Biorecycling method of oil sludge and oil production and processing waste

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: for biorecycling of oil sludge and oil production and processing waste by means of soil populating with natural black-soil-forming organisms a mixture is prepared with an initial composition of 26-30% of oil sludge, 26-30% of liquid oil sludge and the remaining part of organic domestic waste and/or saw dust, the mixture is infused within 20-24 hours at a temperature of 20-25°C for further populating with earthworms of the first generation, the mixture is withhold within 17-30 days till the earthworms of the second and third generations appear for the purpose of the sludge-contaminated soil treatment. The earthworms of the second and third generations grown in a hothouse conditions by adaption of the earthworms of the first generation to the above mixture are introduced to the contaminated soil. At that introduction of the earthworms of the second and third generations is made at a volume ratio of soil and the mixture equal to 10-15:1.

EFFECT: improving efficiency of the contaminated soils treatment.

4 cl

 

The invention relates to the field of technologies for biological treatment and recycling of waste and can be used for decontamination of soils, industrial wastes, sewage sludge, contaminated products of oil production and oil processing (hereinafter referred to as sludge) in order to protect the environment. It is known that waste, sludge and contaminated soils generated during production, transportation and processing of hydrocarbons, characterized by a high content of organic pollutants with toxicity towards plants and animals objects. Ecological relevance solved in this invention is that it proposes a solution for the environmental restoration of contaminated petroleum products soil purification from slimes in most cases is more complicated than the removal of oil pollution in the water. This is because the oil soaks into the soil and eventually makes its collection and disposal. It is almost impossible complete removal of harmful substances in the polluted area, which leads to the death of all living things, and contaminated soil remains lifeless for many years.

A method of processing oil sludge (RF patent No. 2198747,7VS 1/10, 2000), namely, the oil sludge is mixed with microorganisms and biostimulant. For this, oil sludge, add fresh soil and sawdust in a mass ratio of 1:2:1, as microorganisms use the bacterial strain Bacillus SP. ARRIAM 132, and as biostimulant - protein feed additive "Biotin", after a period of incubation of microorganisms (not less than 50 days) conducted additional soil treatment biostimulant. The disadvantage of this method is that considerable energy work, the degree of purification of the soil is low and requires numerous repetitions of the soil.

There is a method of decontamination of soils from petroleum products (patent RF №2075447 IPC6C01F 1/40, 1997), which is a collection of infected soil, separation and sludge cultured biological strains of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The disadvantage of this method - tillage is performed on special equipment with high energy consumption and required delivery of sludge to the treatment site.

Known invention (patent RF 2433109. IPC C05G 3/08, 2009)related to agriculture and soil science, which is aimed at restoring the soil through soil structured ecocomposite occupied earthworms and microflora typical for pristine black and includes calulatorcrush the existing mushrooms, lithotrophic microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and destructors nitrogen compounds, or soil application of concentrated soil solution, which consists of a water extract (filtrate) ecocomposite containing dissolved components of humus and microflora. In this way presents the technology of obtaining filtrate and describes the purpose for structuring depleted soils and fertilizers to increase yields of various types of agricultural products. A feature of this invention is the use of the natural properties of earthworms for environmental remediation of the soil is not direct way to check for worms in the soil, and to obtain structured soil ecocomposite or concentrated soil solution as the filtrate. In the description of patent No. 2433109 there is mention that this method can be used to restore soils contaminated with oil, however, evidence on the effectiveness of this method in this direction is missing. However, given the fact that the use in this invention humus form organisms, including earthworms, you can take this patent as the closest analogue. The disadvantages of this decision should include the fact that the purpose and the end product of this method is ecosense or filtrate, which further can be used for remediation of polluted or depleted as a result of economic activity of the soil, while it is impossible to recognize the effective use of this method for cleaning soil from sludge.

The purpose of the claimed invention is the biotransformation of oil sludge and waste from the mining and processing of oil by making biomass containing bacteria and living natural humus form organisms in the contaminated soil, which were pre-adapted to the processing of soil with a high content of organic harmful substances.

The objective is achieved by depositing the sludge or contaminated sludge soil mixtures containing earthworm humus form the second and third generations, grown in greenhouse conditions at a temperature of 20-25°C by adapting earthworms of the first generation to the previously prepared mixture with the starting composition of 26-30% cuttings, 26-30% oil content the rest is organic household waste and/or sawdust, and which infused for 20-24 hours for the subsequent settlement in it of earthworms of the first generation, after which withstand the mixture 17-30 days until it worms second and third generation, designed for treatment of contaminated sludge soil by the bearing in it mixed with earthworms second and third generation in a volume ratio of soil and mixtures as 10-15:1. Growing earthworms second and third generations are produced in thermal chambers with adjustable heating and ventilation of the mixture. Ready for use mixture with earthworms second and third generations transported to the place of treatment of contaminated soil in thermal containers, providing the temperature of the mixture 8-35°C. the Treatment of contaminated soil is carried out by mixing the mixture under field conditions in areas of contamination in the sludge or waste extraction or refining method uniform dispersion of the mixture on the surface of the pre-opening of contaminated soils at temperatures 8-25°C, or by mechanical mixing with contaminated soil in a closed room at the same temperature, followed by exposure of not less than 12 days. Indoors, it is advisable to use the standard slag storage area (storage) concrete walls of the basement, equipped with a drainage system. If necessary, after conducting biotesting Pets repeated tillage. Use the mixture to adapt worms sawdust due to the fact that sawdust provide softening and preserving the moisture of the mixture, which has a positive effect on development and reproduction cher Samoobrona organisms.

The expected effectiveness of the proposed method of ecological restoration of soils contaminated with petroleum products and waste production and refining of oil, based on the high immunity of earthworms to various environmental changes and soil conditions in which they live, including in the case of soil contamination by petroleum products. It is established that if a habitat for worms extremely hostile, several generations of worms shed their cocoons, of which worms are born with immune abilities to this environment, with each new generation of these abilities are enhanced. Adapted generation worms can develop microorganisms and humifulvate available in the soil harmful compounds. This method is developed on the basis of the conducted researches [1] reaction and survival of earthworms under the influence of various types of petroleum products, which has allowed to establish the factors influencing the mortality and survival of earthworms:

- the type and dose of the pollutant, the duration of oil pollution;

- intervals of the residual oil concentrations in the soil, which begins the restoration of the population of earthworms;

residual concentration of oil and oil products in the soil, which begins restoring the population density of rain h is rva;

- the limits of survival and cross-border area migration of earthworms in terms of soil contamination with oil products;

- flexibility and stability of various species of worms to the soil contamination with petroleum products, the behavior of worms in the soil pollution with oil products, the response to pollution in search of clean soil.

Taking into account the available information about the behavior of earthworms in contaminated soil is proposed a method of treatment of contaminated soil, according to which pre-activities on adaptation and the development of immunity in earthworms to contaminated oil environment by growing worms second and third generation in greenhouse conditions in a specially prepared mixture containing the appropriate percentage of cuttings, liquid oil sludge and municipal organic waste or sawdust. Mix used for adaptation of the worm to the recycling of contaminated soil, should on the one hand contain a certain amount of pollutants in the form of oil (or oil and drilling sludge), on the other hand

- it should be suitable for living community humus form organisms, i.e. it must contain a primary food (household waste, sawdust and other organics) in order to provide initial conditions: air and water permeability, the optimum temperature habitat worms required for the biological decomposition of the reclaimed waste and humus form development and soil microorganisms. Adaptation of earthworms of the first generation is carried out in a pre-prepared at a temperature of 20-25°C. the mixture with the starting composition consisting of 26-30% cuttings, 26-30% liquid oil sludge, the rest is organic household waste and/or sawdust, and which infused for 20-24 hours. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and placed in a drained tank and placed in a temperature controlled room at a temperature of 8-25°C, optimal for biological decomposition. After settling the mixture worms first generation it is kept in the optimum for the development of the humus form organisms in the conditions 17-30 days until it worms of the new generation. Newborn worms are born sterile, absorb from the surface of new substrates microorganisms decomposing these substrates, in this case, the microorganisms-destructors of oil. Later on coprolites (feces worm) microorganisms-destructors of oil repeatedly absorbed by other worms and become a permanent microflora community inhabited by worms. Thus, there is a new culture of humus form organisms, about alausa the processing characteristics of a new species of the mixture, containing petroleum products. The processing mixture is accompanied by a qualitative change in the appearance and odor:

the surface of the mixture is leveled and by the end of the processing resembles the uniform mass of the black color, the smell disappears. As consolidation of the new composition of the microflora of the speed of processing increases: if the original processing portion of the mixture takes 7-12 days, after adaptation worms duration of processing is reduced to 1-2 days, it is an indicator of the end of the adaptation process and the suitability of a new culture for practical purposes.

The treatment of contaminated soil is carried out by mixing the mixture under field conditions in areas of contamination in the sludge or waste oil, or oil processing method uniform dispersion of the mixture on the surface of the pre-opening of contaminated soils at temperatures 8-25°C, or by mechanical mixing with contaminated soil in a closed room at the same temperature, followed by exposure of 7-12 days, thus it is advisable to use, for example, the standard slag storage area (storage) with its own concrete base, equipped with a drainage system. If necessary, after conducting biotesting Pets repeated tillage. For ka the Dogo Deposit required individual adaptation of the mixture, as the oil composition can vary depending on the place of production.

The preparation of the mixture with adapted worms may be made in the areas of processing contaminated soil subject to the conditions set forth in this application, or adapted to grow worms on specialized farms, and ready for use mixture with earthworms second and third generations can be transported to site treatment of contaminated soil in thermal containers, providing the necessary for the sustenance of humus form organisms conditions: ventilation, humidity and temperature of the mixture 8-35°C.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed method of biopreparation oil sludge and waste production and refining repeatedly confirmed by biotesting state contaminated soil after treatment with a mixture containing in its composition humus form organisms.

1. How biopreparation oil sludge and waste from the mining and processing of oil by settling of contaminated soils natural humus form organisms, characterized in that the contaminated soil contribute mixture containing earthworm humus form the second and third generations, grown in greenhouse conditions by adapting earthworms first generation to tentative the prepared mixture with the starting composition of 26-30% of drill cuttings, 26-30% liquid oil sludge, the rest is organic household waste and/or sawdust, and which insist for 20-24 hours at 20-25°C for subsequent settling into her earthworms of the first generation, after which withstand the mixture 17-30 days until it worms of the second and third generations, intended for the treatment of contaminated sludge, soil, and the soil mixture with earthworms second and third generation is carried out at a volume ratio of soil and mix as 10-15:1.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cultivation of earthworms second and third generations are produced in thermal chambers with adjustable heating and ventilation of the mixture.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ready to use mixture with earthworms second and third generations transported to the place of treatment of contaminated soil in thermal containers, providing the temperature of the mixture 8-35°C.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixing of the mixture with contaminated soil carried out either by uniform dispersion of the mixture on the surface of the pre-opening contaminated soil, or by mechanical mixing with contaminated soil in the outdoor storage or indoors at temperatures 8-25°C for the next exposure 7-12 days.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: soil-sludge mixture is obtained by thermal treatment and contains a mixture of components obtained by processing wastes in the UZG-1MGZH apparatus for treating oil-contaminated soil in amount of 30-40 wt %, peat 20-35 wt % and sand 20-50 wt %, wherein the mixture of components contains, wt %: vanadium oxide 32.5; carbon 31.4; aluminium oxide 7.5; silicon oxide 7.5; nitrogen oxide 6.8; iron oxide 5.3; hydrogen 4.4; magnesium oxide 1.5; manganese oxide 0.8; lead oxide 0.4; chromium oxide 0.4; zinc oxide 0.4; nitrogen 0.4 and related impurities 0.7.

EFFECT: improving environmental conditions, restoring fertility of oil-contaminated and disturbed lands, higher fertility as a result of enrichment of contaminated soil with oxygen and mineral fertilisers during treatment and reducing oil-contaminated areas.

3 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: soil-sludge mixture for reclamation of oil-contaminated and disturbed lands contains a mixture obtained by treating a composition consisting of oil sludge, peat, sand and water, with the following ratio of components, wt %: vanadium oxide 32.5; carbon 31.4; aluminium oxide 7.5; silicon oxide 7.5; nitrogen oxide 6.8; iron oxide 5.3; hydrogen 4.4; magnesium oxide 1.5; manganese oxide 0.8; lead oxide 0.4; chromium oxide 0.4; zinc oxide 0.4; nitrogen 0.4; related impurities 0.7. Components of the composition of oil sludge, peat, sand and water are in the following ratio, wt %: oil sludge 30-40%; peat 30-35%; sand 30-35%; water - the balance. The related impurities include a proppant which contains ceramic spheres, a cut of the oil-contaminated soil layer containing crushed stone, and fine wastes of ferrous and nonferrous metals. Treatment involves mixing the composition of oil sludge, peat, sand and water in a hopper of an UZN-1MGZH apparatus.

EFFECT: improving environmental conditions, restoring fertility of oil-contaminated and disturbed lands, higher fertility as a result of enrichment of contaminated soil with oxygen and mineral fertilisers during treatment and reducing oil-contaminated areas.

4 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection. The composition for cleaning soil contaminated with oil and motor fuel comprises peat filler, nitrogen and phosphorus fertiliser, used in ratio N:P2O5=1-10:1, zeolite-clay rock modified with a cationic surfactant, and cation-exchange minerals, with the following content of components, wt %: low- or high-moor peat 44.79-93.989; nitrogen fertiliser, N 0.01-0.15; phosphorus fertiliser, P2O5 0.001-0.06; zeolite-clay rock, modified with a cationic surfactant 1-15; cation-exchange minerals 5-40.

EFFECT: invention provides localisation and biodegradation of a hydrocarbon contaminant with high efficiency and prolonged effect.

6 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils contaminated with oil products, decontamination of soils, liquidation of oil spillage, etc. Proposed device comprises intake bin, mixer, crusher, cleaned soil handling device, screw conveyor and vibrator. Crusher is arranged above intake bin and communicated via screw conveyor with mixer. Mixer represents and encased horizontal screw mixer with pelletised sorbent dispenser arranged at its top part. Mixer outlet is connected via screw conveyor with drier bin. Drier is composed by housing accommodating belt conveyors to carry the material along the drier and to pour it down onto belt conveyor. Conveyor top runs contact with vibrators mounted there under. Said vibrators are composed by roller eccentrics with individual or group drive. Burners to combust sorbent with oil products are arranged in drier housing above said conveyors. Drier top section accommodates the off-gas collection chamber communicated with cyclone and absorber via smoke sucker. Cleaned soil handling device is mounted at outlet of the last conveyor and composed by discharge channel connected with opening in drier housing sidewall to be closed by shutter.

EFFECT: higher intensity of oil removal irrespective of seasons.

1 dwg

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: for bioremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils first before sowing peas, the inoculum is prepared from symbiotic microorganisms resistant to cadmium, consisting of soil-root mixture containing the strain of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus sp.Fo 1 deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM00630, in the amount of 0.5-1.0 g of a mixture per 1 pea seed; the aqueous suspension of nodule bacteria containing the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM1066, containing 106-107 cells of bacteria per 1 ml of the suspension, in the amount of 0.1-0.5 ml suspension per 1 pea seed, and the aqueous suspension of associative bacteria containing the strain Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2, deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM00049, containing 106-107 cells of bacteria per 1 ml of the suspension in an amount of 0.1-0.5 ml of the suspension per 1 pea seed. Then in the cadmium-contaminated soil the seeds of genetically modified peas SGECdt are sown, which have higher resistance and accumulation of cadmium in an amount of 20-60 seeds per 1 m2, combining them during sowing with an inoculum following the specified standards, and the plants are grown to full maturity of beans, then the peas are mowed and removed from the soil surface.

EFFECT: accelerated recovery process of healthy biocenosis of soil.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture, in particular to revegetation. Method includes sowing perennial grasses with introduction of mineral fertilisers. Vermiculite substrate with granules up to 2-4 mm and pH from 6.5 to 7.2 is placed on ground in up to 1 cm layer. Seeds of grasses are sown on substrate surface with their irrigation with water solution of mineral fertilisers. After that, substrate surface is covered with polymer film, which is removed on 5-7 day. Vermiculite substrate represents swollen vermiculite with pH from 6.5 to 7.2, obtained by method of high-temperature burning at temperature up to 850°C with regulation of rate and temperature of burning, containing wt %: silicon oxide (SiO2)-34.0-36.6; iron oxide (Fe2O3)-5.6-6.5; aluminium oxide (Al2O3)- 9.1-9.9; magnesium oxide (MgO)-24.7-26.6; iron oxide (FeO)-0.20-0.27; titanium oxide (TiO2)-0.40-0.47; calcium oxide (CaO)-1.02-1.22; manganese (Mn)-0.05-0.07; potassium oxide (K2O)-0.70-0.87. Before application of vermiculite substrate layer on very dense ground, its tillage is carried out.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase efficiency of formation of sown culture phytocenoses and their longevity, initiate processes of seed germination and further growth and development of herbaceous plants and reduce terms of formation of culture phytocenoses.

3 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of forestry and reclamation. The method comprises coating the slopes with soil substrate by uniform shifting it from the horizontal surfaces, covering the horizontal sites with soil substrate by leveling, planting the nursery plants of trees and shrubs, planting seeds of herbaceous plants. As the soil substrate, a mixture of material with a high content of nutrients is used in the form of sewage sludge, organic matter, peat, manure and phosphogypsum with the ratio of the mixture components of 2:1 by volume. The mixture is stirred by milling on horizontal plate. Covering the surface of the slopes with the resulting mixture with the thickness of 25-30 cm is carried out by uniform sliding on the slopes. Then, a continuous layer with the thickness of 15-20 cm is formed on the horizontal surfaces. The layer of the soil substrate is covered on top with a mulch layer of sand with the thickness of 1-3 cm using a spreader. At the final stage of reclamation across the entire surface the nursery plants of fast-growing trees and shrubs are planted, which have the developed root system and aboveground part with the height of 0.5-1.0 m, followed by sowing seeds of herbaceous plants.

EFFECT: invention enables to accelerate biological reclamation due to creation of optimal conditions for growth of tree and shrubbery vegetation by optimising the composition of the artificial soil substrate used.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to reclamation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (oil products), radioactive nuclides and heavy metals with the help of electric osmosis. Proposed method consists in inducing nonuniform electric field between central and peripheral electrodes and applying magnetic field perpendicular to cleaning zone. Proposed device comprises central electrode. Said electrode is composed of a rod with cross-section of polygonal shape with concave sides. System of peripheral electrodes is composed by separate rods. The latter are interconnected by plates arranged in zigzag line so that its recess or ledge is aligned with those of central electrode surface. Besides, proposed device comprises two extra solenoids arranged one above the other. First solenoid is plunged in submerged zone soil while second electrode is fixed by crossbar at the post extending through central electrode axis.

EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to revegetation. Proposed method comprises harrowing and forming of growth and top soil by spreading local plant types phytomass on top bare soil. Note here that after harrowing, seed of grass mixes of local plants are sown to introduce nitrogenous phosphatic potash fertilisers on the basis of 100 kg per one hectare. Layer of 8-20 cm-thick aged local plants are applied on the surface to make a protective layer. Seed of grass mix of annual and perennial local far north alien species can be used to this end.

EFFECT: higher quality of revegetation.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of environment. The method is carried out by treating the soil with an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol into which mineral or organic fertilisers are added. The seeds of perennial grasses and coniferous plants are added, and mixed with soil. It is frozen at temperature below freezing, and then thawed at positive temperatures.

EFFECT: method enables to structure and stabilise the soil, to improve the quality of the strengthening turf due to development of a stronger and more branching root system.

2 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants in oil recovery and transportation regions.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): chemical ameliorant 3.5-5.7; organic fertilizer 15.7-29.0; adsorbent 67.5-78.6. Method for sectioning soil treatment includes application of composition onto soil layer with 30 cm of depth. Then treated layer is shifted out of spot boundary. Opened surface is covered with composition of present invention. Then mole drainage of 60-65 cm in depth is made in soil by using mole plow or chisel plow, followed by plowing of 58-51 cm in depth and returning of sheared soil into spot.

EFFECT: effective soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: methods for phytomediation (phytorecultivation) of soil contaminated with petroleum.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting perennial grasses into soil contaminated with petroleum, said perennial grasses being preliminarily grown for at least one growing period in non-contaminated soil and then replanted in soil contaminated with petroleum with their rootstocks and/or stolons and/or seedlings. Phytocultivation method may be used at earlier stages of soil contamination with petroleum to allow recultivation time to be reduced.

EFFECT: increased survival rate and yield of plants and reduced recultivation time.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises land ploughing, sowing of perennial herbs, which are natural accumulators of heavy metals and naturally growing on given area or in given locality, and finally cutting and utilization of overground part of plants. Preferred perennial herb is Austrian absinth (Artemisia austriaca). In case of iron salt pollution, cutting is executed during the end of vegetation period and, in case of other heavy metal pollution, in the beginning of vegetation period.

EFFECT: enabled biological protection of land from heavy metal pollution.

2 ex

FIELD: environmental protection; oil and gas producing industry; methods of purification of subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of environmental protection, in particular, to purification of the subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution by liquid hydrocarbons. In the polluted zone they drill a borehole, create and maintain in it a negative pressure within the limits of 2 kgf/cm2 up to 0.8 kgf/cm2. At that they simultaneously exercise extraction of the product of impurity from the borehole. The technical result of the invention is an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole per a unit of time.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole and its purification per a unit of time.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: disposal of solid waste.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises removing the contaminated layer of soil, separating the large impurities and biomass, grinding the contaminated layer by dispersing in water environment to produce pulp which is treated by ultrasound for disintegration of water-resistant agents, and supplying the pulp for separating the destructed agents into density and sizes of the particles by gravity to produce and separate the rectified coarse mineral and organo-mineral fraction, and draining contaminated fine dispersed mineral, organo-mineral, and organic fractions. The deposit containing radionuclides and heavy metals are separated, dried, and fed to the processing and burying. The purified water solution is returned for the repeatable use.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and quality of cleaning.

22 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, environment protection, more particular, reduction of 137Cs level in soil.

SUBSTANCE: method involves growing accumulating plants such as lentils and Jerusalem artichoke on contaminated soil during three vegetation periods; alienating the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period; determining soil cleaning extent from formula: Cη=(Ca-Cs/Ca)*100(%), where Cη is extent of cleaning soil; Ca is level of 137Cs in soil before planting of said accumulating plants; Cs is level of 137Cs in soil after withdrawal of the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period.

EFFECT: reduced specific activity of 137Cs in soil, increased efficiency in removal of radio nuclides and obtaining of ecologically clean plant products, reduced possibility of external and internal radiation of people.

2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of ecologically pure farm products on soil contaminated with radio nuclides.

SUBSTANCE: method involves practicing steps enabling reduction in accumulation of radio nuclides within various crops, said steps including utilizing mineral and organic fertilizers; introducing mineral fertilizers for cultivation of the following crops: winter rye, winter wheat, oats, and potato, with nitrogen to potash ratio making 1:1.5; applying organic fertilizers for cultivation of lupine and serradella, and additionally providing liming of soil for barley cultivation.

EFFECT: reduced content of radio nuclides in main rotation crops.

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises applying mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers simultaneously with the natural high-porosity mineral draining agent made of an aluminosilicate and subsequent loosening down to a depth of 25-30 cm. The ratios of the components are presented.

EFFECT: reduced cost.

6 ex

FIELD: disposal of solid waste.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises vehicle provided with the tank filled with coolant, collector that is used for supplying coolant and is connected with the tank though a T-shaped hose having detachable branch pipes connected with the appropriate cooling chambers. The cooling chamber is made of a box whose open section faces the surface to be frozen and receives the collector for spraying the coolant. The outer walls of the chamber are provided with face and side flanges that form a closed space for circulating coolant. The chamber walls are provided with means for interconnecting the chambers.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reduced coolant consumption.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: restoration of soil contaminated with oil.

SUBSTANCE: at first stage, upper layer of oil sludge is collected and refuse is separated on vibrating screen; then oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of water, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures. At second stage, middle layer of oil sludge is collected; this layer contains substratum water which is first cleaned from refuse by passing it through vibrating screen; then, water is subjected to centrifuging for separation of oil sludge, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures from it; they are washed in surfactant solution. At third stage, bottom sediment is collected and is washed in surfactant solution for separation of oil sludge; then, refuse is separated from oil sludge in vibrating screen, after which oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of remaining water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.

EFFECT: increased degree of separation of oil sludge into cleaned oil sludge, water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.

3 dwg

Up!