reduces the negative effect of pulse energy, to eliminate all these problems in the tidal energy system can be easily integrated hydrogen technology. Some portion of the energy developed in the tidal energy system is Birmingham, refer to the cells with the aim of obtaining hydrogen from water by electrolysis. The hydrogen store and then use in fuel cells to produce energy on demand. Cost efficiency in the modular construction of the dam, flexibility tidal energy systems for maximum performance at minimum cost together with the expected reduction in the price of electrolyzers and fuel cells leads to the creation of a system that is capable of cost-effective production of electrical energy on demand.

Consequently, tidal energy system can produce electric power on demand, i.e. economical, produced on demand, guaranteed, virtually unlimited, and energy production is not accompanied by the formation of gas involved in the creation of atmospheric greenhouse effects.

In addition, excess energy, which produces tidal energy system may be directed to the production of hydrogen as an end product.

Tidal energy system, extended to include electrolyzers and fuel cells, can be used to produce hydrogen in anticipation of the development of the hydrogen economy.

Conclusion

Tidal energy system performance is to place a structure adapted for use potential and kinetic energy of the tides, and the energy of ocean waves and wind from the shore. In contrast to the known tidal power tidal energy system is economical, can be built in many places and is focused on addressing the main environmental issues associated with tidal energy. When functioning it can be operational flexibility for a more accurate matching time periods within which you must consume large quantities of energy, with periods of energy. For cost-effective production, produced on demand of electric energy in the tidal energy system can easily be integrated technologies that make use of electrolyzers and fuel cells. The generated electricity is guaranteed, unlimited, and its receipt is not accompanied by the formation of gases that affect the creation of the atmospheric greenhouse effect. In addition, excess electricity can be sent for hydrogen production in anticipation of the development of the hydrogen economy.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 - two layout tidal energy system, reflecting its fundamental design.

Figure 2 - tidal section of the enclosing wall, the foundations of the th unit tidal walls.

Figa and 3B are two gateposts, the basic unit of structure that holds in place a fully constructed tidal energy system.

Figs - hour support in the form of a tripod.

Figure 4 - pile, passed through a tubular guide element legs and hammered into the seabed.

5 and 5B two panels shown in cross section.

6 is a fixing beam down between the panels and the supporting poles.

Figa - fixing beam with the inner barrel and channels for cement mortar, through which is introduced a liquid cement slurry, providing a seal that prevents water infiltration.

7 - placing the caisson.

Figa platform for caisson construction, which will host the caisson.

Figw - caisson to accommodate the turbine and generator after installation of the caisson on the panels that form the platform for caisson.

Fig is an example of the energy Converter wave running through the pulsating energy of the water column, which can be installed in tidal enclosing wall for energy production and protect structures from the effects of waves.

Fig.9 - tidal enclosing wall structure, which enables the transport of tidal flows through the turbine to a generator, producing due to the tidal flow of electrical energy is the rgiya.

Figure 10 - wind turbine generators mounted on the supporting pillars of tidal walls.

11 is a diagram of energy flows for hydrogen and its re-use in fuel cells to produce electrical energy.

The numbering of the positions on drawings

(10) - hour support, (11) support stand with tripod, (12) - fixing timber, (13) - leg tripod, (14) - groove to enter the fixing rack (15) - barrel for grouting, (16) is the anchor flange of the panel (17) - channels for cement mortar, (18) - corners (20) - pile, (22) a tubular guide element for piles (24) - hammer for driving piles (30) panel (31) - basic (lower) panel, (32) - sealing barrow, (34) - panel platform caisson, (35) - a platform for the caisson (36) - tidal section of the enclosing wall (37) - section with the caisson, (40) - energy Converter - motor (42) - air chamber (44) - turbine Converter wave energy, (46) - generator Converter wave energy, (48) - air channel (50) - tidal the enclosing wall (52) - artificial tidal pool (60) - caisson to accommodate the turbine with generator, (70) - tidal energy system, (80) - a wind turbine with generator, (90) - cell, (92) - a system for hydrogen storage, (94) - fuel element.

Detailed description figure 1-IG. A preferred example implementation

Figure 1 shows two layout option tidal energy systems (70). Tidal wall (50) surrounds inside the mass of water, forming an artificial tidal lagoon tidal pool) (52). In tidal enclosing wall (50) is embedded caisson (60) to accommodate the turbine and generator. Tidal enclosing wall built of sections (36) tidal walls (figure 2).

Each section of tidal walls (figure 2) consists of four main elements: (i) support stand (10), forming the skeleton structure and holds the tidal section of the enclosing wall, (ii) piles (20)that attach the support legs to the seabed, (iii) panel (30), the cutting of artificial tidal lagoon from the surrounding ocean, and (iv) fixing bars (12)which connect the panel with the supporting poles.

The support rack (10) form the backbone of tidal walls (figa and figv). On figa and figv shows the main structural elements of the support columns, each of which performs a specific function. Along the length of each support stand has a tubular element (22), perform the function of guide piles. Pile (20), which secures the column to the seabed, will slide when passing through the hollow guide rod. On Phi is .4 shows the pile (20), passing through the tubular guide element (22), when driving in the seabed. The second main element of the rack is a groove (14)which is used for input connection of the clamping beam. The locking bar (12) is introduced into the groove (14) for a reliable joint hold the panel and the support legs. The third characteristic element is a support flange (16), designed for panel mounting, which is based on the main panel of each section of tidal walls (figure 2, figa and 3C). Finally, each leg provided with a reference guide corners (18), due to the contact with whom the panel held when entering the locking bars into the slots.

Possible ways to perform these structural elements of the stand. Alternatively (not shown) of the element forming a guide channel for piles, can be used the so-called "piles with skirt"around which the support legs are tubular guiding elements for piles (thus forming a "skirt"). Another alternative (figs) is a three-legged stand with a support, in which three support legs (13) in the form of a tripod provided with cantilevers protruding from the support legs. Support (11) with tripod contains all the basic elements inherent in the support rack (10). It is made with a tubular guiding element (tube and elements) (22) for the transmission of piles, the groove (14) to enter the locking rack area (18) and support flange (16) for panels (figa). The perspective shown in figs, not all of these elements are visible.

Figure 5 and 5A shows a panel (30). They form a wall that separates the tidal pool from the surrounding ocean. Panels can be made of reinforced concrete. They are connected to each other so that they can be easily installed on top of one another and with the minimum of mutual adjustment. These panels may be formed with grooves (14) to enter the locking bars made along both vertical sides. The locking bar (12) is introduced into the groove (14) for placing the beam in order to keep United the panel and the support leg.

On figa presents connecting the locking bar (12). Figv illustrates the function performed by the locking bar (12). When the cover (30) are installed adjacent to the support rack, the notch in the panel, the clerk to enter the fixing Board, and a corresponding groove in the pedestal to form a single connecting conduit. From FIGU shows that when the input to this channel locking beams to prevent lateral movement of the panel. The panel is fixed in place. 6 shows the locking bar (12) in the input position between the cover (30) and the support struts (30) for their joint fastening. Each locking brymore be made with the inner shaft (15) to fill with cement mortar, going vertically down the length of the beam (figa). Barrel for cement mortar is connected to the channels (17) to fill with cement mortar. After entering the locking beam between the panel and the base through the specified trunk (top-down) and the channels will be under pressure injected grout to ensure a proper seal to prevent leakage of fluid between the ocean and the tidal pool, in particular, through the gap between the panel and base.

The modular design of the dam

Tidal energy system constructed using a modular design. The modular design of the dam allows you to create time for one section of tidal walls (figure 2 and figure 3). Each of the four main elements of section (36) tidal walls (support columns (10), piles (20), panel (30) and the locking bars that attach the panel to the support posts, see figure 2) pre-made on the shore and alloys or taken by barge to the site facilities.

Upon delivery to the place carry out the installation of the wall sections of the tidal dam (figure 2), and at a time mount a single partition. First set upright support columns. Using adjustable buoyancy, basic racks set on the seabed vertically at the desired distance from each other. the ATEM legs anchors on the seabed. This process is illustrated in figure 4. Pile (20) score in the bottom of the sea with its passage through the tubular guide element (22). Where there are loads of different piles can be hammered into the seabed through additional tubular elements mounted in the support column. The driving of piles (piles) at the bottom is carried out using a pile hammer (24), which usually works installed on the barge. Similar methods are used for piles with a skirt and for supporting racks made with tripod (figs). The depth to which piling depends on the stratigraphy of the seabed and from the expected power loads. Piles can be hammered into the seabed to a depth of 120 meters After the pile (pile) filled to the desired depth in the gap between the guides of the tubular element and the pile pour cement mortar. Leg and pile in the firmly bonded with a solution together as a single unit, and thereby prevents any vertical movement of the support legs after a long period of time. Support is now securely attached to the seabed.

After two legs (10) are attached to the seabed, the installation of panels (30). Figure 2 displays the final result of this installation. Each partition walls tidal dam assembled from interconnected panels (figure 5). Panel(30) deliver afloat to the construction site and then install. First of all, between the two supporting poles insert base (bottom) panel (31). This panel is lowered onto the support flanges (16), using adjustable buoyancy. The bearing flanges provide alignment (levelness) of the base panel. System parts (18) allows to control the position of the panel during installation (figa). Each panel is in contact with the corners when it is lowered into place. After placing the bar between the supporting poles it is fixed in place. This procedure is illustrated in Fig.6. The locking bar (12) is inserted through the adjacent grooves (14) for input of the latch bars, made in panels and the supporting rack. After entering the fixing timber panel will be guaranteed against lateral movement. The panels are then simply stack one on top of another until, until the Assembly of the tidal section of the enclosing wall. Figure 2 shows a fully assembled tidal section of the enclosing wall. Then you can start the construction of the adjacent section, thereby increasing the length of the tidal walls. It should be noted the absence of caissons with the water outlet channels. They are excluded in this design due to the fact that you are using the method of power generation in dual mode of action. The flow of water between the river mouth and the ocean protocetus through the caisson, in which is mounted a turbine and generator. If you use the method of power generation in the single mode of action, it is necessary caissons with the water outlet channels. The main features of their performance and method of installation are the same as in the case of caissons for the turbine and generator.

Because the seabed is uneven, between the base panel and the bottom of the sea there will be a gap. This gap must be sealed. 2 and 6 illustrate how this exercise. In order to seal the gap, creating a seal (32) a mound of stones minimum height, formed of a suitable filler in the form of crushed stone and gravel. Sealing a mound of stones then strengthen and further sealed using the supplied underwater concrete, stacked by a method of vertically moving the pipe" (Specified concrete is designed to work under water, and it can pour the water through a pipe called beenapproved for underwater concreting).

Finally, it is necessary to describe the accommodation in tidal enclosing wall of the caisson (60) for turbines with generators. The placement of these boxes is illustrated in Fig.7. This procedure essentially the same as that used in the construction of the tidal section of the enclosing wall. First, set vertically in the ri, a pair of support struts (10) (7). Between each pair of support legs set the bar (34), forming a platform for the caissons. Around each panel creates a sealing mound (not shown). These mounds strengthen and seal using underwater concrete. Three panels (34) form the platform (35) for the caisson, which supports the caisson, which set the turbine and the generator. This caisson deliver afloat to the place of installation and lower panel (34) platform caisson. Each caisson for the turbine and generator is formed with three mounting grooves (14) for placing the locking bars along each of its sides. After installation of the caisson on the platform (35) between the caisson and the supporting poles (pigv) enter the locking bars (12). Installed in the slots of the locking rack will securely hold the support leg along with the caisson for the turbine and generator. The support rack (10), the platform (35) for the caisson and the caisson (60) for turbine generator form all together decompression section (37).

Next is the installation of electrical equipment, after which the tidal energy system is connected to an external electrical network. Methods of installation of electrical equipment such as that used for known tidal dam.

Tidal energy system, in the preferred embodiment, operates the mayor the same way as known tidal dam (figure 1). Tidal wall (50) isolates tidal pool (52). Caissons (60) for turbines and generators built into tidal enclosing wall (50). When lifting high tide, the water level in the ocean is higher than in the pool. When the difference in water levels becomes sufficient to open the valve the water outlet channel, allowing water to flow from the ocean through the turbine, resulting in a rotation of the generators that produce electrical energy. This process (energy production) may be reversible when it is low tide.

From the above description identifies many of the economic benefits that provides for tidal energy system the modular design of the dam, in comparison with the known construction of the dam.

The economic advantages of tidal energy systems

Built tidal energy system using modular construction of the dam requires much less concrete than the well-known tidal power plant produced the same power. The result is a significant reduction in costs.

The modular design of the dam can reduce the number of concrete due to the replacement of caissons with internal voids and water outlet channels sections (36) tidal about radusa wall (figure 1 and figure 2). In addition to the caissons for the placement of turbines and generators known tidal dam requires massive caissons with voids (the size of the caissons 50 m×80 m). The modular design of the dam replaces these massive caissons panels of reinforced concrete having a thickness of about 1 meter. Caissons resistant to hydrostatic pressure, tidal streams and other loads that originate from the environment, due to the choice of their size and weight. The modular design of the dam compensates for the size and weight (their choice) due to the resistance provided by the supporting poles (10) (1, 2, 4, 6 and 7). This reduces the amount of concrete required for the construction of a tidal power station. Proportionately reduced costs for construction work.

In the case of energy generation in dual mode of action caissons with the water outlet channels are not necessary. When using the known construction of the dam costs are reduced slightly as the massive caissons with the water outlet channels replace the equally massive caissons with voids. In addition, equipment for operation in the dual mode of action is more expensive than used in the single mode of action that negates the savings obtained by eliminating equipment regulated the I flow of water, passing through the caissons with the water outlet channels. The overall result is the limited power increase (see C.2) with a moderate increase in cost. On the other hand, the modular design of the dam provides great savings due to energy generation in dual mode of action as excluded caissons with the water outlet channels are not replaced by caissons with voids. Preferably the massive caisson with the water outlet channel (50 m×80 m) is replaced by the tidal section of the wall, consisting of panels with thickness of the order of 1 M. this results In a significant cost reduction. Additional reduction of consumable material is provided by the tidal energy system. To limit expenses known tidal dam constructed across the narrowest part of the river's mouth, regardless of the size of the pool, enclosed by a dam. As a result, the amount of water that must flow through the dam, is not consistent with the electric energy generated by the system. Therefore, to control the flow of water flowing in the river mouth and flowing from the mouth of the required caissons with the water outlet channels. The modular design of the dam sets the size of the tidal basin so to arrange the generated electric power. As a result of tidal energy is istemi, essentially excluded caissons with the water outlet channels.

Use for energy generation dual action creates an added advantage. This is because instead of two pulses produced in the single mode of action is now generated four pulse.

The power generation mode double action is more flexible to the power required than in the case of a single mode.

Although the dual mode of action does not preclude the problems associated with the pulsed nature of tidal energy, more flexibility helps to integrate tidal energy in the external electric network.

The modular design of the dam reduces costs by eliminating the extensive preparatory earthworks required to create a conventional tidal barrage.

Soil preparation is a major part of the construction known tidal dam. In known tidal dam caissons require a horizontal surface. Therefore, the seabed must be aligned and carefully covered with a layer of crushed stone. The modular design of the dam, basically, this eliminates the major part of the construction works. Much simpler methods can be compacted tidal energy system. Basic operator panel (13) install the flange supporting racks (10) (figure 2). The gap between the base panel and irregularities and naked part of the layers on the seabed filled by sealing the filling (32). In this case, the preparatory earthworks are required. The exception excavation preparatory work required in the construction of known tidal dam, leads to a further and significant reduction in costs.

The modular design of the dam reduces the time of construction of a dam on a certain part of the period required for a construction known tidal power station. Because the funding time factor is the main, if not the dominant component, achieved a significant reduction of costs.

In the case of known tidal dam for a long time structures is affected by two main factors. The first factor is the earth preparatory work. The modular design of the dam replaces this stage of construction on a lot more than a short procedure to create a low embankment. The second factor lies in the time required for placement of caissons. Placement of caissons in known tidal dam requires special tidal and weather conditions. Typically, the panels can be installed with a speed of two caissons per month. The modular design of the dam allows you to replace the caissons with the water outlet channels and the internal is ostatni panels (figure 2), held in place between the support posts (Here it should be noted that two-thirds of the caissons for the dam on the river Severn had to be caissons with the water outlet channels or cavities [see dam project for the Severn, p.8].) The boards provide fast pace and regardless of tidal conditions. According to the calculations for tidal energy system required one third of the construction time spent on the construction of the known tidal power plants that produce the same electric power. As for funding, the time factor may be the dominant component, reducing the time of construction gives significant savings in the final cost of tidal energy.

In addition to reducing costs, tidal energy system addresses two main obstacles to the development of tidal energy.

Tidal energy system increases the number of suitable sites for the development of tidal energy

Due to the high cost of building dams distance, overlapped known tidal dam should be minimal. Known tidal dam requires a large amplitude of the tide and the wide mouth of the river with a narrow neck. The number of such estuaries worldwide limited to a small number. Because of the modular design of the raft which were significantly reduces construction costs, can be built designs of greater length, which still remain cost effective. Additional flexibility makes it possible to build a tidal energy system in different ways. Two such compositions are presented in figure 1. These assemblies are completely eliminates the need in the estuary and their economic efficiency requires very large tides. In the tidal energy system can be built almost anywhere with a sufficiently high tides, i.e. when the condition that can occur in a very large number of places. The number of sites that meet these requirements is very high. This eliminates the hard limit on the number of suitable places for the energy of the tides.

Tidal energy system reduces the environmental impact of tidal energy

Due to the fact that tidal energy system does not require overlap throat mouth of the river, eliminating the main environmental constraint to the use of tidal energy. Moreover, it is clear that the modular construction of the dam makes its decommissioning quite feasible. Panels and the panels can easily be removed. Ways to remove support stands are designed in an industry related to the development of offshore oil and gas month is orogeny. Unlike tidal walls in the form of a mound of freehand stones (design firm Tidal Electric), tidal energy system is not a long-term structure.

Thus, tidal energy system that uses a modular design of the dam, contributes to solving three main problems hindering the development of tidal energy, namely: (a) it reduces the cost of tidal energy, thereby ensuring economic efficiency, (b) gives the opportunity to build a tidal power plant in a large number of places, (C) avoids blocking the mouths of rivers and, thus, eliminates the main environmental constraint to the use of tidal energy.

On Fig presents an alternative example implementation.

In this alternative embodiment of the tidal energy system to the tidal energy system type converters wave energy to protect tidal energy systems from the destructive wave energy and for electricity generation.

As the waves rise and fall, they can create a significant payload. With the help of wave energy converters, tidal energy system can be protected from the destructive action of waves. On Fig shows such a Converter, namely reobrazovateli, implements a method pulsating water column, like manufactured by the company Wavegen Ltd. [www.waven.co.uk/what_we_offer_limpet.htm]. This energy Converter wave absorbs the energy of incoming waves and converts it into electrical energy. This Converter contains an isolated air chamber (42), communicated through an air duct (48) with the turbine (44) and generator (46). Incoming waves continuously raise and lower the level in the air chamber (42). As the camera closed, and the inlet pipe is below the water level, the downward and upward movement of the column of water moves in chamber air through the channel (48). This moving air drives the turbine (44), which, in turn, rotates the shaft of the generator (46), resulting in generating electrical energy. As can be seen from Fig, the design of the energy Converter allows you to mount it in a tidal enclosing wall, and therefore its use is economically very efficient. The inclusion of wave energy Converter in the composition of the tidal energy system protects it from destructive wave energy, at the same time increasing the total generated electric power system.

Figure 9 is an Alternative embodiment of the

In this alternative example embodiment, the profile of tidal walls ISM is the Nene thus, to tidal energy system could extract energy from the kinetic energy of tidal currents.

Energy can be produced by profiling those sections of tidal walls (50), the surface of which is oriented in relation to tidal flow in such a way as to direct tidal flow through the narrow passage into the turbine (not shown)placed in the caisson (60) with generator (Fig.9). This requires a moderate increase in the length of the tidal walls, which, therefore, can be cost-effective in places with fast tidal currents. Energy recovery from both the kinetic energy of tidal currents and the potential energy of the tides is a brand new feature of the proposed system. Currently, technologies that use one of these two energies, preventing extraction other energy. Calculations show that under optimal conditions, the tidal currents make a significant improvement in the total output power of the tidal system.

Figure 10 is an Alternative embodiment of the

In this example, an alternative embodiment of the support rack (10) tidal energy system mounted wind turbines and generators (80).

The main part of the total cost of wind turbines is the cost of the tower. Usually IP is result one of two types of towers. The first type is monova, essentially, a separate large pile that score in the bottom of the sea. Legs tidal energy system can easily pass into the towers of the wind turbines, made in the form of monowai. The second type of tower - tripod. Its basic design is the same as three-legged support (11), shown in figs. In addition, the tidal energy system wind energy is cost effective. Legs tidal energy systems provide ready support for wind turbines. In addition, wind turbine and generator (not shown) can be connected to the existing electrical system of tidal energy systems. Thus, the wind increases the overall electrical power system at negligible additional cost.

11 is an Alternative embodiment of the

In this example embodiment of the tidal energy system (70) supplemented cells (90), (92) hydrogen storage and fuel cells (94). The electrical energy generated by tidal energy system (70), used in large pots (90) to obtain hydrogen from water. The resulting hydrogen is then the pipeline is directed to the system (92). From this system the hydrogen serves to fuel cells (94) for the generation of electric power p is required. It should be noted that because the cells essentially are fuel cells operating on the reverse cycle, it is possible to have a single system electrolyzer/fuel cell to extract the hydrogen and use it as fuel to generate electricity. The result can be achieved considerable cost savings.

The pulsed nature of the tidal energy is always considered one of the disadvantages of tidal energy. Tidal power plants produce electricity pulses, while energy demand is constant. In addition, the time periods of the peaks of the required energy, for the most part, do not coincide with peak produced by tidal energy. Therefore, some tidal power station from among built to replenish energy use energy derived from other sources. In order tidal energy was used independently as the primary source of electrical energy, it must produce energy on demand. In one proposed solution (paired tidal pool) construct additional tidal pool so that it acted as a repository from which extract energy. Naturally, the popularity of using paired basin is also necessary, a modification of the in mind. To date no decision, as installed, is not cost-effective [Clark, p.2653]. It should also be noted that energy storage was considered by applying compressed air [Clark, p.2654].

The proposed design assumes the use of hydrogen technology as a means of energy production on demand. When the operation for maximum energy tidal energy system produces a large pulse energy budget. Due to the transmission of water, when the difference in water levels between the artificial tidal reservoir and the surrounding ocean reaches its maximum, retrieves the maximum amount of energy. The cost of electricity, thus obtained, is very low. This is partly due to the cost effectiveness/cost of tidal energy systems, and partly because of the mode of operation of the system. Because energy is generated pulses in a short period of time, this mode is not useful for its practical use, because the end user needs energy for an extended period of time. However, in the case of producing hydrogen from water by electrolysis low cost of electricity is such that necessary from the point of view of cost. The amount of hydrogen will be, CH the main way to depend on the total available electric energy. According to the forecasts of the National Academy of engineering (National Academy of Engineering) the cost of hydrogen produced by electrolysis, will prevail over the cost of producing electric energy [Committee on alternatives and strategies for future production and use of hydrogen, the national Academy of engineering. The Hydrogen Economy Opportunities, Costs, Barrier, and R&D Need, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. www.nap.edu.p.10-9]. The document was published on the website of the National Academy, and in 2004 it was planned to publish in print. This forecast is based on expected prices fall electrolyzers and fuel cells.

In combination with hydrogen technology and technology using electrolyzers and fuel cells, described the tidal energy system produces electricity on demand and solves the problem of pulse generation of electric energy generated by the energy of the tides.

11 is an Alternative embodiment of the

In this example embodiment to tidal energy (70) added large cells (90) and (92) for hydrogen storage. In this example embodiment of the end product is hydrogen.

1. The boom for the extraction of energy from the potential energy contained in oceans is their tides, contains the following elements:

a large number of posts that are installed with the same interval from each other in the ocean along the perimeter, bounding the specified fence,

means attaching the support legs to the seabed

a pre-selected number of panels when said panels are placed one on top of another until the desired height and accurately set between pairs of adjacent posts,

means to secure these panels between pairs of adjacent posts,

means sealing any gap between each panel and the supporting poles, between which is placed the panel,

pre-specified number of caissons,

a pair of support racks, placed one or the other side of the predetermined adjacent supporting stands of the above-mentioned large number of support legs so that they form two rows of posts (hereinafter referred to as the supporting poles for caissons) in the direction perpendicular to the specified perimeter, the distance between two rows is selected so that the caissons were installed between them exactly,

reference panels placed between each pair of opposite posts of these two rows of racks that is, to the specified caisson relied on the support panel, and, thus, these support panels form a platform between the two rows of caissons,

turbines, each caisson placed a pre-specified number of turbines,

means providing transmission of water through the said turbine by the operator's command,

generators, each of which is connected to one or more than one of these turbines,

these elements provide the structure specified barrier with no gaps or cracks, and as a result, the ocean is separated from the area inside the fence, except for the period of time during which the operator allows water to pass through the turbine, thereby causing the generator to generate electrical energy.

2. Boom according to claim 1, containing, in addition, the device for extracting the energy of ocean waves, which are built into the specified barrier and thereby protect the fence from destructive wave energy and produce at the same time, electrical energy.

3. Boom according to claim 1, in which sections of the specified boom predetermined length, placed on both sides of the caisson, together form the shape of the letter "V" is placed in the specified cell at the intersection of these sections, the midrange is t which the tidal current is directed through a narrow passage into the turbine, inside of the caisson, thus leading a generator (generators)connected to the turbine and thereby converting the kinetic energy of the tidal flow into electrical energy.

4. Boom according to claim 1, additionally including wind turbines, mounted on a specified barrier.

5. Boom according to claim 1, additionally including

the means by which from water by electrolysis receive hydrogen

means for hydrogen storage.

6. Boom according to claim 5, additionally comprising means by which electrical energy is generated using as fuel hydrogen.



 

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