Electric sensor for hydrazine vapours

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: electric sensor for hydrazine vapours contains a dielectric substrate, on which placed are: electrodes and a sensitive layer, which changes photoconductivity as a result of hydrazine vapour adsorption; the sensitive layer consists of the following structure - graphene-semiconductor quantum dots, whose photoconductivity decreases when hydrazine molecules are adsorbed on the surface of quantum dots proportionally to the concentration of hydrazine vapour in a sample. If hydrazine vapours are present in the air sample, hydrazine molecules are adsorbed on the surface of quantum dots, decreasing intensity of quantum dot luminescence, which results in decrease of graphene conductivity proportionally to the concentration of hydrazine vapours in the analysed sample.

EFFECT: increase of sensitivity, decrease of determination sluggishness and simplification of the sensor manufacturing.

1 ex, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of analytical instrumentation, namely, devices and materials for detecting and determining the concentration of vapors of hydrazine in the atmosphere or an air sample (chemical sensors), and can be used in medicine, biology, ecology and various industries.

Known colorimetric sensor on a pair of hydrazine "Method and device for determination of hydrazine and hydrazine derivatives (U.S. Patent number US 4,789,638, the application 07/046,385, publication date 06.12.1988, the priority date of 06.05.1987) [1], the principle of detection of hydrazine which is based on the change of the absorption parameters colorimetric indicator in the presence of iodine, which in turn is released during the interaction of Iodate or iodite with pairs of hydrazine. Common deficiencies colorimetric sensors include low sensitivity (0.02 mg/m3=0,02 million-1when the maximum allowable concentration of hydrazine 10 billion-1), the impossibility of quantitative remote sensing estimate the concentration of hydrazine in pairs, short service life caused by the consumption of reagents sensitive layer.

Known fluorescent sensor on a pair of hydrazine "Fluorescent detection of hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine by derivatization with aromatic dicarboxaldehyde" (Patent of the SHA No. US 5,719,061, application 08/326,518, date of publication, 17.12.1998, the priority date of 20.10.1994) [2]. The principle of detection of hydrazine in fluorescent sensor based on detection of changes in the spectral-luminescent characteristics (in this case, by changing the position of the band maximum luminescence) reagent sensitive layer in contact with vapors of hydrazine as a result of chemical interaction of the reagent with pairs of hydrazine. Compared with colorimetric sensors luminescence sensors have higher sensitivity (0,004-2,000 million-1and help to quantify the concentration of hydrazine in pairs. Common deficiencies of this type of sensors can be attributed to the short lifespan associated with the consumption of reagents and photobleaching sensitive layer.

Known electrochemical sensor on a pair of hydrazine "Amperometric sensor and method for the detection of gaseous analytes containing working electrodes made of pyrolytic graphite" (US Patent # US 2010/0147705, the application 11/722,333, published 17.07.2010, the priority date of 22.12.2005) [3]. The principle of operation of electrochemical sensors based on the phenomenon of flow-specific chemical reactions (electrochemical reaction) in the electrochemical cell that represents the container of electrolyte solution with electrodes (anode and cathode). Analyte enters into chemical reacts the Yu with electrolyte, fill the cell. As a result, the solution arise charged ions between the electrodes begins to flow electric current, proportional to the concentration of the analyzed component in the sample. The disadvantages of electrochemical sensors are high inertia (the average response time of 2-3 min), the sensitivity of the signal level to the ambient conditions (temperature and humidity) and the inability of the remote signal.

Closest to the claimed invention and taken as a prototype Sensor vapor concentration of hydrazine (Patent RF №2034284, IPC G01N 27/12, publication date 30.04.1995, the priority date of 07.08.1992) [4], containing sensitive layer changing in the interaction with hydrazine their electrophysical characteristics. The sensor includes a dielectric substrate on which the electrodes and a sensitive layer consisting of a porous sorbent (e.g., silica)containing heteropolysaccharide row 12. Detection of vapors of hydrazine occurs due to the reaction of the complexing molecules of hydrazine with cationic part of heteropolysaccharide (HCC), which is the result of stabilization of the higher valence state of cobalt atoms or manganese enters into an intramolecular redox reaction, leading to a sharp changed the Yu electrophysical properties HCC.

The prototype has the following disadvantages:

1. The insufficient sensitivity of the sensor: 0.5 to 1.0 million-1.

2. Long response time: 15-30 seconds.

3. Quite complex for technology-intensive manufacturing process sensitive layer of the sensor associated with the complexity of the synthesis of heteropolysaccharide used as a sensitive connection to a pair of hydrazine.

The task of increasing the sensitivity and reducing the inertia response while simplifying the manufacturing technology of the sensor.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the electrical sensor on a pair of hydrazine contains a dielectric substrate on which the electrodes and the sensing layer, changing the photoconductivity as a result of adsorption of vapors of hydrazine, with the sensitive layer consists of a structure of graphene-semiconductor quantum dots, photoconductivity which decreases as the adsorption of molecules of hydrazine on the surface of quantum dots is proportional to the concentration of vapors of hydrazine in the sample. The decrease in the photoconductivity of the hybrid structure of Gr-CT is proportional to the concentration of vapors of hydrazine in the analyzed sample is due to the following. In the absence of vapors of hydrazine in the hybrid structure is sensitized with quantum dots photoconductivity of graphene, due to the military phototransfer holes from CT to graphene [G. Konstantatos, M. Badioli, L. Gaudreau, J. Osmond, M. Bemechea, F. Pelayo, G. de Arquer, F. Gatti & Frank H. L. Koppens. Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain// Nature Nanotechnology, 7, 363-368 (2012)] [5]. It should be noted that the speed of the phototransfer holes in this system is limited by the lifetime of the excited state of the quantum dots (tens of nanoseconds). The presence of vapors of hydrazine in the analyzed test results to reduce the decay time of the luminescence CT (reducing the lifetime of the excited state CT) due to the adsorption of molecules of hydrazine on the surface of quantum dots and, as consequence, to decrease the effectiveness of phototransfer holes from CT to graphene and reduction sensitization of the photoconductivity of graphene.

The proposed sensor for detecting vapors of hydrazine has the following advantages:

1. Higher sensitivity and accuracy of determining the concentration of vapors of hydrazine. This advantage is due to the greater mobility of charge carriers in graphene sheets in comparison with heteropolysaccharide used in the prototype as a sensitive layer.

2. A lower response time. This advantage is provided by the high rate constants of the processes of electron transfer, the underlying photophysical changes in the conductivity of the hybrid structure of graphene-quantum dot.

3. The simplification of the manufacture of the population of the sensor. This advantage is realized due to the fact that when creating a sensor element sensitive to pairs of hydrazine, does not require complex and expensive technologies of synthesis of specific chemical compounds, and to create a sensitive layer of the sensor it is only necessary to put a layer of semiconductor quantum dots on the surface of graphene sheets.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in figure 1-7 are:

Figure 1. A schematic depiction of a hybrid structure of graphene-semiconductor quantum dots (G-CT).

Figure 2. Absorption spectra and luminescence of the solution structures of graphene-quantum dots: 1 - structure of graphene-quantum dot; 2 - graphene; 3 - quantum dot. The inset shows the luminescence spectrum of the solution structures, the wavelength of the exciting light is 405 nm.

Figure 3. The Raman spectrum of the hybrid structure of graphene-quantum dot. The inset in a larger scale shows the area with strips of CdSe quantum dots (lane 204 cm-1) and graphene (strip 1100, 1350 and 1580 cm-1).

Figure 4. Images and spectra of luminescence structures of graphene-quantum dot on the surface of glass slides obtained using fluorescent LSM710 confocal microscope (Zeiss, Germany), the excitation semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 405 nm, the size of the ska is investing 50×50 μm 2: a - micro fluorescent and channel bandwidth (arrows show the structure of the graphene-quantum dots); b - luminescence spectra of the respective structures.

Figure 5. Electric circuit for recording the current flowing through the sensing element: 4 - sensitive layer, 5 - metal electrodes, 6 - substrate SiO2.

6. Schematic representation of the setup for controlled feeding/pumping vapors of hydrazine: 7 - sensor element; 8 - the camera that is populated with pairs of hydrazine; 9 - camera with hydrazine hydrate; 10 is sealed tube; 11 - aqueous solution of hydrazine; 12 valve; 13 - bend to remove vapors of hydrazine from the chamber 8; 14 - gate.

7. The dependence of the photocurrent Ifa hybrid structure of graphene-quantum dot from the vapor concentration of hydrazine in the analyzed sample; It- dark current flowing through the sensing layer in the absence of photo radiation quantum dots.

Example.

To demonstrate the possibility of creating hybrid structures of graphene-quantum dot solution brightly luminescent hydrophobic colloidal semiconductor quantum dots CdSe/ZnS with a core diameter of 5 nm in hexane, synthesized according to the procedure of high-temperature ORGANOMETALLIC synthesis described in (V.O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F.V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K.F. Jensen, and M.G. Bawendi: (CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dts: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites// J. Phys. Chem. B, 1997, 101 (46), pp.9463-9475) [6], was mixed with graphene plates, obtained from natural high-oriented graphite according to the procedure described in [F.P. Rouxinol, R.V. Gelamo, R.G. Amici, A.R. Vaz, St. A. Moshkalev: Low contact resistivity and strain in the suspended multilayer graphene Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253104 (2010)] [7]. Schematic representation of gibridnoi structure of graphene-quantum dot is shown in figure 1.

Figure 2 shows absorption spectra and luminescence of the mixture G-CT in hexane, for comparison, also shows the absorption spectra of graphene and CT (Figure 2, curves 2 and 3, respectively ). In the absorption spectrum of the solution structures (Figure 2, curve 1) see the contribution of the absorption bands of graphene (D. Li, M.V. Muller, Sc. Gilje, R.B. Kaner & G.G. Wallace Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets Nature Nanotechnology 3, 101-105 (2008)) [8] with a maximum in the region of 270 nm and the CT absorption band (band with maximum at 610 nm). There luminescence of quantum dots, indicating the absence of the quenching of the luminescence of quantum dots adsorbed on the surface of graphene sheets.

3 shows the Raman spectra of the hybrid structure of GR-CT on a glass slide. In the spectrum of the broad band luminescence CT with maximum 3055 cm-1there are characteristic bands, which indicate the presence in the sample of graphene plates (strips 1100, 1350 and 1580 cm-1) semiconductor and the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS (lane 204 cm -1).

4 shows images of hybrid structures Gr-CT on the surface of glass slides obtained using a confocal microscope. It is seen that the graphene sheets decorated with quantum dots, the luminescence spectrum which corresponds to the range of luminescence data of quantum dots in solution.

To create the sensor element is a layer of semiconductor quantum dots deposited on the surface of graphene plates, applied by spin-coating on a dielectric substrate with metal electrodes formed on her lithographically. Then the sensor element connected to the electrical circuit in accordance with Figure 5.

To study the influence of the vapor of hydrazine on the photoconductivity of hybrid structures G-CT, the sensor element was placed in a sealed chamber, to which was provided controlled release of air containing vapors of hydrazine. Figure 6 shows a schematic depiction of a camera for the controlled feeding/pumping vapors of hydrazine. The sensor element 7 is placed in an airtight chamber 8, which is connected with the chamber 9. In the chamber 9 through the opening closed by a stopper 10 is placed aqueous solution of hydrazine 11. After establishing in the chamber 9 of the equilibrium vapor concentration of hydrazine valve 12 is opened and the chamber 8 is filled with pairs of hydrazine specific to the centration. The sensor element 7 is maintained in the vapor of hydrazine fixed time (for example, within 1 minute). Then the sample is removed and registration of the current flowing through the sensor element.

Figure 7 shows the dependence of the photocurrent flowing through the sensor element, the vapor concentration of hydrazine in the sample. It is seen that the magnitude of the photocurrent Ifsignificantly higher than the dark current Itflowing through the sample in the absence of photo radiation sensor element, and its value decreases proportional to the concentration of vapors of hydrazine in the analyzed sample.

For reuse gibridnykh structures Gr-CT as a sensor element is necessary after the interaction of the sample with pairs of hydrazine to carry out its desorption from the surface of quantum dots. For this we used the setup shown in Fig.6. The sensor element 7, reacted with pairs of hydrazine were placed in the chamber 8, to the tube 13 with the valve 14 was connected to a vacuum pump. The pumping of air leads to a decrease in air pressure in the chamber 8 and, consequently, desorption of the molecules of hydrazine from the surface of quantum dots. It should be noted that while there was an increase of photoconductivity hybrid structure of Gr-CT to the initial level.

Thus, solved the problem of the increase of h is stateliest, reduce inertia determine the concentration of vapors of hydrazine, increasing durability and ease of manufacture of the sensor.

Sources of information

1. US patent # US 4,789,638, the application 07/046,385, publication date 06.12.1988, the priority date of 06.05.1987.

2. US patent # US 5,719,061, the application 08/326,518, date of publication, 17.12.1998, the priority date of 20.10.1994.

3. US patent # US 2010/0147705, the application 11/722,333, published 17.07.2010, the priority date of 22.12.2005.

4. The patent of Russian Federation №2034284, the application 5058002/25, publication date 30.04.1995, the priority date of 07.08.1992.

5. V.O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F.V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M.G. Bawendi: (CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites//J. Phys. Chem. B, 1997, 101 (46), pp.9463-9475.

6. G. Konstantatos, M. Badioli, L. Gaudreau, J. Osmond, M. Bemechea, F. Pelayo, G. de Arquer, F. Gatti & Frank H.L. Koppens. Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain// Nature Nanotechnology, 7, 363-368(2012).

7. F.P. Rouxinol, R.V. Gelamo, R.G. Amici, A.R. Vaz, St. A. Moshkalev: Low contact resistivity and strain in the suspended multilayer graphene Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253104 (2010).

8. D. Li, M.V. Muller, Sc. Gilje, R.B. Kaner & G.G. Wallace Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets Nature Nanotechnology 3, 101-105 (2008).

Electric sensor on a pair of hydrazine containing dielectric substrate on which the electrodes and the sensing layer, changing the photoconductivity as a result of adsorption of vapors of hydrazine, characterized in that the sensitive layer consists of a structure of graphene-semiconductor the suspension point, photoconductivity which decreases as the adsorption of molecules of hydrazine on the surface of quantum dots is proportional to the concentration of vapors of hydrazine in the sample.



 

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