The method of regulation of generative activity pome fruit crops

 

The invention relates to gardening. During the growing season spend processing trees boric acid twice: in the phase of "extension of inflorescences in concentrations of 0.02% and in the phase of "loose Bud" at a concentration of 0.01%, then treated with NPK at a concentration of 0.3% three times: in the phase of closing the sepals, then 10-12 20-24 days after the start of phase closure sepals with subsequent treatment with potassium sulfate in a concentration of 0.3% for 40 days before harvesting. The method allows to increase the productivity and quality of fruits pome fruit crops, as well as to provide their annual fruiting. 1 Il., table 2.

The invention relates to agriculture, namely horticulture, and can be used to increase the productivity and quality of fruits pome fruit crops, as well as to ensure their annual fruiting.

It is well known that directional effects on the processes of growth, development and productivity of plants can be accomplished with the help of mineral nutrition. An important part of the application of mineral fertilizers in gardens - providing trees with nutrients through the leaves. The feasibility of foliar fertilizing fruit plants proishodit chemical binding of the soil necessary plant nutrients. Secondly, when foliar nutrition of trees significantly reduces the consumption of mineral fertilizers, providing, however, high efficiency.

There is a way foliar plant nutrition pome crops with nutrients, in particular nitrogen fertilizer - urea in a concentration of 0.3% in the active growth phase of shoots (see Fertilizer gardens: Advice/A. A. Kondakova, N. , Pestova, Krasnodar: Scznyaw, 1990. - S. 14). The trees are sprayed with a solution of fertilizer in cases when their need for nitrogen is high and cannot be met by one root nutrition. Urea provides for the formation of full-fledged growth and increasing to some extent the productivity of pome fruit crops.

This method has a drawback, namely: use only one of macroelements (N) moreover, only one phase of the vegetation period of fruit plants is clearly not enough to solve such a multi-faceted tasks as regulation of the various components of the generative sphere.

It is now known that the processes of growth and fruiting of fruit trees, the greatest effect of the combination of macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Closest to the n-p-K at a concentration of 0.3% before decaying phase of growth of shoots and providing increased productivity of trees in the current year, while also improving the bookmarks flowering buds for next year's crop (see patent 2181534, RF, And 01 With 21/00. Method foliar nutrition pome fruit crops./ T. N. Doroshenko, E. P. Aleshin, S. A. Biryukov, I. C. Dubrovina; Sebangau. - 2000106354; Appl. 14.03.2000; Publ. 27.04.2002, bull. 12).

However, even the combined fertilizer only at a certain stage of the vegetation period will not ensure the implementation of many components of the generative activity of seeds of crops. In this case, will not be used, for example, the possibility of purposeful influence on the process of fertilization, the effective flow which will minimize flowers. In the known method is not taken into account prospects for the regulation of foliar fertilizing transport plastic substances on the principle of "donor - acceptor" when ripe, fruits that help increase their quantity, weight and increase ultimately yields and quality fruit production. Note that in the described method foliar nutrition pome fruit crops are not taken into account and possible weakening of the second wave and pre-harvest drop of ovaries while reducing the June drop (3rd wave) and improving bookmarks and early differentiation of flowering buds.

Technical solution to the problem is the higher is the number of useful ovary (after four fall), the increase of fruit weight, and also the simultaneous improvement of bookmarks flowering buds for next year's crop.

This object is achieved in that in the proposed method of regulation generative activity pome fruit crops, including the treatment of trees with NPK at a concentration of 0.3%, during the growing season spend processing boric acid twice: in phase extension of inflorescences in concentrations of 0.02% and a phase of "loose Bud" at a concentration of 0.01%, then treated with NPK three times: in the phase of closing the sepals, then 10-12 20-24 days after the start of phase closure sepals with subsequent treatment with potassium sulfate in a concentration of 0.3% for 40 days before harvest.

The novelty of the claimed proposal due to the fact that a double application before flowering boric acid increases the formation of viable pollen, germination, growth of pollen tubes and, consequently, increases the efficiency of the process of fertilization (see Student M. J. the Role and importance of boron and other trace elements in plant life. - M. - L.: Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1939), and also reduces the flowers (the first wave of fall). Triple the use of ammonium nitrate in anticipation of the us is also moving from the leaves to the different items of generative sphere (see Aleshin E. P., N. Aleshin.E. Fig. - M.: Publishing house "factory of truth, 1993): growing fruits (reducing their premature abscission) and was Tsvetkov kidneys, which significantly increases the yield in current and future years.

Use as a foliar feeding of potassium stages of growth and ripening increases their loading increases mass, exerting a positive impact on the productivity of the trees and the quality of fruit products and, in addition, provides improved differentiation of flowering buds.

According to scientific, technical and patent information not revealed the claimed combination of features that allows us to make a preliminary conclusion about the novelty of the proposed method and the signs according to the criterion of "inventive step".

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a diagram of the components of the generative activity pome fruit crops, adjustable nutrients during the growing season. This scheme indicates the possibility of a coherent and purposeful influence on the individual components of the generative sphere of various micro - and macro-elements.

The method of regulation of generative activity with the first wave of fall defective and unfertilized flowers (2). The beginning of flowering is preceded by several phases: phase extension inflorescence", phase "rose Bud", phase "loose Bud". To reduce fall unfertilized flowers in phase "extension blossoms" and "loose Bud trees treated with boric acid at concentrations of 0.02% and 0.01%, respectively. After the end of the flowering phase begins closing the sepals. At this stage, the ovary is formed. In this phase of the process tree with NPK at a concentration of 0.3%. After this begins the process of growth and ripening of the fruit (3). In this period may occur three times falling ovaries (4, 5, 6). To reduce this dropping of repeated treatment with NPK at a concentration of 0.3% after 10-12 20-24 days after the beginning of the phase of closing the sepals. Then in the period of fruit ripening (7) trees treated with potassium sulfate in a concentration of 0.3%. This complex treatment leads to increased yields (8) and the quality (weight) of fruit, as well as to improve the bookmarks and differentiation of floral buds (9) for the harvest next year.

Specific example To verify the proposed method in 2000-2002 in the gardens of the Kuban area of horticulture studied a variety of Apple winter term consumption ttp://img.russianpatents.com/chr/8226.gif">1.5 m). In experimental plantings on the same adopted in agriculture, mineral fertilizers during the growing season in certain phases of growth and development of plants (see Horticulture./Ed. by C. A. Kolesnikov. - M.: Kolos, 1979) used a foliar feeding of various micro - and macro-elements according to the scheme presented in table 1.

In addition, the experience felt variant with application of n-p-K, which was treated trees before decaying phase of shoot growth at a concentration of 0.3% prototype. Control - the trees, the treated water. The repetition of the experience - six. When the experiment was determined by the following indicators: productivity of trees and fruit weight - the weight method, the tab flowering buds on the microscope MBS-1 (see Isayeva I. C. Productivity of Apple trees. - M.: Moscow state University press, 1989). Results study the effect of foliar sprays on the activity of the generative functions of the Apple shown in table 2.

As can be seen from the data, under the influence of n-p-K indicates a significant decrease (compared to control) the number of fallen during the growing season ovaries and increased fruit weight, which ultimately has a positive effect on the amount and katsastuspalvelut greater preservation of useful ovary (after four times during the growing season fall), significant (vs. control) increased fruit weight and therefore the productivity of trees (1.5 times).

We should mention one more important side steps foliar nutrition of Apple trees on its bearing - regulatory capacity in minerals transition shoots to generative development. As a result of experiments it was determined that the use of the technological chain foliar feeding provides Apple a significant improvement (even in comparison with the prototype) bookmarks and differentiation of flowering buds.

Thus, using foliar feeding of plants pome crops before the onset of certain phases of growth and development, we can specifically regulate their generative activity, while in industrial plantations annual increase yield of high quality fruit.

Claims

The method of regulation of generative activity pome fruit crops, including the treatment of trees with NPK at a concentration of 0.3%, characterized in that during the growing season spend processing boric acid twice: in the phase of "extension of inflorescences in concentrations of 0.02% and in phase "rihl 10-12 20-24 days after the start of phase closure sepals with subsequent treatment with potassium sulfate in a concentration of 0.3% for 40 days before harvesting.

 

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FIELD: soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants in oil recovery and transportation regions.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): chemical ameliorant 3.5-5.7; organic fertilizer 15.7-29.0; adsorbent 67.5-78.6. Method for sectioning soil treatment includes application of composition onto soil layer with 30 cm of depth. Then treated layer is shifted out of spot boundary. Opened surface is covered with composition of present invention. Then mole drainage of 60-65 cm in depth is made in soil by using mole plow or chisel plow, followed by plowing of 58-51 cm in depth and returning of sheared soil into spot.

EFFECT: effective soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

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