Disposal of solid waste and reclamation of contaminated soil (B09)

B09            Disposal of solid waste; reclamation of contaminated soil(1051)
Harmful influence of existing municipal solvents neutralizing method // 2642086
FIELD: environmental protection.SUBSTANCE: way to neutralize the harmful effects of existing landfills is that they spread the landfill layers to temporarily agreed areas to reduce the rotting of organic substances under atmospheric exposure and heating by the sun. Resulting layer is evenly covered with construction debris.EFFECT: technical result of proposed invention is higher ecological safety of municipal wastes recycling.1 cl
ethod of disposing production waste containing fluorosilicates // 2641819
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: fluosilicates are treated with sodium hydroxide and/or sodium carbonate at a temperature of 80-100°C. The resulting sodium fluoride and sodium silicate solution are separated by filtration. Sodium fluoride is either isolated or treated with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature of 130-150°C and hydrogen fluoride is separated off, which is absorbed by water to form hydrofluoric acid. The residue obtained after extraction of hydrogen fluoride is treated with a hydroxide and/or sodium carbonate to form sodium sulfate. A solution of sodium silicate is subjected to carbon dioxide treatment and silica is recovered.EFFECT: disposal of production wastes generated during the production of phosphorus fertilizers and processing of aluminium ores is ensured, with the production of pure products from them.6 tbl, 10 ex
ethod of producing raw mixture for decorative wall ceramics // 2641533
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing a raw meal mixture containing slagy iron ore beneficiation waste, clay raw materials and vanadium slag including drying components, grinding the said slag and raw materials, and then mixing them, granulating to produce a granular press, its semi-dry pressing and firing is described, where the moistening of the said slagy part and granulating it in a turbolopast mixer-granulator is carried out to produce granules of an advantageous size of 1-3 mm at a rotational speed of the blades of 20-25 s-1, followed by dusting them with a mixture of clay raw material and vanadium slag with the following ratio of components, wt %: slagy part of iron ore beneficiation waste 80-88, clay raw materials 10-15, vanadium slag 2-10.EFFECT: increasing the strength and frost resistance, reducing the water absorption, producing decorative products.1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

ethod for processing of solid milled household and (or) production wastes on biogeochemical plantation // 2640875
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: method includes cultivation of plants that assimilate contaminants on the polluted soil of the plantation, processing of the obtained plant products to produce recycled gas and plant food ash elements and repeated works on plants growing and processing of their products until the permissible concentrations of contaminants in the soil are reached. Plants are cultivated in soil, made from solid crushed household and/or industrial waste and laid on top of a layer of waterproofing material. The soil made of waste, where the pollutants concentrations are of allowed values, is removed from the biogeochemical plantation as an environmentally friendly product, and new soil made from unprocessed solid ground household and/or industrial waste is laid on top of a layer of waterproofing material.EFFECT: method improvement.8 cl, 1 dwg

Separation device for reduced polymer wastes // 2640453
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the separation devices for plastic scrap, which is a polymer waste of different textures with different density and aerodynamic characteristics, and may be used for separation of reduced waste generated in the processing of PET bottles. The separation device for reduced polymer waste, containing two fractions with different specific gravity, contains a separation chamber with one inlet port for supplying a stream of reduced wastes placed in the upper part of mentioned chamber, and at least two outlet ports, one of which is intended for the reception of heavy fractions and is made in the lower part of the chamber and placed directly under the inlet port and another for the reception of light fraction, a cyclone for separating the air from the stream of reduced waste, the outlet branch of which is located above the mentioned separation chamber and a blowing fan for supplying air stream with reduced waste into the cyclone. The device is provided with at least one air blower connected by an air duct with an inlet port formed in the side wall of the separation chamber to form a horizontally directed working air flow in the upper part of the latter, in the zone of the inlet port, and the distributor of a flow of the reduced waste which is unsightly adjoining the outlet branch pipe of the cyclone, connecting it to an inlet port of the separation chamber. The inlet port of the separation chamber is made in its upper wall, has a slot-like shape and is located along the side walls of the separation chamber to form two crossing streams of air in the separation chamber - the working air is being fed horizontally through the mentioned inlet port and the second one is carrying the above-mentioned reduced waste coming from above through the inlet port to the separation chamber. The outlet port for the heavy fraction is equipped with a diffuser expanding towards the inlet port. The outlet port for the light fraction is made in the lower part of the chamber and is located behind the outlet port for the heavy fraction in the direction of the horizontal air flow in the separation chamber.EFFECT: increase separation efficiency, and increase its productivity.3 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of reclamation of erosion-threatening tundra land areas // 2639783
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: method is described, in which a reclamant based on dry peat containing dry sapropel granules, nitroammophosco and a mixture of plant seeds is placed between two quadrangular woven biodegradable webs that have end zones, each having a longitudinal row of openings, and middle zones. The middle zones of the quadrangular webs are fastened together, after which sandwich panels formed in such a way are connected by means of a pull cord from a biodegradable material, which is successively passed through the web openings of each of the two adjacent sandwich panels, thereby forming a single bio-web from the sandwich panels. Each sandwich panel of the bio-web is fixed on the reclamated area surface, and watering is carried out.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency and reliability of the reclamation process of erosion-threatening areas.1 cl

Device for thermolysis dispodal of oil sludge // 2639334
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: device comprises furnace with gas burner configured with the possibility of installation therein and connection to the process lines and removal, a receiving hopper for oil sludge loaded thereinto for thermolysis with the formation of vapor-gas mixture and solid carbonaceous residue. The receiving hopper has a steam-gas mixture outlet branch pipe in its upper part, made with the possibility of its connection through a cooler-condenser with a tank for thermolysis liquid separation from thermolysis gas, which is connected to the line of thermolysis liquid withdrawal and connected to drying column for thermolysis gas through at least one drop baffle, and which outlet is communicated with the furnace gas burner.EFFECT: improved environmental compatibility of oil sludge disposal process, production of alternative fuels.1 dwg
ethod for thermal treatment of cake of sludge sediments in slag melt // 2638558
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method of thermal treatment of sludge of cake sediments in slag melt includes supply to the system of drying plants with cake heating and producing evaporated moisture and dried cake, after that cake is fed to an accumulating hopper with subsequent cake feed into a furnace-gasifier, which is equipped with a burner, a block of molybdenum electrodes and a block of liquid slag draining. Liquid slag is fed to a granulator through the block. In the furnace-gasifier, the organic cake is converted into product gas, which is fed via a contact heat exchanger to a water heat exchanger, after that the product gas is cooled and directed to a complete combustion chamber with a tangential inlet. The complete combustion chamber is narrowed in the region between the inlet and outlet for gas. After the complete combustion chamber, the combustion products are fed into a waste heat boiler, from which the exhaust gas is fed through a gas cleaning system into the chimney.EFFECT: increased yield of target products with reduced emission of pollutants into the environment.5 cl, 3 dwg
ethod for neutralisation and disposal of oil-containing sludge // 2638019
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method comprises mixing quicklime with oil-containing sludge and a surfactant, then lime slaking is carried out by adding of water in volume required for complete lime slacking, neutralisation sorbents are added after lime slaking followed by the final mixing, at that, an agent imparting hydrophobic properties is used as a surfactant, and used silica gel is used as neutralizing sorbents, which is a waste from natural gas drying plants, and a spent zeolite which is waste from the gas desulfurization plants. Mixing is carried out at the following percentage ratio of components, wt %: oil-containing sludge -40-60; quicklime - 29-33; surfactant 0.3-0.5; used silica gel - 9.2-18.5; used zeolite 1.5-8.EFFECT: improved environmental and economic efficiency of neutralisation and disposal of oil-containing sludge.1 tbl

ethod of controlling state of ground waters during livestock waste irrigation // 2637654
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: method includes ecological monitoring of ground waters using wastewater for the irrigation of lands by sprinkling machines to cultivate perennial grasses. The method includes irrigation fields for utilisation of manure-containing flows in the formed irrigation pattern. For this purpose, observation hydroregime wells are arranged for each individual field at the boundary on the side of the open bounded reservoir and the inflow of drainage water into it. And the measurement is carried out in the site at the boundary of the water bearing stratum, the heterogeneity of the soil cover and the profile. In the study of ground waters samples are taken twice - prior to the irrigation season and after the irrigation season. In this case, the studies of the taken samples are carried out in the agrochemical laboratory by analytical analysis to determine the chemical composition of the water bearing stratum, the values of biochemical values such as pH, NH4, Norg, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na, C1, SO4, the quantity of mobile potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen nitrates are measured. Based on the results of the biochemical analysis prior to irrigation and after irrigation of the taken samples from the water bearing stratum for each regime well, the ecological safety of the utilisation of livestock waste is estimated by the content of biogenic elements. In this case, the measurement of the level and values of the biochemical indicators of the water bearing stratum is carried out in the regime wells, the top of the pipe of which is placed above the ground surface and the pipes are placed inside the metal casing in the form of a pipe with a lid.EFFECT: method makes it possible to estimate the degree of ground water contamination for each site from the use of liquid manure from industrial livestock enterprises.2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
Biopreparation for purification of soil polluted by oil and oil products // 2637132
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: biopreparation is made in dry form and includes a water-soluble protective medium and microorganisms - petroleum hydrocarbon destructors containing bacteria of the Rhodococcus genus, the biopreparation contains a strain of Rhodococcus jialingie 1kp, and a strain of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus 5 rb, and a Yarrowia lipolytica 2kp yeast strain as a bacterium of the Rhodococcus genus. The dried microorganisms in the biopreparation are taken in the following mass ratio: Rhodococcus jialingie 1k:Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus 5 rb:Yarrowia lipolytica 2kp=(1-2):(1-1.5):(2-3), and the protective medium contains dehydrated yeast autolyzate, glucose and nutrient mineral salts and microelements that contain at least nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, manganese, zinc and iron compounds, which are taken in the mass ratio of dehydrated yeast autolysate:glucose:nutrient minerals and trace elements = (1-2):(0.5-1):(1-2).EFFECT: speed of soil purification from hydrocarbon pollution is increased by 5 times.1 tbl, 13 ex
ethod for purification of soil polluted by oil and oil products using biopreparation // 2637131
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: method includes full mineral fertiliser introduction into the soil, soil moisture maintaining, periodic loosening or plowing, preparation of a ready to use aqueous dispersion from a dry biopreparation containing a water soluble protective medium and microorganisms - petroleum hydrocarbon destructors, including bacteria of epy Rhodococcus genus, and its application to the polluted soil, a biopreparation is used containing Rhodococcus strain of the Rhodococcus jialingie 1kp bacterium as a bacterium, as well as additional Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus 5 rb bacterium strain and Yarrowia lipolytica 2kp yeast strain, in which dried microorganisms are taken at a weight ratio of Rhodococcus jialingie 1kp : Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus 5 rb : Yarrowia lipolytica 2kp = (1-2):(1-1.5):(2-3). The protective medium of the biopreparation includes dehydrated yeast autolysate, glucose and nutritive mineral salts and trace elements containing at least nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, manganese, zinc and iron compounds, which are taken in the mass ratio of dehydrated yeast autolysate : glucose : salts and trace elements = (1-2):(0.5-1):( 1-2). Preparation of the ready-to-use aqueous dispersion of the biopreparation performed by dispersion of the calculated amount of dry biopreparation M (g) in g in the calculated volume V1 (l) in 1 l of 0.4-0.6% aqueous solution of the full mineral fertiliser to obtain an initial dispersion containing the viable microorganisms of the preparation in an amount of 2×109-4×1011 colony forming units (CFU)/l, air blowing through it for 12-14 hours, followed by introduction of a diesel fuel or soil contaminant into the dispersion in an amount of 0.05-0.20% of the initial dispersion, re-purging through the air dispersion during 12-14 hours and dilution of the obtained concentrated dispersion 20-40 times with a calculated volume of water V2 (l) in l. The ready-to-use dispersion is applied in an amount of 10-20 l/m2 soil, soil moisture is maintained at a level of 60-70% and the first soil loosening or plowing is performed after application of the ready-to-use biopreparation dispersion and application of mineral fertiliser to the soil, and the numerical values of V1 (n), M (r), and V2 (n) are calculated by the formulas V1 (n)=P (l/m2)×S (m2)/N, where P (l/m2) is the amount of ready-to-use biopreparation dispersion in l applied per 1 m2 of polluted soil, S (m2) is the total area of the soil to be cleaned in m2 and N is the degree of dilution of the concentrated dispersion with water, M (g)=K (CFU/l)×V1 (l)/A (CFU/g), where K (CFU/l) is CFU content in 1 l of initial dispersion, A (CFU/g) is the known content of viable microorganisms of the biopreparation in CFU in 1 g of dry biopreparation and V2 (n)=(N-1)×V1 (l).EFFECT: speed of soil purification from hydrocarbon pollution is increased by 5 times.1 tbl, 13 ex
ethod for production of biopreparation for soil purification from oil and oil products // 2636343
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: method for production a biological preparation for soil purification from oil and oil products is proposed. The method involves mixing and culturing of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus bacteria VKPM-B-3780, Acinetobacter radioresistens VKPM-B-2838, Acinetobacter radioresistens VKPM-B-5064 strains until the optical density of the suspension is OD=0.6-0.8, concentrating to 1-5×1011 cells/ml, freeze drying at a residual pressure of 30-50 Pa, heat source temperature of 40°C to a residual moisture content of 0.5-1% and packaging in a sealed container in an inert gas environment.EFFECT: invention allows to obtain a long-term storage preparation for efficient disposal of oil contaminants.2 tbl, 3 ex

ethod for phytomeliorative recovery of strongly trampled down and degraded grassland // 2634435
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: method includes loosening the sod, sowing grasses and semi-shrubs - improvers that have violence and patience: giant wildrye (Elymus giganteas Vahl.), wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. Ex Link) Schult., Agropyron sibiricum (Willd.) P. B., Agropyron pectiniforme Roem. Et Schult.), Russian wildrye (Elymus junceus Fisch.), kochia (Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad.), camphorosms (Camphorosma lessingii Litv.) and fescue (Festuca sulcata Beck.). Undersow is carried out from several of these species at the same time, but with strips of various rows 15-30 cmwide, and while loosening the strips of various rows, row-spacings of virgin soil (sod) 45-50 cmwide are preserved between them. Wherein to carry out the work on the strip undersow of said species in the sod of natural pastures, three modifications of wide-coverage combined units are used, carrying out in one tractor run technological operations for loosening the strips to a depth of 5-18 cm, sowing seeds, covering them and levelling the strips, which are carried out either by inverted harrows on sandy soils, or by a chain drag on loamy soils, or by a drag of wire-rods in the form of rings on sandy loam soils. As tillage working tools, spherical and needle discs are used, the optimal depth of sodded soil tillage with spherical discs being up to 80 mm. It is reached by means of spacing front and rear discs 144 mm apart. For sowing loose and non-loose (sail) seeds of grasses and semi-shrubs, a seed distributor of the can type from serial stubble ploughs and seeders equipped with turners for first ones and spring seed ejectors for second ones is used, with a device in the can for smoothly changing the sizes of the sowing disc cells with the range of the gear ratio change in the limits i=0.21-0.32, where i = gear ratio.EFFECT: method ensures restoring and increasing the productivity of trampled down and degraded grasslands in a sparing mode, without completely destructing the sod.4 cl, 6 dwg, 4 tbl
icrobial preparation for hydrocarbon contamination disposal // 2634403
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: microbial preparation for hydrocarbon contamination disposal in the water bodies areas, shoreline at temperatures of +4 to +20°C and salinity up to 30 g/l. The preparation contains a biomass of psychroactive microorganisms: Psychrobacter maritimus ARC 7 strain and Arthrobacter rhombi ARC 15 strain (VKPM B-12347 and 15 VKPM As-1989 respectively) at a volume ratio of 1:1 with an allowable deviation from the specified value of not more than 10%.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the degree of water bodies areas and shoreline purification from oil and oil products at a temperature.2 ex
icrobial preparation for hydrocarbon contamination disposal // 2634399
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: microbial preparation for hydrocarbon contamination disposal in the water bodies areas, shoreline, at temperatures of +4 to +20°C and salinity up to 30 g/l. The preparation contains a biomass of psychroactive microorganisms: Psychrobacter cibarius ARC 9 strain, Cobetia marina ARC 10 strain and Nocardia coeliaca ARC 12 strain (VKPM B-12348, VKPM B-12349 and VKPM Ac-1990 respectively) at a volume ratio of 1:1:1 with an allowable deviation from the specified value of not more than 10%.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the degree of water bodies areas and shoreline purification from oil and oil products at a temperature.2 ex
icrobial preparation for hydrocarbon contamination disposal // 2634397
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: microbial preparation for hydrocarbon contaminants disposal in the water bodies areas, shoreline at temperatures of +4 to +20°C and salinity up to 30 g/l. The preparation contains a biomass of psychroactive microorganisms: Halomonas boliviensis ARC 3 strain, Psychrobacter fozii ARC 5 strain and Leucobacter aridicollis ARC strain (VKPM B-12344, VKPM B-123456 and VKPM As-1992 respectively) at a volume ratio of 1:1:1 with an allowable deviation from the specified value of not more than 10%.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the degree of water bodies areas and shoreline purification from oil and oil products at a temperature.2 ex
icrobial preparation for hydrocarbon contamination // 2634396
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: microbial preparation is proposed for the utilisation of hydrocarbon contamination in water areas of water bodies, shorelines, at temperatures from +4 to +20°C and salinity up to 30 g/l. The preparation contains biomass of psychoactive microorganisms: Arthrobacter rhombi strain ARC 8, strain of Psychrobacter cibarius ARC 13 and strain Salinibacterium amurskyense ARC 14 (VKPM Ac-1987, VKPM B-12351, VKPM As-1993 respectively) in a volume ratio of 1:1:1 with allowable The deviation from the specified value is not more than 10%.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the degree of cleaning of water areas of water bodies and shoreline from oil and oil products.2 ex

ethod of processing waste sorting of sulphate cellulose in molded products // 2634235
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method includes the processes of accumulation of waste sorting, dilution of waste sorting with water to the required concentration at the grinding stage, grinding of waste sorting, accumulation of pulp, dilution of the pulp with water to the required concentration, manufacturing of moulded products by depositing fibers on the mould surface and forming a wet product on of the mesh part of the mould by increasing the layer of fibers by filtering water under vacuum, followed by pressing and drying of complete product.EFFECT: production of moulded products from waste, no loss of raw materials, avoidance of environmental pollution.2 tbl, 8 ex
ethod of environmental monitoring of apiarian soils by diatomic algae state // 2633787
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: method involves selection of point soil samples according to the "wind rose", carried out layer by layer, every 50 cm, to a depth of up to 150 cm, in apiaries located in the industrial zone and in the background areas without industrial emissions of environmental toxicants. During the method, standard reference samples of soil diatoms are obtained, simulating the process of interaction of the diatoms of the background area soils with industrial emissions (pesticides, heavy metals, oil and oil products) under laboratory conditions. Soil samples are prepared by purifying diatom algae contained in the sample from impurities by filtration, washing with acid followed by boiling, rinsing with acid with distilled water, settling and filtration. Diatomaceous preparations are obtained by fixing the diatoms shells in the Kolbe resin, specific identification of diatom algae taxa is performed and the abundance of diatom algae is assessed, and then the state of diatoms in the test plot (presumably contaminated) is compared to the control one (background soil state).EFFECT: increased accuracy of the determination of pollutants and the level of their concentration in the apiary soil.6 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
icrobial preparation for hydrocarbon contamination // 2633690
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: microbial preparation is proposed for the utilisation of hydrocarbon contamination in water areas of water bodies, shorelines, at temperatures from +4 to +20°C and salinity up to 30 g/l. The preparation contains the biomass of psychoactive microorganisms: Nocardia coeliaca ARC 1 strain, Cobetia marina ARC 11 strain and Arthrobacter rhombi ARC 16 strain (VKPM Ac-1991, VKPM B-12350, VKPM As-1988, respectively) in a volume ratio of 1:1:1 s The permissible deviation from the specified value is not more than 10%.EFFECT: increasing the degree of cleaning water areas and shorelines from oil and oil products.2 ex
ethods of removing solvent from bagassa // 2633580
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method for removing organic solvents from a wet bagasse of a non-hevea plant containing natural rubber in the separate plant cells, that includes using a certain amount of the said wet bagasse, which contains up to 45 wt % of combined organic solvents and water (based on total weight of wet bagasse) and not more than 0.1 wt % of rubber; heating the said wet bagasse to the temperature of, at least, 100°C.EFFECT: evaporating organic solvents takes place; preparing dried bagasse, which contains not more than 1 wt % of organic solvents.6 cl, 2 tbl
ethod of recultivation of objects providing negative effects on environment // 2633397
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: method of reclamation of objects that have a negative impact on the environment includes the analysis of buildings and structures with a minimum emission of dust and the formation of an excavation, which is obtained when removing soil and destroying building structures. The complete detoxification of construction materials and soil is carried out jointly by leaching in a trench, the bottom of which is formed with a bias toward the collector with a sewage sump and their supply system to a water treatment plant.EFFECT: technical result of the proposed invention is the complete disinfection of building materials and soil without exporting them to specialized landfills in the event of liquidation of the consequences of the activities of facilities for the storage and destruction of chemical weapons, the production of chemical weapons and highly toxic substances, including reclamation of the adjacent territory.5 cl, 4 tbl
Device and method for disposal of mercury-containing wastes // 2632956
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to neutralise solid waste, including mercury-containing wastes generated by production activities, including mercury thermometers, energy-saving lamps, fluorescent lamps and other wastes containing mercury. The device for neutralizing mercury-containing wastes contains a mixing drum for mixing mercury-containing waste, a pulverizing medium and a liquid that contains sulfur, to break the mercury-containing waste and the reaction of binding mercury-containing mercury metal waste with sulfur to mercury sulphides, a loading tray that is sealed, A vessel containing a liquid containing sulfur through which gases are passed from the mixing drum through the liquid contained in the vessel st for binding reaction with sulfur vapour mercury in mercury sulfides. A method for neutralizing mercury-containing waste includes loading a grinding medium to break a mercury-containing waste into a mixing drum that is mounted on a mobile platform, sealing the loading tray tightly, rotating the mixing drum, allowing the mercury-containing mercury-containing waste to react with sulfur to form mercury sulphides, pumping gases from the mixing drum, The passage of gases through a vessel containing a liquid containing sulfur to bind mercury vapour to sulfur, returning the gases in the mixture Round drum.EFFECT: reducing the negative impact on the environment, increasing the level of neutralisation of mercury-containing waste.7 cl, 2 dwg
ethod for disposing drilling mud when producing man-made soil // 2631681
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method for disposal of drill mud when producing man-made soil includes mixing of drill mud and sand. Phosphogypsum is introduced in the drill mud in the amount of 3-5% of the drill mud weight, mineral sorbent (glauconite) in the amount of 5-10% of the volume fraction of drill mud, sand - 25% of the volume fraction of drill mud, with further components mixing to produce man-made soil and sowing of crops-phyto-meliorants in combination with humic "Rostock" - 200-400 l/ha.EFFECT: effective and economically feasible technology for disposal of drill mud.1 tbl, 1 ex
Subterranean-slurry mixture for reclamation land and method of soil recultivation using mentioned above mixture // 2631391
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of remediation and land reclamation in the oil producing regions of the drill cuttings. A mixture of soil slurry-dirt for reclamation of disturbed lands and quarries, containing peat-sand mixture cuttings, neutralizing and ameliorating active additives. The density of 1.5-1.85 g /cm3 and a humidity range of 30-60 is used. The content of mixture components is, by weight. 35-50 drill cuttings, sand or loamy soil 25-30, peat grade A, B 25-30, neutralizing and ameliorating active additives - rest.EFFECT: mixture of soil, groundwater sludge for reclamation of disturbed lands and quarries, which allows to ensure the environmental safety of the environment.1 tbl

Device for disposal of bulk organic wastes // 2631294
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device comprises a series-mounted feed hopper 1, a gas generator 2, a vortex trap 4, heat exchangers 5 and scrubbers 6 connected to each other by heat-insulated steel pipes, as well as an ash residue discharge line. An outlet 9 of said line is connected between the gas generator 2 and the vortex trap 4. The gas generator 2 is provided with an air supply control unit 3 and connected to it by flexible textile air ducts. After the gas generator 2, a combustion unit of the ash residue 10 is installed. The combustion unit of the ash residue 10 can be arranged between the gas generator 2 and the outlet of the ash residue discharge line 9 or directly on the ash residue discharge line.EFFECT: improved disposal efficiency by producing high quality amorphous silicon-containing residue.4 cl, 2 dwg

obile plant for drilling waste processing // 2630908
FIELD: mining engineering.SUBSTANCE: mobile drilling waste processing plant contains functional modules, including a set of devices connected in a process sequence by pumps and conveyors, and is characterized in that the plant comprises a loading and preparation module, a filtration module, a mixing and pressing module, a pre-hardening and unloading module for briquettes, while the loading and preparation module contains a receiving and buffer tank with a mixer, receiving hoppers for natural sand, sorbent and plasticiser, and connected by augers dispensers with the receiving and buffer tank. The filtering module contains a slurry pump, by means of which the receiving and buffer tank is connected to filter press. The filter press is connected to filtrate drainage tank, the pumps and the filtrate cleaning filter, and the belt conveyors is connected to the two-shaft mixer. The mixing and pressing module contains a cement hopper and a hardening accelerator hopper connected by the auger dipensers with ther two-shaft mixer in which a hopper for discharging a mixture of dehydrated drilling waste, cement and hardening accelerator is connected to briquetting press hopper. The module for preliminary hardening and unloading of briquettes contains a loading/unloading belt conveyor and a belt stacking conveyor to transfer briquettes for hardening, and connected to the briquetting press from the mixing and pressing module. The receiving and buffer tank from the waste loading and preparation module is connected to the filter press from the filtration module by the slurry pump.EFFECT: increasing mobility of the plant and reducing transportation costs of the drilling waste processing plant into a ready-made, solid, free-flowing moulded construction material - an artificial stone.1 dwg

ethod of recycling of solid and liquid hydrocarbon-bearing wastes and obtaining synthetic liquid fuels from it // 2630687
FIELD: electricity-producing industry.SUBSTANCE: method is based on the electro-hydraulic structural damage of its molecular linkage by virtue of the controlled pulse electrical discharge. The method lies in the fact that the initial medium is sent into the tubular pulse reactor causing the medium permanent offset in the reactor tube, one effects on the medium, which is in the reactor, three times along the initial medium offset by virtue of the square-wave electrical high-voltage pulses. According to the method, one uses the medium, which is formed only by material in the nature of carbon-containing wastes and by water, where the water/material proportion in percentage terms is: for the solid hydrocarbons - 50÷60/40÷50, for the liquid hydrocarbons - 30÷35/65÷70, and for the hydrocarbon-bearing materials - 60÷80/20÷40. One sets the actuation pulse voltage in the 6-10 kV range. Along with this, one defines lengths and actuation pulses frequency for each of three actuations so that the actuation pulses frequency from first to third actuation increases in the 2 hz to 50 hz range, and its duration decreases from 250 ms to 10 ms with the generated synthetic gas removal and the synthetic liquid fuels obtention.EFFECT: solid and liquid wastes recycling, synthetic liquid fuels obtention from recycling without the use of solvents and accelerants.4 dwg, 2 ex

ethod of cleaning standing water reservoirs from heavy metals and oil products // 2630552
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of cleaning standing water reservoirs from heavy metals and oil products involves the use of a sorbent, a coagulant and a coarse mineral matter. The bottom sediment and water are extracted. The extracted bottom sediment is composted with structurants, oil-oxidizing microorganisms, nutrient elements to obtain soils. Electrodes are used to reduce the residual metal concentration in soil. Separated from the bottom sediment, water is returned to a standing water reservoir. Water extracted from the reservoir is purified by successive sorption and filtration in a geochemical barrier filled with a mineral granular material-silicized fraction calcite of 2-5 mm, in which electrochemical current sources that generate a coagulant are located. Purified water is returned to the reservoir, creating water circulation. Water is filtered at a rate of 1-5 m/h at a geochemical barrier length of 8-16 m.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve the efficiency of water treatment and bottom sediments of the reservoir.1 dwg, 4 tbl
ethod and device for neutralisation and recovery of domestic waste landfill body // 2630456
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method for neutralisation and recovery of domestic waste landfill body includes drilling wells in the thickness of the landfill body and installing vertical perforated discharge pipes in them, solar heating and moistening of the landfill body, located under pyramidal transparent caps, atmospheric precipitations and feedwater from the grooves between the caps, anaerobic fermentation in the thickness of the landfill body with the production of bio-gas (methane), its withdrawal from the caps and pores of the landfill body via vertical perforated discharge pipes connected via gas pipelines to the compressor, which creates a vacuum in the cavity of the caps and gas pipelines connected to it on the suction durm and compresses the biogas at the outlet, which enters the tube space of the air cooler under pressure, cooled by external air due to natural draft, where it is cooled and significant portion of water vapouts and heavy hydrocarbons is condensed. Purified and cooled biogas, consisting mainly of CH4, enters the gas collector, and the condensate, consisting of water and heavy hydrocarbons, is supplied to a storage tank. The device for neutralisation and recovery of domestic waste landfill body contains a section of the landfill body at the bottom of the waste dumping ground, drilled in the landfill body along the calculated N-well array, into which the vertical disposal perforated pipes are inserted, connected to the gas pipelines, N transparent sealed pyramidal caps with gaps between them are mounted above the wells along the horizon with width of Δ 1 and immersion depth in thelandfill body of ∆2, which form grooves. Each of the above mentioned caps is made of a framework formed by a lower square frame and an upper ring, interconnected by inclined ribs coated with a transparent sheath. In each cap, the disposal vertical perforated pipes are passed through the upper ring, the pipes reach the bottom of the ground by the lower end, their upper end is inserted into the inlet nozzle of an ordinary gas collector connected to a common gas collector, connected to the compressor located outside the ground boundary, the air tubular cooler and the gas collector via a suction gas pipeline. The grooves of the boundary caps are connected to the feed pump via a distributing gutter.EFFECT: reduced costs, increased efficiency.2 cl, 5 dwg
Segregated domestic waste recovery method // 2630249
FIELD: human life necessities satisfaction.SUBSTANCE: segregated domestic waste recovery method comprises the transport deloading, the waste deloading from the receiving pits on the plate conveyer with the knifes for the packages opening, the light components fragments blowing-out by virtue of the air stream, its reduction in sizes, the bulky waste crushing, the metal components reduction in sizes, the waste bulky elements crushing, the metal components reduction in sizes, the crushed elements sort into fractions, and the organic components, that are distilled into the industrial alcohol, are selected. One finishes the equipping of every flat with the capacity with the one-time-only package for the intake of the items that are environmentally unfriendly, with the hermetically closed package for the products for the natural needs satisfaction and the hermetically closed package for the wastable food. In addition to the containers for the domestic waste intake, one finishes the container yards equipping with the containers for the one-time-only packages for the products for the natural needs satisfaction and for the package for the wastable leftovers. One finishes the railway yards equipping with the pits for the intake of the one-time-only packages with environmentally unfriendly items, the pits for the intake of the one-time-only packages with the products for the natural needs satisfaction and of the one-time-only packages with the wastable leftovers, and the pits for the intake of the rest domestic waste. One finishes the carriages-garbage-removal-truck equipping with the heating units to prevent the material adfreezing in its transportation in wintertime. When the one-time-only package for the environmentally unfriendly items, the package for the products for the natural needs satisfaction, the package for the wastable food, the one-time-only package for the domestic waste intake are full, one delivers these packages to the container yard and throws it into the free container. The contents of the same-name containers are loaded into the car-garbage-removal-truck body and are driven to the railway station, where it is unloaded into the relevant pit. The trains-garbage-removal-trucks deliver the domestic wastes to the separating plant, where the mechanical sorting and the manufacture of the elements for the low-rise housing construction are carried out. The environmentally unfriendly items are loaded into the other train carriage and are delivered to the recycling plant, and the packages with the organic substances are loaded into the next train-garbage-removal-truck to deliver it to the plant of the recycling into the industrial alcohol.EFFECT: eliminate the possibility of the made of the domestic waste goods pollution with the environmentally unfriendly substances.1 cl
ethod for soil purification from oil pollutants // 2630246
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: in the proposed method, the contaminated soil is treated with a suspension of a biopreparation based on microorganisms where Microbacterium testaceum cultures VKPM As-1998 and Alcaligenes faecalis VKPM B-12416, taken at a 1:1 ratio, are used as microorganisms. An amount of biological preparation suspension, in which the content of the Alcaligenes faecalis culture VKPM B-12416 in terms of absolutely dry matter is 0.2% - 0.5% of the pollutant mass, is introduced into the contaminated soil.EFFECT: improved efficiency of purification of lands polluted with hydrocarbons, expanding the functionality of the proposed method.2 tbl, 2 ex

ethod for establishing polygons of solid domestic wastes in distributed areas of multi-yellow soils // 2630241
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method of erecting solid waste landfills in permafrost areas includes trenching, excavation from a trench of fertile soil and maternal rock with the bottom of the trenches below the boundary of seasonal thawing, filling the trench with solid household waste, filling the maternal rock and fertile soil over solid household waste. Trenches are filled with solid household waste to the level of the earth's surface.EFFECT: increasing the capacity of the landfill and reducing the area of disposal of domestic waste.6 cl, 2 dwg
ethod for disturbed soils recultivation // 2630237
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: method involves introduction of a biologically active drug based on a consortium of bacteria into the soil, followed by grass mixture sowing. A biopreparation suspension is introduced into the soil, where Alcaligenes faecalis cultures VKPM B-12416 and Microbacterium testaceum VKPM As-1998 are used as bacteria, taken at the 1:1 ratio. The amount of biopreparation suspension where the amount of Alcaligenes faecalis culture VKPM B-12416 based on absolutely dry matter is 3.0 g to 5.0 grams per 1m2 of soil is introduced into the soil.EFFECT: simplified technology and improved quality of recultivation, while reducing costs of implementation.1 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod for processing fly ash of thermal power stations // 2630021
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: in the method for processing fly ash of coal-fired thermal power stations, comprising high-temperature treatment in a nitrogen atmosphere, the process is conducted in the presence of urea at fly ash: urea ratio of 1:1, and the high-temperature treatment is carried out in a flow of nitrogen plasma at a plasma temperature of 4000-6000°C at a power of a plasmatron of 25 kW and a plasma flow velocity of 60-100 m/s, followed by cooling in a nitrogen atmosphere fed at a velocity of 60-80 m/s and separating multidisperse fractions under conditionds of vortex cycloning and filtering on a bag filter.EFFECT: waste utilisation, expansion of assortment of useful products obtained as a result of ash utilisation.2 dwg, 1 ex

Device for thermal treatment of hazardous waste // 2629721
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device for thermal treatment of hazardous waste which contains sequentially linked storage hopper, thermolysis reactor with a hopper feed unit and a lower discharge device, a tank for cooling (quenching) the carbon residue of waste thermolysis, a temporary storage hopper for the carbon residue with a sampling system for express toxicity analysis and installation of plasma afterburning of the carbon residue with a receiving slag bath, as well as a fractionation line with a packed scrubber, an adsorber and column apparatus for isolating liquid hydrocarbon fraction of thermolysis and uncondensed synthesis gas products used as secondary fuel in a thermolysis reactor, purification system of industrial sewage, three stage purification of thermolysis reactor flue gases. The thermolysis reactor contains at least one thermolysis chamber, the gas treatment system contains three stages of treatment with the extraction of heavy metal oxides, and the water treatment system includes three stages of physico-chemical treatment.EFFECT: increased degree of treatment, reduced operating costs, the possibility of combined loading and processing of non-uniform solid, liquid and pasty waste, increased reactor productivity, increased energy efficiency.3 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of carbon-containing wastes disposal // 2629666
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of carbon-containing wastes disposal includes the selection of the carbon-containing component from wastes, cooling of the carbon-containing component, the catalytic synthesis of methanol from the carbon-containing component. The exhaust gases from the gas turbine plants of the main gas pipelines gas transmission compressor stations are used as wastes. The carbon dioxide is selected from these gases, it is cooled in the heat exchanger of the gas turbine plant, then it is hydrogenated on the copper-containing catalyst in the methanol synthesis reactor. The hydrogen for the carbon dioxide hydrogenation is obtained by the high-temperature electrolysis of water on the oxygen-conducting membrane. The required electrolysis temperature is maintained by the heat, generated in the heat exchanger of the gas turbine plant, while cooling the carbon dioxide. The oxygen, separated on occasion with the help of the membrane, is added to the natural gas, sent as the fuel for the gas turbine plant.EFFECT: carbon-containing wastes disposal simplification and reduction of the methanol cost.2 cl, 1 dwg

Recycling titanium diboride materials // 2629299
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. Method of processing titanium diboride material involves chlorination of titanium diboride material with gaseous chlorine to produce titanium-containing product and boron-containing product. At least one of titanium-containing product and boron-containing product contains at least one impurity. Method includes purification by distillation of titanium-containing product and boron-containing product to a degree sufficient to reduce concentration of at least one impurity. Titanium diboride is obtained by reaction between titanium-containing and boron-containing product. Titanium diboride can be obtained by oxidation of titanium-containing product and boron-containing product to titanium dioxide and boron oxide and subsequent carbothermal reaction between titanium dioxide and boron oxide. Titanium diboride can also be obtained by exposing titanium-containing product and boron-containing product to a gas reducing agent, such as hydrogen.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain purified titanium diboride from wastes or waste articles containing TiB2.16 cl, 8 dwg, 2 ex
Sanitation of over-manured soils by phytoremediation method // 2629260
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for sanitation of soils contaminated by non-standardized application of non-disinfected liquid manure in ultrahigh doses of nitrogen N300-900, in the operation areas of industrial livestock enterprises. The phytoremediation method includes cultivating oilseed radish resistant to growth in over-manured soils, the rhizosphere of which has a strong biocidal effect. Mechanical soil tillage, early spring ploughing to a depth of 20-25 cm, cultivation to a depth of 10-12 cm, loosening, harrowing, packing and sowing seeds, followed by care and harvesting the green mass of oilseed radish. Seed sowing is performed in the period of soli warming-up to 2-3°C, at the sowing rate in case of sowing in broad drills - up to 6 kg, in case of sowing in continuous drills - 16-18 kg/ha.EFFECT: said method allows to ensure effective sanitation of soils.4 tbl

Complex of technical means to provide cleaning of coastal territories of arctic seas from contamination and utilisation of educated wastes // 2628939
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: device for cleaning the coastal areas of the Arctic seas from pollution and disposal of generated waste includes a process line containing vehicles, unified waste collection containers with press equipment located in them and a waste recycling device. A metal cutting device and an oil-containing water separator with equipment for incineration of oil waste separated from water are introduced into the technological line. The waste recycling device is designed as a device for burning oil fractions remaining in the metal container. The device and the press equipment are located in the mobile module, and the oil-containing water separator with the equipment for incineration of oil waste separated from the water is also made in the form of a mobile module. The structure of the device introduced residential and energy modules to supply energy consumers.EFFECT: use of this invention provides cleaning of coastal areas of the Arctic seas from pollution and waste disposal while improving the ecology.1 dwg
Biosorbent for soil and water purification from oil and oil products // 2628692
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: preparation has both adsorption capacity due to hydrophobic peat-mineral sorbent, and oil-destructive activity due to microorganisms immobilized on the sorbent. The biosorbent consists of a hydrophobic sorbent based on peat and association of Rhodococcus erythropolis VKPM AS-1660 and Rhodococcus sp. strains VKPM AC-1260 in a ratio of 1:1 by volume. The strains are immobilized on the sorbent by aerosol as part of a bioemulsion, which contains a strains association, vaseline oil, an emulsifier and a mineral additive. Biosorbent features are: aerosol method of bio-emulsion application to the sorbent; prolonged action; provided biodegradation of sorbed oil and oil products at a temperature of plus 2°C to plus 32°C; low desorption of sorbed oil and oil products, no need for additional measures for sorbed oil disposal.EFFECT: invention allows to improve the quality of soil and water surface purification from oil and oil products.3 tbl, 2 ex
ethod for covering surface of tailings impoundments with inert materials // 2628581
FIELD: mining engineering.SUBSTANCE: method for covering surface of tailings impoundments is to consistently cover the contaminated area with layers. As layers, inert materials are used in the following sequence: potentially fertile overburden rocks, sand and gravel mixtures, vermiculite, ash-and-slag wastes.EFFECT: increasing the reliability of tailings impoundments surface covering, ensuring environmental safety of tailings wastes, reducing costs.1 cl

Device for oil wastes recycling // 2627784
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: device for oil waste recycling contains scroll conveyor body, a auger placed in it, a heater, an additional steam generator. The body of the scroll conveyor in the upper part is made in the form of a rectangular box, the bottom wall of which is made in the form of a porous plate with a porosity of 0.2-0.6, on which a horizontal tube bundle is installed. In the lower part, the body is made in the form of two semi-cylindrical slots installed in parallel and connected along a generatrix of a cylindrical surface. The auger is made in the form of two spirals, each of which is installed in a semicylindrical slot. On the axis of each spiral there is a pipe with a porous wall, which is connected to the steam generator with its input. The output of each pipe with a porous wall is connected to a rectangular box. The heater in the form of a tube bundle is installed from the outside on the conveyor body and is connected to the output of a horizontal tube bundle with its input.EFFECT: reduction of hydrocarbon losses during oil wastes recycling, reduced harmful discharges to environment.4 dwg, 2 ex
Tungsten-molybdenum ores flotation benefication low-carbonate wastes disposal method // 2627656
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes the decarbonatization steps, element leaching and sediment treatment, in which decarbonatization is carried out by contacting the raw material, having the carbonate content less than 9% with 1N sulfuric acid solution at ratio C:L=1:2, for 1.5-2 hours to obtain the pulp. Leaching of the pulp is carried out at the temperature of 60-70°C for 2-3 hours in agitation mode with 1N sulfuric acid at the ratio of C:L=1:1 with the addition of 37% hydrogen peroxide solution in the amount of 0.05 l/kg of the pulp. Further, perform the decantating or filtration of this pulp to obtain the sediment and the mother solution, the sediment is washed with the industrial water with S:L=1:(2-3) for at least 0.5 hour, the sand fraction is separated and the resulting slurry is settled to form the settling solution. The solution, obtained after the sorption extraction of the elements, is combined with the settling solution and supplied to the head of the process to the decarbonatization stage.EFFECT: using of this invention allows to provide disposal and neutralisation of tungsten-molybdenum ores flotation benefication low-carbonate tails without using the high-temperature technologies for collecting the sublimations.4 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl
Underground reactor system // 2627594
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method for fuel producing from an organic material in an underground reactor (versions) and an underground reactor for use in the above process (versions) is proposed. The underground reactor includes the first conduit for organic material injecting under the ground and converting it into fuel, the second bypass for raising the converted organic material, and a heat exchanger for generating heat to power the equipment where the heat transfer fluid contains piezo-thermal or piezoelectric particles. In another version the underground reactor also comprises a pump for holding the reaction zone at the desired temperature. The method includes sending the organic material under the ground through the first conduit, applying to an organic material in a pressure and temperature reaction zone for converting the organic material into fuel, raising fuel through the second pipeline, and circulating the heat transfer fluid. In another version the method also includes using a heat exchanger to generate heat for use in the equipment powering.EFFECT: obtaining fuel due to underground temperature and pressure.95 cl, 23 dwg, 5 tbl, 13 ex
ethod for producing calcium fluoride from fluorocarbon-containing waste of aluminium production // 2627431
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for producing calcium fluoride from fluorocarbon-containing wastes of aluminium production involves treatment of fluor-containing solutions with calcium hydroxide, followed by separation of the solution and a pulp and liberation of calcium fluoride, which is washed with water. As a fluor-containing solution, a solution is used, obtained by leaching solid fine-dispersed fluorocarbon-containing waste of electrolytical aluminium production - sludge from gas cleaning, dust from electrostatic precipitators and spent coal lining. Fluorocarbon-containing wastes are submitted for treatment in a ratio of T:H=:(10-11) with respect to a 2-2.5% solution of sodium hydroxide. The treatment is carried out at a leach solution temperature of 65-85°C.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce calcium fluoride from solid fine-dispersed fluorocarbon-containing waste of electrolytic aluminium production with a fluor content in the solid phase of 12 to 25 percent.2 cl, 4 tbl
Neutralizing material for reclamation of acidified soils // 2626646
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: slag of ferrovanadium production by silicoaluminothermic method is used as a neutralizing material for reclamation of acidified soils of the plant containers.EFFECT: expanding the arsenal of neutralizing materials used for reclamation of acidified soils.2 tbl, 1 ex
Bacterial strain tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens vkpm v-12342 - destructor of alkanes and biosas producer for cleaning territories, water areas and industrial waste from oil pollutants // 2626593
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens PS2 bacterial strain is able to utilise aliphatic hydrocarbons and produce biologically surface-active substances. The bacterial strain is deposited in the Russian National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms under accession number VKPM B-12342 and may be used for cleaning territories and water areas contaminated with oil hydrocarbons.EFFECT: increased efficiency of territories and water areas cleaning from oil contaminations.4 ex

Industrial method and device for processing organic waste // 2626160
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: method of industrial processing of organic waste includes composting using composting worms. The substrate of organic waste is loaded into a vermimodule where it is humidified in the biohumus solution, aerobically fermented, then an array of organic wastes is formed from verminodules, with their subsequent periodic rearrangement and turning by 120° for loosening and aeration of the substrate, loading and forcing the compost worms. The device for processing organic waste is represented by a verminodule, which is made in the form of a trapezoidal prism, the base of which is an equilateral triangle, the walls of which are made perforated and connected by means of detachable hinges.EFFECT: excluding the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere.3 cl, 2 dwg