The method of ecological monitoring of the settlement

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of environmental monitoring. The method includes defining and highlighting on the map of the locality of the site and/or object with a high percentage of morbidity. In these areas, take samples of soil, water, air and/or samples of building materials of the object, test samples of microorganisms for the presence of hazardous total actions available in the samples of harmful substances, the oppression of life and/or death of the test organisms to determine ecologically dangerous places. Further, the devices determine the appearance and the mass concentration of harmful substances, after which conduct activities to protect the population from the most significant of the identified hazardous substances and/or to eliminate their sources. Then re-checked. The invention allows to enhance monitoring of the locality, to improve its cartographic representation (characteristics) in part of the environmental assessment of its territory and its objects, to identify areas and/or objects with hazardous total exposure to multiple hazards, reduce costs time and money and working people. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table.

The invention relates to the field of environmental monitoring, in particular to ecological survey of natural and artificial objects, statistical, cartographic, biological, technical means and methods in terms of their environmental risk (toxicity).

There is a method of monitoring an area using the map of this area showing the characteristics of the objects located on it to identify opportunities and best option for their economic use (Patent RF №2036516, G 09 In 29/00, 1992).

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of information on the environmental attributes placed on its natural and man-made objects (e.g. buildings, land under them, the air in them and between them, and so on). The absence of this information leads to the fact that living and/or working in these areas and on buildings and people, without knowing anything about the present poisonous chemicals (toxicants) are their constant and prolonged action, sick, become disabled or even die prematurely.

The toxicants can Prov, chipboard furniture and design, various detergents and disinfectants, etc.;

- chemical means to care for potted and garden plants and interior of the apartment, usually stored in closets, balconies and terraces, apartments and cottages;

in gases and vapours in the kitchen, waste of man-made activities (exhaust gas operated near transport, air transport, railway transport, emissions from nearby industrial plants, test stations and test, the fumes of which are located near stores and gas stations POL);

- in substances used by man in agriculture (as stored on located near the warehouses, and scattered or sprayed on nearby fields mineral fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides, etc.,).

Of particular note is the danger of long stay guests (accommodation, work) in the buildings of the old buildings under construction and numerous repairs have not yet acted ecological and sanitary norms and MAC harmful substances and which are due to decay and aging of materials have increased dust generation.

At the present time do not produce environmental assessment (monitoring) of the entire territory of the settlement and all are residential, administrative, industrial facilities to determine the presence or absence of toxic substances (toxins) and their dangerous total (integral) action. Services sanitary and ecology spend only a spot check of the mass concentration of specific harmful chemical substances, and only on large existing industrial enterprises that use or produce these harmful substances. This is due to the complexity of the devices and technology assessment, complexity, high cost of funds and time for such an extensive and comprehensive environmental assessment, as for each type of poisonous chemical substances requires its operator, its complex instrument and its complex technology. So check the entire area and all the detection and determination of the mass concentration of individual numerous toxicants almost impossible.

The absence of such an extensive comprehensive environmental monitoring settlements leads to the fact that almost all the population, especially in large towns, is subjected to the total (integral) action of a large number of different harmful substances (toxins), because of this sick with various diseases, receives a disability, and even dying, and did not understand the causes of their illnesses.

For this reason, doctors not having the necessary environmental information on the types and amounts of hazardous actions on their patients many different harmful chemicals (toxicants), determine their disease almost blindly and “cure” them from secondary or even wrongly diagnosed with the disease, often worsening their condition is useless, even harmful drugs.

Currently an urgent need to enter into the practice of forced compulsory registration and statistical tracking the types and quantities of the total (integral) action of toxicants on each person at his place of residence and work, as well as to determine the limit of the sum (integral) action taking into consideration the nature of the existing norms of maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of harmful substances (toxins) is chosen a priori, that is, without sufficient practical clinical evidence, and therefore each country has established and uses its own MAC that differ significantly from MAC other countries (sometimes dozens of times).

In addition, you must remember that all mechanical devices, determine the mass concentration of any toxicant in the target location, have the error can be incorrectly configured, can fail and give incorrect readings. Each operator working with these devices may inadvertently prevent any mistake, some of the operators may not be sufficiently prepared and even unfair. All together it often leads to the wrong assessment of the severity of the actions available in the target location even a single toxicant.

The total (integrated) effects of multiple toxicants even in small doses (for example, within the current for each of them separately MPC) can be much stronger and more dangerous than the actions of one toxicant in a large dose (outside MPC). As a result, total (integral) of several toxicants even in neznachitel the ryh no physician cannot determine any medicine (without elimination of this total action of toxicants) to cure not.

This confirms long known of the life practices of the fact that the best cure for all diseases to humans (of course, at a certain stage of the disease) is a vacation with a trip to another area in the village, resort, fishing, hunting, to the country and so on the better health this man comes, because he gets rid of the total (integral) action of toxicants, long time acting on his body.

There is a method of biological monitoring of environmental systems and facilities, including the assessment of the biological impact of the substance of the inspected object (total actions available in the substance of toxicants) test microorganisms (RF Patent No. 2125261, G 01 N 33/00, 1997 - prototype).

The main disadvantage of this method is that it is intended only for laboratory determination of the toxicity of the sample substance, does not define technology ecological survey of the territory and objects of the settlement, the sequence of actions after identifying environmentally hazardous sites and facilities.

The known method involves the use of only one type of living MICR testing and application testing of microorganisms.

The aim of the present invention is to eliminate the above drawbacks, i.e. raising awareness monitoring of the settlement, improvement of cartographic representations (features) in part of the environmental assessment of its territory and its objects, identification of sites and/or objects with hazardous total (integral) action of several toxicants, reducing cost and time to determine the type, concentration, sources of these toxins, ensuring environmental protection living and working in these areas and the people.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method, including the mapping, assessment of biological effects of environment and materials of objects to be scanned on test microorganisms determine medical statistics and highlight on the map of the settlement areas and/or objects with a high percentage of morbidity, take environmental samples (soil, water, air) in these areas and/or samples of construction materials facilities located on these sites, test samples of microorganisms for the presence of hazardous total (integral) action is negralejo) actions available in the samples toxicants define ecologically dangerous places devices of the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision determine the mode and the mass concentration of toxicants, followed by measures to protect the population from the most significant of the identified toxicants and/or eliminate their sources, re-testing the same microorganisms confirm the correction of unsafe total (integral) action of toxicants or decide inability to use environmentally dangerous areas and/or objects in the economic activity of the locality and further work on putting them in the normal state.

In the proposed method as the test microorganisms can use the sperm of animals, Paramecium caudatum, lyophilized culture of luminescent bacteria genetically engineered strain (e.g., biosensors series “Ecolum”) and so on, which are placed in sealed containers with nutrient water solution, give them separately and/or total sample of samples of air, soil, water, material, buildings, etc., taken in the survey area and/or object. The toxicity of the investigated samples judged by the decrease in viability (inhibition and/or death) in the solution of test organisms relative to their LM is the person tested microorganisms all areas and/or objects of the locality and the detection of sites with hazardous for the health of the population total (integral) action of toxicants, that is, conduct routine biomonitoring of the village, identify areas and/or objects with dangerous cumulative effect of toxicants, mark them on the map of the locality as biohazardous and prescribe measures for the protection of the population and/or elimination of sources of toxicants.

The set of essential features of the proposed method exhibits new properties, namely, that quickly and without large expenditures of money and time determined by test microorganisms the place is really dangerous, the total (integral) action of toxicants on the sites and/or objects of the settlement, then the instruments and technologies used in Sanitary and environmental services, determine the type, quantity, source of toxicants, carry out protective measures or eliminate their sources, then re (test) a survey of former dangerous places in the same test microorganisms for the absence in them of previously existing hazardous total (integral) action of toxicants or take a decision on further work and possible use of the subject sites and/or objects in the household on rogo (integral) action of toxicants.

Thus, the set of essential features of the proposed method meets the criterion of “substantial differences” and “novelty.”

According to the proposed method for environmental monitoring of the settlement carried out as follows.

Prepare statistical data on the incidence of people in the target community and identify areas with a high percentage of morbidity. These zones indicate (highlight) on the map of the locality and carry out planned or emergency examination in them along with their surrounding ecosystem to "identify hazardous to the health of the population total (integral) action of toxicants.

Sample environment and/or materials of the subject designated locality is placed in the same material and the volume of containers (e.g. glass vials), equally filled with the same composition with the aqueous solution medium, well shaken and incubated for some time (for example, not less than 24 hours) for dissolving a commercially available sample of toxic substances. These tanks are called the working tanks. In some of these tanks with a water solution of a nutrient medium samples of materials yaytsa control tanks. After training of working and control tanks they injected the same amount of the same live test organisms and incubated them under the same external conditions (temperature, light, gravity, vibration, orientation in parts of light, electromagnetic field, and others) during the same time.

Detection of hazardous total (integral) action of toxicants in the surveyed objects in their environment (samples of materials and environment) carry out various tests with microorganisms.

As test microorganisms can use the sperm of animals (e.g. cattle), which is sufficiently adequately with the human body reacts to the integral of toxic exposure to harmful chemicals. Granules of bovine semen frozen in liquid nitrogen steams receive artificial insemination stations and stored in Dewar vessels. As a nutrient medium for spermatozoa of cattle can be used an aqueous solution of glucose with citrate. The number of fast-moving (i.e. the living, not of the oppressed) sperm in business and in the control tanks, the difference of this quantity (optical probe), reducing its intensity at the intersection of moving sperm, which converts the photodiode into an electrical signal and record the photometer, such as device type Analyzer toxicity at-4”. The resulting difference in the number of moving sperm transferred in conventional units of toxicity.

As test microorganisms integral toxicity of samples can be used Paramecium caudatum (ciliates), which are grown in the laboratory in a nutrient medium, for example in an aqueous solution of broth of mixed grass hay mixed with sodium chloride and/or potassium chloride and/or magnesium chloride and/or sodium bicarbonate and/or calcium chloride. The number of fast-moving (i.e. the living, not of the oppressed) of ciliates in business and in the control tanks, the difference of this quantity can be detected automatically, photometer, such as device type Analyzer toxicity at-4” (similar to counting the number of moving sperm).

Integral toxicity of the samples examined object can determine liofilizirovannami cultures luminescent bacteria genetically engineered strain (e.g., biosensors series “Ecolum”), placed in distill is tructur, responsible for the generation of biodegradation (cell membrane, chains metabolic, genetic apparatus) with expressnet, objective and quantitative nature of the response of the integral system for the integral action of toxicants. This is ensured by the fact that the luminescent bacteria contain the enzyme luciferase, implementing effective transformation of the energy of chemical bonds of vital metabolites in the signal light level available for rapid and quantitative measurements. Assessment of the intensity of bioluminescence biosensor in business and in the control tanks can produce automatically, luminaire, such as device type “Biotox-10”. The resulting difference in the intensity of bioluminescence biosensor transferred into conventional units of toxicity. The combination of biochemical sensor with modern electronic equipment can detect with high reliability extremely small amounts of toxic compounds and mixtures thereof.

Test organisms placed in a container with a nutrient aqueous solution together with samples of the investigated materials (carriers of harmful substances air, water, soil, building and finishing the effects of all available samples of materials harmful factors and likewise person react to this total (integral) impact because they have a similar basis of life, common to all terrestrial protein organisms. So live test organisms react in the survey, it is then the desired dangerous the total (integrated) the impact of all existing hazards to humans that mechanical devices to detect, in principle, can not, so how do you evaluate only the mass concentration of any one pre-selected harmful chemicals.

If the test organisms over time (e.g. a day) are equally normally live and in the control tanks only with nutrient water solution, and working containers with nutrient mixture an aqueous solution of the investigated samples of air, soil, water, building materials and other media harmful substances (toxins), therefore, people can be surveyed in the place, too, without harm to their health.

If after this time the test microorganisms in any capacity with carriers of harmful substances (samples) depressed, or even killed, and these same microorganisms in the control tanks with the same medium, but without carriers of harmful substances alive and norms of the target location (building) is dangerous to human exposure to any one harmful factor or threat of the total (integrated) the impact of several harmful factors.

In the case when the test microorganisms in a production capacity with an aqueous solution of native oppressed or killed, a dangerous place where you got these carriers (samples) additionally examined by devices used in the SES. These devices determine the form, mass concentration, the location of the source of harmful factors, and then plan and conduct activities to protect the population from the effects of the most dangerous factors and/or to eliminate their sources.

After carrying out measures to protect the population from single or cumulative (integral) action identified specific hazards and/or to eliminate their sources spend the same again (test) examination of these places (these same test microorganisms, for the same technology) for the absence in them of the former (previously detected) hazardous effects of toxicants. If the test microorganisms again record the presence of hazardous total (integrated) remaining impact of harmful factors (microorganisms again oppressed or killed), conduct additional activities, then conduct the test examination places these same tester harmful factors is present, despite all the activities carried out) hazardous area or building alienate, i.e. do not allow the presence in it of animals and/or people.

It should be noted that the specified biological monitoring live test microorganisms can carry out not only selectively, that is marked on the map areas and objects are already a large number of sick people, but on all other (not marked on the map) sites, where the number of sick people still do not exceed the average number of around the locality. In this case, such a survey of the whole community will be preventative and will not confirm (to determine cause of many existing diseases in humans, and to prevent them from even relatively healthy population.

Such a comprehensive preventive examination of the village (all of his plots and objects), you need to strive as soon as possible to come at the end of the development of the proposed method for environmental monitoring.

Instead of a map of the studied locality can use aerial photographs or frames of aerovodochody.

Proposed sposoby places and objects of settlement, to identify places with really dangerous total (integral) action all the surveyed location of toxicants, and then to determine the actual cause of increased morbidity in these places, to undertake the necessary measures to verify the effectiveness of the carried out activities. This will help to preserve the health of residents and workers in the study village people, improve their productivity, reduce their morbidity, disability.

The proposed method for environmental monitoring of the settlement will also allow us to quickly, efficiently, without big expenses to carry out preventive examination of the locality and to take the necessary preventive measures before the advent of high percentage of morbidity in areas and/or objects from existing hazardous total (integral) action of toxicants.

The proposed method is tested using semen of cattle and device Analyzer toxicity at-4”. Was surveyed part of the apartments on parcels of territory, Voronezh, in which statistics recorded an increased rate of morbidity. The results of the AP is alil quickly and without great cost to identify apartments, which are harmful to human health of toxic substances to determine their species and mass concentration, to take the necessary measures to neutralize their actions and/or to eliminate their source.

At the first stage of works by more than 50% of the surveyed apartments was detected total (integral) toxicity beyond permissible limits (70-120%). At the second stage devices of sanitary inspection revealed that 20% of environmentally hazardous apartments inflated norms GN 2.1.6.695-98:

- phenol (present 0,012-0,048 mg/m3when MAC 0.003 mg/m3);

- formaldehyde (present of 0.013-0.042 mg/m3when MAC 0.003 mg/m3);

- nitrogen dioxide (present 0,097-0,278 mg/m3when MAC 0.04 mg/m3);

- carbon oxide (present in 6.0 mg/m3when MAC 3.0 mg/m3).

In the third stage works were carried out to eliminate sources of toxicants and/or to neutralize their actions. The fourth stage was to test the effectiveness of our operations.

1. The method of ecological monitoring of the settlement, including the mapping, assessment of biological vozdayut on the map of the settlement areas and/or objects with a high percentage of morbidity, taking samples of soil, water, air in these areas and/or samples of construction materials facilities located on these sites, test samples of microorganisms for the presence of hazardous total actions available in the samples of harmful substances, the oppression of life and/or death of the test organisms to determine ecologically dangerous places, devices of the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision define these places look and the mass concentration of harmful substances, after which conduct activities to protect the population from the most significant of the identified hazardous substances and/or eliminate their sources, re-testing the same test microorganisms confirm the correction of unsafe total exposure to harmful substances or decide inability to use environmentally dangerous areas and/or objects in the economic activity of the locality and further work on putting them in the normal state.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the test organisms are placed in sealed containers with nutrient water solution, give them individually and/or cumulatively samples of air, soil, water, material, buildings, etc. obsledovanie appreciate the reduction of viability in it testing microorganisms with respect to their viability in the control of nutrient water solution without the analyzed samples.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the test microorganisms all areas and/or objects of the locality and the detection of sites with hazardous for the health of the population total (integral) action of harmful substances, that is, conduct routine biomonitoring of the village, identify areas and/or objects with hazardous total (integral) action of harmful substances, mark them on the map of the locality as biohazardous and prescribe measures for the protection of the population and/or elimination of sources of harmful substances.

 

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