Production of compacted iron modifier based on nano-dispersed powders
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises mixing of cryolite and the mix of nano-dispersed powder of oxides of niobium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum with mixing agent and further compaction of said mix. Cross-linking agent represents aqueous solution of glyoxal (40%). Note here that obtained pasty mix is compacted by screw pelletiser to cylindrical pellets to be dried for 3 hours at 80°C at the following ratio of components, in wt %: cryolite - 79-81, niobium oxide - 3-4, titanium oxide - 3-4, zirconium oxide - 4-3, tantalum oxide - 1-2, aqueous solution of glyoxal (40%) - 5-7.
EFFECT: higher physical and mechanical properties, decreased amount of cast rejects.
2 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to metallurgy, foundry, in particular to the modifiers for the manufacture of cast iron, working in the conditions of abrasive wear.
Known modifier and method thereof (patent RF 2180363 IPC SS 35/00, SS 1/05). The invention relates to a modifier for iron smelting. Proposed modifier containing components in the following ratio, wt.%: silicon 20-55; carbon 20-65 and/or silicon carbide 30-40; calcium 0,5-6,0; iron rest. The modifier may optionally contain one element selected from the group comprising, by wt.%: magnesium 1-3; 1-5 titanium; zirconium 1-5; rare-earth metals 1-5; strontium is not more than 2; barium 2-6. The method of obtaining the modifier includes grinding ferroalloys - ferrosilicon, silicocalcium and carbonaceous additives and blending. After grinding take fractions of ferrous alloys with grain size 0,315-5.0 µm, and carbon-containing additives with grain size 0,315 to 2.0 μm, and after mixing shall briquetting by pressing. The carbonaceous additives use graphite crucible or graphite electrode and silicon carbide. Modifier receive in the form of briquettes in the form of tablets with a diameter of 7-100 mm at a moisture content does not exceed 0.2%. In another embodiment, take only the fine fraction of components with grain size 0,315 to 2.0 μm. The technical result is m invention is the complete assimilation of the modifier iron while reducing the cost of production.
1) you Need fractionation.
2) Briquetting is carried out by pressing.
3) Require carbon-containing additives.
A known method of inoculation of cast irons and steels (patent 2121510 IPC SS 1/00, SS 7/00, SS 35/00). The invention relates to metallurgy, and in particular to methods secondary inoculation of cast irons and steels with ultrafine refractory particles clad with metal protector, and can be used in metallurgy and foundry. The invention allows to simplify and reduce the cost of technology modification, as well as to improve the mechanical and operational properties of iron and steel. According to the method in the melt iron and steel impose a modifier containing dispersed refractory non-metallic particles and the substance-protector. Before introduction into the melt under a stream of molten metal mixture dispersed refractory non-metallic particles and matter-protector processed (simultaneous crushing, activating and plating dispersed refractory non-metallic particles to produce a powder with the size of the dispersed refractory non-metallic particles is not more than 0.1 μm, then the resulting powder is introduced into the molten metal. The powder is a joint grinding refractory dispersed namecalling the x particles and substances protector in the following ratio, wt%: refractory non-metallic particles dispersed 50-90%; substance-protector - rest. The grinding mixture dispersed refractory non-metallic particles and substances protector can be carried out in an inert atmosphere.
1) Should the cladding metal protector.
2) Before introduction into the melt under a stream of molten metal mixture dispersed refractory non-metallic particles and matter-protector processed.
3) Grinding the mixture dispersed refractory non-metallic particles and matter-protector recommended in an inert atmosphere
A method of obtaining a modifier for Nickel alloys (patent 2447177, IPC SS 35/00, B22F 3/12), selected as a prototype. The invention relates to metallurgy, in particular to the formation of powder metallurgy methods briquette for modification of Nickel alloy ultrafine powders of refractory compounds. In a mixture containing powders of molybdenum, chromium and Nickel, introducing ultra-fine powder of titanium carbonitride and powders of titanium, aluminum, tungsten and niobium. The powder of titanium carbonitride pre-stirred for 1.5-2 hours and mixed with titanium powder 10-20 minutes. Add the aluminium powder and stirred for 10-20 minutes, then add the powders of tungsten, niobium, molybdenum, chromium and Nickel are added and stirred for 5-10 minutes. The mixture is subjected to degassing in VA is wumei furnace with a vacuum of 2 to 10 -3-2·10-4mm Hg at a temperature of 250-400°C for 5-15 minutes and stirred for 1.5 to 2.5 hours. Pressed at a pressure of 20-100 MPa and is sintered in vacuum for 30 minutes the Invention allows to reduce the content of gas impurities and enables the formation of fine grains uniformly distributed in the volume of modified alloy. Main disadvantages: for modifier used powders of the metals niobium, titanium, niobium, molybdenum, titanium carbonitride, which increases the cost of the modifier; to get the modifier using vacuum and heat, which increases the complexity of obtaining modifier; for compacting used pressing at a pressure of 20-100 MPa.
The present invention is to develop a way of introduction SIC - and nitridebased elements in the molten cast iron to improve the physico-mechanical characteristics of the alloys and reduce output foundry scrap (shells, pores, cracks).
The problem is solved in that a method of obtaining a compacted modifier iron-based nano-powder materials includes the preparation of a mixture of nanodispersed oxides of rare earth elements (REE) (niobium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum) and cryolite, followed by molding, but unlike the prototype for the comp is sterowanie is carried out by wetting the components of the modifier solution of glyoxal without pressing. To prepare kompaktirovannoi modifier based on nano-powder material is a mixture of oxides of rare-earth elements (niobium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum) and an aqueous solution of glyoxal (40%), in the following ratio, wt.%:
cryolite - 79-81%
the oxide of niobium, 3-4%
the titanium oxide, 3-4%
zirconium oxide 4-5%
the oxide of tantalum - 1-2%
an aqueous solution of glyoxal (40%) - 5-7%.
The resulting mixture was homogenized by stirring, compact into pellets using a laboratory granulator CF-004, which are then dried for 3 h at 80°C.
Preparation of compacted inoculant for cast iron is made in two stages. At the first stage of cryolite and a mixture of nanodispersed oxides of niobium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum mixed with an aqueous solution of glyoxal (40%). Stirring is carried out for 5 minutes, after which the mixture korrektiruete into cylindrical pellets. The obtained compacted modifier is dried for 3 hours at a temperature of 80°C. an example of a specific implementation of the invention given below.
Example 1. A mixture of cryolite in the amount of 81 wt.% and nanodispersed oxides of niobium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum in an amount of 14 wt.% mixed in the mixer periodic action with a 40% solution of glyoxal (5 wt%). The compacting in a cylindrical shape was carried out on the device FS-004. Received modi who icator were dried at a temperature of 80°C for 3 hours. The granules had a white color and are characterized by a tensile strength in bending of 7 kg/see
Example 2. A mixture of cryolite in the amount of 79 wt.% and nanodispersed oxides of niobium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum in an amount of 14 wt.% mixed in the mixer periodic action with a 40% solution of glyoxal (7%). The compacting and drying is carried out as in example 1. The granules had a yellowish color and are characterized by a tensile strength in bending of 12 kg/see
Advantages of the claimed invention are: the use as a binder an aqueous solution of glyoxal (40%), the use of which avoids the operation of pressing to produce solid pellets. Glyoxal when injected into zhelezouglerodistye melt decomposes to form gaseous products, as a result, the modifier becomes highly dispersed state. For the production of modifier used highly dispersed oxides, which ensures a low cost modifier. Figure 1 presents the results of the research output of the foundry marriage when using the compacted modifier when using ferrotitanium for the inoculation of cast iron brand ICHN. (Figure 1 - ratio of the yield of products and foundry scrap in the processing of compacted modifier (2) and ferrotitanium (1)).
Table 1 presents the results of the waves of mechanical properties of cast iron brand ICHN, processed compacted modifier obtained by traditional technology. (Table 1 - properties of cast iron ICHN)
|Description||Cast iron obtained by traditional technology||Cast iron, compacted processed modifier|
(tensile strength) σB, MPa
|The hardness of Brinell, HB||560||590-600|
A method of obtaining a compacted modifier iron-based nano-powder materials comprising a mixture of cryolite and a mixture of nanodispersed oxides of niobium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum with a mixing agent and subsequent compacting of the mixture, characterized in that as the mixing agent is used an aqueous solution of glyoxal (40%), with the resulting pasty mixture by means of a screw granulator compact in granules of cylindrical shape, which is dried for 3 hours at a temperature of 80°C, in the following ratio of components of the mixture, wt.%:
the oxide of niobium 3-4
hydroxy is titanium 3-4
zirconium oxide 4-5
the oxide of tantalum 1-2
an aqueous solution of glyoxal (40%) 5-7.
SUBSTANCE: this process comprises preparation of the charge by mixing the titanium-bearing slag with aluminium and calcium-bearing material. The latter represents calcium fluoride and calcium, of calcium fluoride and calcium oxide, or calcium fluoride and the mix of calcium and calcium oxide. Here, the ratio between titanium dioxide, aluminium powder and calcium and/or between calcium oxide and calcium fluoride makes 1:(0.58-1.62):(0.28-1.1):(0.09-0.32). Besides, it includes reducing fusion of said slag at 1450-1750°C and separation of the alloy from said slag.
EFFECT: higher quality of the alloy and titanium extraction, better separation of the alloy from slag.
3 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to foundry and can be used for production of high-strength iron with globular graphite without structurally free cementite as-cast. Proposed alloy contains the following substances, in wt. %: rare earth metals - 10-20, silicon - 20-30, scandium - 1-3, aluminium making the rest. Foundry alloy comprises 1-3 wt. % of lanthanum in rare earth metal compound.
EFFECT: higher mechanical properties, ruled out chill in thick-wall casts.
2 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to foundry and can be used for production of high-strength iron with globular graphite without structurally free cementite as-cast based on metalised pellets and steel wastes. Proposed agent contains components in the following ratio in wt. %: cerium - 7-10, lanthanum - 3.5-5.0, yttrium - 15-20, aluminium making the rest.
EFFECT: higher hardness and ductility.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in the method anode galvanostatic polarisation of zirconium with current density of 0.5-4.0 mAcm-2 is carried out within 1-5 hours in the melted chlorides of alkali metals or a mixture of chlorides of alkali metals and alkali-earth metals, which contain melted aluminium or aluminium-magnesium alloy at a temperature of 700-750°C in argon environment.
EFFECT: invention allows receipt of aluminium-zirconium master alloys at reduction of the process temperature, labour intensity and provision of environmental safety.
3 ex, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining aluminium-scandium alloy combination involves aluminium melting, aluminothermic reduction of scandium from initial charge containing scandium fluoride, calcium chloride and sodium fluoride under cover flux and further exposure of the obtained molten metal. Prior to aluminothermic reduction the initial charge is placed into a melting pot and pre-heated to the temperature of 790°C, and then, it is added to molten aluminium and aluminothermic reduction is performed at the temperature of at least 830°C. After the molten metal exposure, separate pouring of salt and metal melt is performed. An initial charge containing the following component ratio, wt %, is used: scandium fluoride - 40-45; potassium chloride - 40-45; sodium fluoride is the rest. Pre-heating of the initial charge can be performed in a graphite melting pot pre-saturated with cryolite, or in a melting pot from glass carbon.
EFFECT: improvement of technological characteristics of charge; reducing volume of salts and increasing the yield of scandium to molten aluminium.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: alloying bar contains the following, wt %: scandium 0.8-1.5, zirconium 0.8-1.5; at least one of the following elements: manganese up to 0.10, chrome up to 0.10, titanium up to 0.10, molybdenum up to 0.10, iron up to 0.30, silicon up to 0.20, and aluminium is the rest.
EFFECT: alloying bar Al-Sc-Zr provides ingots obtained from aluminium alloys with maximum crushed grain structure, which allows maximum possible reduction of tendency to hot cracks during ingot casting process from aluminium alloys and to cold cracks after casting is completed; with that, technological ductility of ingots increases at their pressure treatment and a complex of service properties of semi-finished products, for example channels, forgings, sheets, formings, plates obtained from ingots with non-dendrite structure, is enhanced.
1 ex, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: reaction powder mixture containing 45-88 wt % of titanium-containing component and 12-55 wt % of silicon-containing component is prepared. Powders with particle size of less than 5 mm are used. After that, an exothermic reaction of combustion in inert atmosphere is initiated in the mixture.
EFFECT: invention allows obtaining complex alloys with high content of titanium and low content of impurities, which include high-activity elements in relation to oxygen, at minimum electric power consumption.
13 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: aluminium alloy is prepared, reheated over alloy liquidus curve temperature. Copper is added into the aluminium melt in the form of a wire, at the same time electric current is sent between the wire and the melt. Wire melting is carried out without formation of an arc at the ratio of current density to speed of wire feed equal to 0.3-1.0·1010 A·s/m.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce losses of alloying components and to reduce energy intensity of production of aluminium-copper alloys.
SUBSTANCE: proposed composition contains the following substances, in wt %: titanium - 30- 50, zirconium - 1-25, silicon - 15-30, aluminium - 0.1-3, iron making the rest. For production of proposed alloy the blend is used that contains ilmenite concentrate, rutile, coal, quartz sand, quartzite, and zirconium concentrate.
EFFECT: efficient continuous carbothermic process, decreased consumption of aluminium and heavy nonferrous metals.
7 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: alloy contains the following components, wt %: titanium 45-75, silicon 5-45, aluminium 5-15, carbon not more than 0.2, iron - balance, at the same time the mass ratio of titanium to aluminium is within the limits from 3:1 to 15:1.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to melt steel with specified narrow limits of titanium at minimum consumption of ligature, and provides for minimum contamination of a metal with hazardous admixtures.
6 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to electrical engineering, particularly to methods of conductive layer formation used in wide range of technics, including electronics or electrical equipment, and can be applied to form conductive links in microcircuits. Method of conductive layer formation on carbon nanotube base involves application of suspension of carbon nanotubes and carboxymethyl cellulose in water onto substrate, with the following component ratio, wt %: carboxymethyl cellulose 1-10, carbon nanotubes 1-10, drying at 20 to 150°C, pyrolysis at temperature over 250°C.
EFFECT: enhanced electric conductivity of layers formed.
4 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy. Parts are processed by quenching at 920-940°C, subjected to negative hardening with heating to 600-650°C for 2-10 hours and removal of decarbonised ply. Then, ion-plasma nitration is performed at 500-570°C, cathode voltage of 300-320 V, and current density of 0.20-0.23 mA/cm2. Ammonia with dissociation of 0-80% is used as a gas medium. Ammonia flow rate makes up to 20 dm3/h. Pressure in the chamber at cathode spraying makes 1.3-1.35 Pa and, at saturation, 5-8 GPa. This nitration is performed at cyclic temperature and ammonia dissociation variation. Note here that at the first half of described cycle temperature makes 570°C at maximum nitrogen potential. During second half, temperature decreases to 500°C while nitrogen potential is decreased owing to increase in ammonia dissociation to 40-80%. Note also that the number of said cycles should make at least 10. Nitrated part has surface ply containing diffusion ply with α-phase with nanosized incoherent alloying element nitrides that makes soft matrix. Besides, it has surface ply with hard inclusions composed by nanoparticles of ε-phase iron nitrides formed by local phase recrystallisation of iron nitride lattices. This results from cyclic temperature and ammonia dissociation variation.
EFFECT: higher wear resistance, longer life of kinetic friction parts made from above described material.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of forming epitaxial copper nanostructures on the surface of semiconductor substrates includes formation of a monoatomic layer of copper silicide Cu2Si on a preliminarily prepared atomically clean surface of Si(111)7×7 at a temperature of 550-600°C under conditions of superhigh vacuum, further precipitation of copper on it at a temperature of 500-550°C with efficient copper thickness from 0.4 to 2.5 nm. With efficient copper thickness from 0.4 to 0.8 nm islands of epitaxial copper nanostructures of a triangular and polygonal shape are formed, and if copper thickness is in the range from 0.8 to 2.5 nm, in addition to copper islands of the triangular and polygonal shapes ideally even copper wires are formed. The formed epitaxial copper nanostructures possess faceting, are oriented along crystallographic directions <110>Cu||<112>Si.
EFFECT: invention provides a possibility of controlled formation of epitaxial copper nanostructures with a specified shape and dimensions on the surface of semiconductor substrates.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology equipment and designed for closed cycle of production and measurement of new products of nanoelectronics. The nanotechnological complex comprises a robot-distributor with the ability of axial rotation, coupled with the chamber of loading samples and the module of local influence, as well as the measuring module comprising a scanning probe microscope, an analytical chamber, a monochromator and an x-ray source. The measuring module and the analytical chamber are coupled with the robot-dispenser, the monochromator is coupled with the analytical chamber, and the x-ray source - with the monochromator. The module of local influence comprises a module of focused ion beams and the first scanning electron microscope.
EFFECT: enhanced functional capabilities of the nanotechnological complex.
6 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electric sensor for hydrazine vapours contains a dielectric substrate, on which placed are: electrodes and a sensitive layer, which changes photoconductivity as a result of hydrazine vapour adsorption; the sensitive layer consists of the following structure - graphene-semiconductor quantum dots, whose photoconductivity decreases when hydrazine molecules are adsorbed on the surface of quantum dots proportionally to the concentration of hydrazine vapour in a sample. If hydrazine vapours are present in the air sample, hydrazine molecules are adsorbed on the surface of quantum dots, decreasing intensity of quantum dot luminescence, which results in decrease of graphene conductivity proportionally to the concentration of hydrazine vapours in the analysed sample.
EFFECT: increase of sensitivity, decrease of determination sluggishness and simplification of the sensor manufacturing.
1 ex, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: gold cylindrical nanoparticles not over 100 nm in length are sprayed onto surface of tested object, depth of the ply of said particles allowing the filling of cavities of would-be fractures. Then, said surface is dried to remove sprayed ply therefrom. Then, object surface is subjected to non-interlaced scan by fs-laser beam. At a time, intensity of two-photon luminescence signal is registered in every area under analysis to fix the location of said area corresponding to object coordinate. 2D array of two-photon luminescence signal intensities is formed to produce the map of distribution of nanoparticle luminescence intensities excited by laser radiation.
EFFECT: possibility to reveal surface defects for their early detection.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used when producing carbon nanotubes and hydrogen. Microwave plasma converter comprises flow reactor 1 of radiotransparent heat-resistant material, filled with gas permeable electrically conductive material - catalyst 2 placed into the ultrahigh frequency waveguide 3 connected to the microwave electromagnetic radiation source 5, provided with microwave electromagnetic field concentrator, designed in the form of waveguide-coax junction (WCJ) 8 with hollow outer and inner conductors 9, forming discharge chamber 11 and secondary discharge system. Auxiliary discharge system is designed from N discharge devices 12, where N is greater than 1, arranged in a cross-sectional plane of discharge chamber 11 uniformly in circumferential direction. Longitudinal axes of discharge devices 12 are oriented tangentially with respect to the side surface of discharge chamber 11 in one direction. Nozzle 10 is made at outlet end of inner hollow conductor 9 of WCJ 8 coaxial. Each of discharge devices 12 is provided with individual gas pipeline 13 to supply plasma-supporting gas to discharge zone.
EFFECT: invention permits to increase the reaction volume, production capacity and period of continuous operation, stabilise burning of microwave discharge.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the field of elaboration of diamond-based materials for magnetic therapy, quantum optics and medicine. A method of determining an angle of misorientation of diamond crystallites in a diamond composite includes placement of the diamond composite into a resonator of an electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer, measurement of EPR spectrums of nitrogen-vacancy NV-defect in the diamond composite with different orientations of the diamond composite relative to the external magnetic field, comparison of the obtained dependences of EPR lines with the calculated positions of EPR lines of NV-defect in the diamond monocrystal in the magnetic field, determined by the calculation. After that, the angle of misorientation of the diamond crystallites is determined by an increase of width of EPR line in the diamond composite in comparison with the width of EPR line in the diamond monocrystal.
EFFECT: invention ensures higher accuracy of measurements.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of modifying envelopes of polyelectrolyte capsules with magnetite nanoparticles. The disclosed method involves producing a container matrix in form of porous calcium carbonate microparticles, forming envelopes of polyelectrolyte capsules by successive adsorption of polyallyl amine and polystyrene sulphonate and modifying with magnetite nanoparticles on the surface of the container matrix or after dissolving the matrix through synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles via chemical condensation.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain modified polyelectrolyte capsules, designed to deliver medicinal substances which do not harm the human body.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing an alcohol solution of β-diketonates of one or more p-, d- or f-metals with concentration 0.001h2 mol/l; heating the solution to 368-523 K and holding at said temperature for 10-360 minutes to form a metal alkoxo-β-diketonate solution; depositing the obtained solution in droplets at the centre of a substrate being rotated at a rate of 100-16000 rpm, or immersing the substrate into said solution at a rate of 0.1-1000 mm/min at an angle of 0-60° to the vertical; holding the substrate with a film of the alkoxo-β-diketonate solution at 77-523 K until mass loss ceases, to form xerogel on the surface of the substrate; crystallising oxide from the xerogel at 573-1773 K.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain single- or multilayer dense and porous, amorphous and crystalline nanostructured oxide coatings with ordered particle size ranging from 1 nm to 100 nm with given functional properties.
9 cl, 5 dwg, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine and deals with nanoliposome which includes liposomal membrane, contains ethgerificated lecitin and one or more physiologically active ingredients, incorporated in the internal space of liposomal membrane, method of obtaining such, as well as composition for prevention or treatment of skin diseases, containing nanoliposome.
EFFECT: invention ensures long-term stability and homogenecity of nanoliposomes.
15 cl, 22 ex, 4 dwg, 2 tbl