Method of bioremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils
SUBSTANCE: for bioremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils first before sowing peas, the inoculum is prepared from symbiotic microorganisms resistant to cadmium, consisting of soil-root mixture containing the strain of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus sp.Fo 1 deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM00630, in the amount of 0.5-1.0 g of a mixture per 1 pea seed; the aqueous suspension of nodule bacteria containing the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM1066, containing 106-107 cells of bacteria per 1 ml of the suspension, in the amount of 0.1-0.5 ml suspension per 1 pea seed, and the aqueous suspension of associative bacteria containing the strain Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2, deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM00049, containing 106-107 cells of bacteria per 1 ml of the suspension in an amount of 0.1-0.5 ml of the suspension per 1 pea seed. Then in the cadmium-contaminated soil the seeds of genetically modified peas SGECdt are sown, which have higher resistance and accumulation of cadmium in an amount of 20-60 seeds per 1 m2, combining them during sowing with an inoculum following the specified standards, and the plants are grown to full maturity of beans, then the peas are mowed and removed from the soil surface.
EFFECT: accelerated recovery process of healthy biocenosis of soil.
The invention relates to biotechnology and is designed to clean and restore healthy ecological community contaminated by cadmium soil.
Heavy metals (TM)such as cadmium, lead, mercury, zinc, Nickel, copper and others, are among the most common and dangerous pollutants of natural and anthropogenic origin. Unlike organic pollutants (oil, xenobiotics) TM not amenable to degradation and is capable of moving along the links of the ecosystem, to concentrate in animals and man. The intensive development of industry, transport and agricultural production leads to the formation of local lesions with extremely toxic concentrations of TM (piles of rocks, the area around the industrial enterprises, polygons), and the contamination of vast areas of agricultural land.
Conventional physico-chemical methods for removal of soil, such as excavation, thermal treatment, rinsing or chemical decontamination reagent, widely used at present for the elimination of relatively small pockets of pollution, destructive to ecosystems. These technologies are extremely expensive to create new waste requiring disposal, reduce soil fertility, or make it unfit for agricultural COI is whether. Reclamation activities at the remediation of extensive agricultural areas with relatively low levels of contamination TM mostly not directed at the cleanup of soils and to prevent the entry of TM in agricultural products (for example, liming of soils), which is a temporary and partial solution to the problem of pollution. So a more appropriate methods based on the use of biological systems - organisms and plants.
In the last 10 years developing a complex of innovative technologies for the remediation of contaminated agricultural landscapes, called phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is based on the use of plants for the concentration and detoxification of TM on the basis of physical, chemical and biological processes that ensures the preservation of agricultural landscapes and restoring healthy ecosystems. In this regard, the actual are searching resistant TM forms of plants with high yields of vegetative mass and actively accumulating TM, as well as microorganisms that form a symbiosis with plants, stimulate their growth, nutrition, and increase resistance to stress.
Known RF patent №2231944 for the invention "Method of biological treatment of soils", MKI AV 79/02, VS 1/00, publ. 27.01.2004. The method includes seeding of plants in contaminated heavy is tallamy soil, mowing and removal of green mass. Use the seeds of the dandelion in the number 1,95-24.3 million pieces per 1 hectare After germination of the plants brought to the phase formation of rosette leaves. Mowing and removing plants produce many times before the formation of seeds. The method can significantly reduce the content of heavy metals in contaminated soils.
Also known patent RF №2181933 for the invention "Method of reclamation of toxic lands disturbed by coal mining", MKI AV 79/02, VC 1/10, publ. 10.05.2002. According to the first conducting surface layout, then sowing seeds of perennial plants treated cultures of Azotobacter chroococcum Mut-1 B-35 B. megaterium and Bacillus KC-1 p-135. Then hold inoculation of soil suspension of bacterial cells of the genus Pseudomonas, isolated from soil moldboard soil surface at the rate of 100·108cells in 1 ml Method allows after 1 year remediation to obtain fertile layer of soil, similar to natural, sustainable grass. When this is complete decomposition of phenols oil, improving agrochemical properties of the soil, the accumulation of humus and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium available to plants.
Known RF patent №2403102 for the invention "Method for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons (options)", MKI VS 1/10, publ. 10.11.2010,>
The invention relates to the protection of the environment, and can be used to clean soil or soil from contamination by hydrocarbons in all industries related to production, transportation, processing or storage of oil and oil products, as well as in the aftermath of their spill. The method involves planting in the soil-plant phytoremediation. Under option 1 before sowing in the soil seed is treated with a suspension of strain Sinorhizobium meliloti P221 or strain Azospirillum braselense SR80. Under option 2, the method comprises planting in the soil-plant phytoremediation and inoculation of soil with the suspension of the strain Sinorhizobium meliloti P221 or strain Azospirillum braselense SR80, the soil suspension is carried out until reaching a concentration of 1-3×107cells/g of soil contained in the surface layer, depth up to 30 cm as plants phytoremediation use a mixture of seeds of legumes, namely alfalfa seed, and seeds of cereal plants, such as perennial ryegrass, and/or rye winter wheat and/or sorghum or bunch, in the ratio of 1:1-3. The invention improves the efficiency of phytoremediation.
Known RF patent №2176164 for the invention "Method for biological remediation of oil-contaminated soils", MKI VS 1/10, AV 79/02, publ. 27.11.2001. The method involves treating the soil with biological and trace elements. The processing is subjected to the soil sow the seeds of leguminous and cereal crops. For soil use biological products on the basis of Actinomyces sp 1-96A JSC "Bioflora" N-05, Azotobacter chroococcum VKPM B-3721, Bacillus mucilaginosus In PMBC-5987, and a consortium of lactic acid bacteria PMBC 5972. Before sowing, the seeds are soaked in a solution consisting of 1-4 parts of a biological product on the basis of Actinomyces sp 1-96A JSC "Bioflora" N-5 and 1-6 parts Azotobacter chroococcum VKPM B-3721 1000 parts of water. In the process of plant growth exercise of foliar fertilization with mineral fertilizers. The method allows to reduce the tar content in the soil after 3 months by 31.6% of the initial content.
Known RF patent №2229203 invention "Phytoremediation method of cleaning soil from heavy metals", MKI AV 79/02, V C1/00, publ. 27.05.2004 (prototype).
Phytoremediation method includes seeding the soil with seeds of plants of the families Compositae, legumes and cereals in the ratio of 1:1:1 in the amount of 1.50-22,90 million pieces/ha followed by repeated mowing them during growing period, drying, and removing from the surface of the soil. Phytoremediation method of cleaning soil is environmentally friendly and can significantly reduce the content of heavy metals in contaminated soils.
The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency in the recovery of soil fertility, especially with highly toxic concentrations of TM (piles of rocks, territory and around industrial enterprises, polygons), and to increase the resistance of plants to various stresses, including the toxicity of heavy metals, particularly cadmium.
The objective of the invention is the development of effective bioremediation of contaminated heavy metal cadmium soil through symbiotic plant-microbe system.
The problem is solved by a method of bioremediation of contaminated cadmium soil use symbiotic plant-microbe system consisting of resistant cadmium genetically modified plants peas, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and symbiotrophic bacteria containing the enzyme the ACC deaminase.
In this first, before sowing seeds of peas, cook AMF inoculum from resistant to cadmium symbiotic organisms consisting of a fungus arbuscular mycorrhiza Glomus sp. (soil-root mixture containing hyphae and spores of the fungus in the amount of 0.5-1.0 g of a mixture of 1 seed peas), nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (aqueous suspension containing 106-107class. bacteria per 1 ml of suspension in an amount of 0.1-0.5 ml of suspension for 1 seed peas) and associative bacteria Variovorax paradoxus (aqueous suspension containing 106-107class. bacteria per 1 ml of suspension in an amount of 0.1-0.5 ml of suspension for 1 seed peas). Then in contaminated cadmium soil sow the seeds of peas SGECdt - genetic the ski modified pea (Pisum sativum L.), in the amount of 20 to 60 seeds per 1 m2combining them at the time of planting with prepared in advance by the AMF inoculum of symbiotic microorganisms above the norm, and plants are cultivated according to standard techniques applicable to peas, specific soil conditions and the given climatic region. After reaching full maturity beans peas harvested and removed from the surface of the soil.
In the reach reduce plant available cadmium in arable layer of soil and enrichment of soil organic matter and beneficial to plants by microorganisms, which helps to restore healthy ecological landscape.
Beveled and remote plant biomass is dried and disposed of by burning and subsequent use of fly ash as a source of cadmium in the production and technology.
For the implementation of the proposed method bioremediation of contaminated cadmium soils use the following plants and strains of the microorganisms listed below.
Mutant pea SGECdt with enhanced stability and accumulation of cadmium. This mutant pea SGECdt obtained in the research Institute of agricultural Microbiology (SSI ARRIAM) from seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines SGE; the method of its production and characteristics described in the article: Tsyganov V.E., Belimov A.A., Borisov A.Y., Safronova V.I., Georgi M., Dietz K.-J., Tikhonovich I.A. A chemically induced new pea (Pism sativum L.) mutant SGECdt with increased tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium. Ann. Botany, 2007, 99, 227-237.
The strain of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus sp. 1Fo-resistant cadmium extracted from technogenic soil contaminated with oil products and heavy metals deposited 26.03.2012, in NISHM in the Departmental collection of useful microorganisms for agricultural purposes RAAS (BKSM/RCAM) under registration number RCAM 00630.
Check the stability of this fungus to cadmium was conducted in pot experiment in the greenhouse lighting 50 W/m2(16 h day/8 h night) and temperature of 20-22°C. the Plants were grown in containers containing 200 g of sterilized sod-podzolic soil. Autoclaving the soil was performed twice with an interval of 5 days under the conditions of: a pressure of 1.5 ATM; sterilization time 60 minutes Characterization of soil: pH salt - 4,7; water pH of 5.4. Half of the vessels in the soil was additionally introduced cadmium in an amount of 10 mg Cd/kg soil.
Seeds of peas were sterilized and were scarificial concentrated H2SO4for 30 min and germinated for 3 days. Each container was planted with 2 seedlings. Soil-root mixture, whether or not containing endomycorrhizal fungi, previously introduced into the vessels of the seed layer in an amount of 10 g/pot. Soil moisture was maintained at 60-70% of the full capacity of the soil. The plants were grown for 45 days prior to phase on the Ala education beans.
At the end of the experiment, roots were washed in water, and treated with 10% KOH for 10 min at 95°C and washed with water 3 times. Then the mycelium in the roots were stained by keeping the roots for 3 min in a 5% solution of black mascara (Shaeffer, France) in 10% acetic acid solution and thoroughly washed with water. Samples of roots were placed on glass slides and microscopically to determine the occurrence of mycorrhizal infection (F), the abundance of arbuscule in the sample (M), the abundance of arbuscule in militancy fragments (m), the abundance of vesicles in the sample (V) and the abundance of vesicles in militancy fragments (v) by the method of Travel (Zolnikova NV, Vorob'ev N.I. research Methods fungi, forming with plants mycorrhiza arbuscular-vesicular type. Ed. RAAS, St. Petersburg, 1992, 44 C.). Plants were dried at 40°C and weighed on an analytical balance (Shinko-ViBRA, Japan). The results of the experiment are shown in table 1.
|Influence of cadmium and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus sp. 1Fo with enhanced stability and accumulation of cadmium on the settings microzooplankton of pea line SGE|
|Options inoculation||Enrichment of soil 10 mg Cd/kg||the Occurrence of mycorrhizal infection (F), %||The abundance arbuscule||The abundance of vesicles|
|M %||m %||V %||v %|
|Inoculation by Glomus sp. 1Fo||-||39±11||47±12||59±12||26±7||32±7|
During the experiment it was found that the development of plants has been an active and fairly homogeneous in all variants of the experience. Inoculation of plants with strains of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus sp. 1Fo led to intensive development of mycorrhizal with whom ructur in the roots, it was also confirmed that this strain is highly resistant to the presence of cadmium and does not reduce the intensity of minoritatii enriched in cadmium soil.
The strain of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1066 deposited 20.02.1978, Departmental collection of useful microorganisms for agricultural purposes RAAS (BKSM/RCAM) number RCAM1066 in the group of root nodule bacteria. The strain is resistant to cadmium; contains the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate the deaminase, which has anti-stress effect on plants. Certificate of Deposit is attached.
Strain associative bacteria Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 deposited 25.10.2010, Departmental collection of useful microorganisms for agricultural purposes RAAS (BKSM/RCAM) under registration number RCAM00049. The strain is resistant to cadmium, contains the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate the deaminase, which has anti-stress effect on plants.
Resistance to cadmium strains of bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1066 and Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 was determined by the method described in the article (Belimov A.A., N. Hontzeas, Safronova V.I., Demchinskaya S.V., Piluzza G., Bullitta S., Glick B.R. Cadmium-tolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with the roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czrn.) Soil Biol. Biochem. 2005, 37, 241-250) method of cultivation on agar medium MDF (g/l): glucose - 1; sucrose - 1; gluconic acid - 1; Na-citrate - 1; I is lachna acid 1; mannitol - 1; starch - 1; KH2PO4- 2,0; Na2HPO4- 3,0; MgSO4to 0.2; NaCl - 0.1; pH is 6.8.
Before inoculation of bacteria in the autoclaved medium was added sterile solution CdCl2in concentrations from 0 to 500 μm. Bacterial resistance to cadmium was evaluated visually by growth rate at certain concentrations of cadmium after cultivation for 5 days at 28°C.
It is established that for strains RCAM1066 and RCAM00049 (5C-2) the minimum cadmium concentration that inhibited growth of bacteria was 100 and 1300 µm CdCl2and the minimum lethal concentration was 250 and 3500 μm CdCl2respectively.
Thus, due to the use in the claimed method of the high potential of leguminous plants in restoration of fertility and symbiotrophic microbial communities of soils; through the use of unique plant mutant pea SGECdt highly resistant and cadmium accumulation; through the use of complex effective and resistant to heavy metals strains symbiotrophic microorganisms (arbuscular mycorrhizal mushroom, pea and associative bacteria)that improve the mineral nutrition of plants that fix atmospheric nitrogen and produce phytohormones; and through the use of strains of root nodule and associative bacteria containing EN zymes the ACC deaminase, which plays an important role in improving plant tolerance to various stresses, including the toxicity of heavy metals, including Cd, the inventive method provides enrichment of the soil are useful for plants by microorganisms, which leads to healthier soil biocenosis and accelerate recovery plant landscape.
The inventive method of bioremediation of contaminated cadmium soil is illustrated by a series of vegetation experiments.
For these vegetation experiments first plants of the pea wild-type varieties SGE and mutant SGECdt were grown in enriched cadmium soil and in soil with low content of cadmium in quality control. Methodological features of such experiments with peas were tested previously (Safronova V.I., Stepanok V.V., Engqvist G.L., Alekseyev Y.V., Belimov A.A. Root-associated bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase improve growth and nutrient uptake by pea genotypes cultivated in cadmium supplemented soil. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 2006, 42, 267-272; Belimov A.A. Interaction of associative bacteria with plants: the role of biotic and abiotic factors. Palmarium Acad. Publ. 2012, 228 p., ISBN-13: 978-3-8473-9692-5).
Vegetation experiments were carried out in the summer in St. Petersburg in the greenhouse with natural light and temperature regimes. Used sod-podzolic subocularis soil carbon total - 2,23±0,04%; total nitrogen - 0,16%; mobile phosphorus - 30,3±0,63 mg P2O5/100 g; the amount of exchange on the ground - 5,9±0.18 mg EQ/100 g; pH salt 4,63±0,12; water pH of 5.45+-0,37, which were sterilized by autoclaving and kept for 3-4 weeks. Plants grown in containers containing 2.0 kg soil. The content of Cd in soil was less than 0.5 mg Cd/kg of Fertilizers were applied in the amount of (mg/kg): NH4NO3 - 15; K2HPO4 - 450; MgSO4 - 60; CaCl2 - 35; H3BO3 - 4; MnSO4 - 4; ZnSO4 - 4; Na2MoO4 - 4. In some vessels in the soil was additionally introduced cadmium in the form of CdCl2 in the amount of not less than 15 mg Cd/kg (i.e., not less than 30 mg of Cd per vessel).
Seeds of peas were sterilized and were scarificial concentrated H2SO4 for 30 min, then were germinated for 3 days in Petri dishes. Then the seeds of pea line SGE and genetically modified SGECdt were sown in different vessels in quantities of 1 (min) and 3 (max) seed vessel that meets the requirements of 20 and 60 seeds per 1 m2. When the sowing of peas into the soil every seed combined (inoculable) with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus sp. 1Fo (0.5 g (min) and 1.0 g (max) soil-root mixture to the seed) and with a water suspension of the bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1066 and Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 (with title 106CL (min) and 107CL (max) in 1 ml of suspension in an amount of 0.1 ml (min) and 0.5 ml (max) suspension 1 seed peas). Served as control vessels with pinacolborane plants.
In some experiments (vessels) combined all min numeric indicators, and others - all max numeric values.
Humidity pochwy experiments was maintained at 60-70% of the full capacity of the soil with regular watering. The plants were grown to full maturity beans, then cut and remove the aboveground part.
Cut the plants were grinded to powder, and burned in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide for the subsequent determination of cadmium concentration by optical emission spectrometry concurrent validity with inductively coupled plasma spectrometer ICPE-9000 (Shimadzu, Japan).
The results of the experiments are shown in table 2.
|Vegetation experiments with field peas and pea mutant to study the effect of inoculation of seeds of pea symbiotic microorganisms on the effectiveness of bioremediation of contaminated cadmium soil|
|Version of experience||Dry biomass of shoots (g/plant||Cadmium content in shoots (mg/kg||Removal of cadmium shoots, µg/plant|
|SGE. Uncontaminated Cd soil. Without inoculation.||0,6||0,7||Not found||Not defined|
|Peas SGECdt. Uncontaminated Cd soil. Without inoculation.||0,6||0,7||Not found||Not defined|
|Peas SGE. Uncontaminated Cd soil. Inoculation .RCAM: 00630, 1066, 00049.||1,8||2,0||Not found||Not defined|
|Peas SGECdt. Uncontaminated Cd soil. Inoculation .RCAM: 00630, 1066, 00049.||1,8||2,0||Not found||Not defined|
|Peas SGE. Polluted Cd soil. Without inoculation.||0,4||0,5||2,6||3,7||1,04||1,85|
|Peas SGECdt. Polluted Cd soil. B is C inoculation.||0,5||0,6||4,1||5,2||2,05||3,12|
|Peas SGE. Polluted Cd soil. Inoculation pieces RCAM: 00630, 1066, 00049.||1,0||1,2||9,5||10,4||9,5||12,5|
|Peas SGECdt. Polluted Cd soil. Inoculation .RCAM: 00630, 1066, 00049.||1,8||2,0||12,9||14,2||23,2||28,4|
Comparison of the results obtained in these variants of experience, are shown in table 2, allows to draw the following conclusions.
1. The increase in biomass above-ground parts of pea plants grown in sterilized and contaminated with cadmium soil by inoculation with microorganisms amounted to 330÷360%.
2. The increase in biomass above-ground parts of pea plants grown in sterilized and contaminated with cadmium soil and inoculated with microorganisms, due to the use of genetically modified peas (mutant SGECdt) was 65÷80%.>
3. The increase in the concentration of cadmium in the aboveground parts of plants grown in sterilized and contaminated with cadmium soil by inoculation with microorganisms amounted to 270÷315%.
4. The increase in the concentration of cadmium in the aboveground parts of plants grown in sterilized and contaminated with cadmium soil and inoculated with microorganisms, due to the use of genetically modified peas (mutant SGECdt) was 65÷80%.
5. Increased removal of cadmium above-ground part of plants grown in sterilized and contaminated with cadmium soil by inoculation with microorganisms was 9-11 times.
6. Increased removal of cadmium above-ground part of plants grown in sterilized and contaminated with cadmium soil and inoculated with microorganisms, due to the use of genetically modified peas (mutant SGECdt) was 220÷240%.
Thus, the application of the proposed method bioremediation of contaminated cadmium soil, which uses resistant to cadmium symbiotic plant-microbe system, consisting of leguminous plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, root nodule bacteria and associative bacteria containing the enzyme ACC deaminase, leads to the removal of cadmium by plants from the soil, enriching the soil with nutrients in the form of plant roots and useful simbio the practical microorganisms.
These factors contribute to the decrease in the content of cadmium in the soil, effective restoration of healthy soil biocenosis and accelerate recovery plant landscape.
A method of bioremediation of contaminated cadmium soil, including seeding the soil with seeds of pea plants, growing plants, followed by mowing their above-ground parts and removing from the surface politicalwire the fact that before seeding peas cook AMF inoculum from resistant to cadmium symbiotic microorganisms, consisting of soil and root mixture containing a strain of the fungus arbuscular mycorrhiza Glomus sp. 1Fo deposited in the collection of the GSI ARRIAM RAAS number RCAM00630, in quantities of 0.5-1.0 g of a mixture of 1 seed peas; water suspension nodule bacteria containing a strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1066, deposited in the collection of the GSI ARRIAM RAAS number RCAM1066 containing 106-107class. bacteria per 1 ml of suspension in an amount of 0.1-0.5 ml of suspension for 1 seed peas and water suspension associative bacteria containing the strain of Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2, deposited in the collection of the GSI ARRIAM RAAS number RCAM00049 containing 106-107class. bacteria per 1 ml of suspension in an amount of 0.1-0.5 ml of suspension for 1 seed peas; and use of genetically modified seeds SGECdt, with increased stability and accumulation of cadmium, which at the time of planting in contaminated cadmium soil in the amount of 20 to 60 seeds per 1 m2combine with cooked beforehand by the AMF inoculum of symbiotic microorganisms at a specified rate and grow plants to full maturity beans.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture, in particular to revegetation. Method includes sowing perennial grasses with introduction of mineral fertilisers. Vermiculite substrate with granules up to 2-4 mm and pH from 6.5 to 7.2 is placed on ground in up to 1 cm layer. Seeds of grasses are sown on substrate surface with their irrigation with water solution of mineral fertilisers. After that, substrate surface is covered with polymer film, which is removed on 5-7 day. Vermiculite substrate represents swollen vermiculite with pH from 6.5 to 7.2, obtained by method of high-temperature burning at temperature up to 850°C with regulation of rate and temperature of burning, containing wt %: silicon oxide (SiO2)-34.0-36.6; iron oxide (Fe2O3)-5.6-6.5; aluminium oxide (Al2O3)- 9.1-9.9; magnesium oxide (MgO)-24.7-26.6; iron oxide (FeO)-0.20-0.27; titanium oxide (TiO2)-0.40-0.47; calcium oxide (CaO)-1.02-1.22; manganese (Mn)-0.05-0.07; potassium oxide (K2O)-0.70-0.87. Before application of vermiculite substrate layer on very dense ground, its tillage is carried out.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase efficiency of formation of sown culture phytocenoses and their longevity, initiate processes of seed germination and further growth and development of herbaceous plants and reduce terms of formation of culture phytocenoses.
3 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of forestry and reclamation. The method comprises coating the slopes with soil substrate by uniform shifting it from the horizontal surfaces, covering the horizontal sites with soil substrate by leveling, planting the nursery plants of trees and shrubs, planting seeds of herbaceous plants. As the soil substrate, a mixture of material with a high content of nutrients is used in the form of sewage sludge, organic matter, peat, manure and phosphogypsum with the ratio of the mixture components of 2:1 by volume. The mixture is stirred by milling on horizontal plate. Covering the surface of the slopes with the resulting mixture with the thickness of 25-30 cm is carried out by uniform sliding on the slopes. Then, a continuous layer with the thickness of 15-20 cm is formed on the horizontal surfaces. The layer of the soil substrate is covered on top with a mulch layer of sand with the thickness of 1-3 cm using a spreader. At the final stage of reclamation across the entire surface the nursery plants of fast-growing trees and shrubs are planted, which have the developed root system and aboveground part with the height of 0.5-1.0 m, followed by sowing seeds of herbaceous plants.
EFFECT: invention enables to accelerate biological reclamation due to creation of optimal conditions for growth of tree and shrubbery vegetation by optimising the composition of the artificial soil substrate used.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to reclamation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (oil products), radioactive nuclides and heavy metals with the help of electric osmosis. Proposed method consists in inducing nonuniform electric field between central and peripheral electrodes and applying magnetic field perpendicular to cleaning zone. Proposed device comprises central electrode. Said electrode is composed of a rod with cross-section of polygonal shape with concave sides. System of peripheral electrodes is composed by separate rods. The latter are interconnected by plates arranged in zigzag line so that its recess or ledge is aligned with those of central electrode surface. Besides, proposed device comprises two extra solenoids arranged one above the other. First solenoid is plunged in submerged zone soil while second electrode is fixed by crossbar at the post extending through central electrode axis.
EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to revegetation. Proposed method comprises harrowing and forming of growth and top soil by spreading local plant types phytomass on top bare soil. Note here that after harrowing, seed of grass mixes of local plants are sown to introduce nitrogenous phosphatic potash fertilisers on the basis of 100 kg per one hectare. Layer of 8-20 cm-thick aged local plants are applied on the surface to make a protective layer. Seed of grass mix of annual and perennial local far north alien species can be used to this end.
EFFECT: higher quality of revegetation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of environment. The method is carried out by treating the soil with an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol into which mineral or organic fertilisers are added. The seeds of perennial grasses and coniferous plants are added, and mixed with soil. It is frozen at temperature below freezing, and then thawed at positive temperatures.
EFFECT: method enables to structure and stabilise the soil, to improve the quality of the strengthening turf due to development of a stronger and more branching root system.
2 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and reclamation. Proposed method comprises using stimulatory substance representing an organomineral compost prepared by mixing phosphogypsum, elementary superphosphate and KPC compost at the their following ratio subject to alkaline metal concentration in wt %: phosphogypsum - 10.0-15.0, elementary superphosphate - 0.8-1.0, KPC compost making the rest. Said compost is introduced in soil one time for 4-5 years in amount of 100-110 t/hec with content of organic substance of up to 20% and pH 6.0-6.5 to reduce alkalinity of black earth soil to 7.2-7.8 followed by placement of compost by cultivator to the depth of 20-25 cm.
EFFECT: simplified and accelerated reclaiming of soil contaminated with heavy metals.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils contaminated in oil-and-gas production. For reclamation of soils special site is arranged to make soil-slime mix by mixing drilling slime, said and peat, to be held for definite time and delivered to application point. Mote here that drill cuttings are transferred to said site by specially equipped dump trucks as well as peat and sand. In compliance with the first version, the mixes are dumped to make three enclosed rolls to be mixed by excavator. In compliance with the second version, peat, sand and slime are uniformly spread in 15-20 cm-thick 100 m-long and 2.0-2.5 m-wide bay and mixed by cutter. Now, the mix is cured for 1-30 days to level moisture content of mix pile and to make equal to from 10±5% up to 40±10% .
EFFECT: better environmental conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology and soil science. The method includes the application of peat in the soils and control over their fertility restoration. At the first stage the particle-size distribution of disturbed soil is determined, such as by pyrophosphate method, and the doses of peat are established depending on the particle-size distribution of soils. Then the samples of peat are taken - sample No 1, of disturbed soil - sample No 2, and disturbed soil with the addition of peat - sample No 3. The activity of the enzyme dehydrogenase of the taken samples in the dynamics is determined not less than every 10 days and for not more than 40 days. At that, the start of reclamation of disturbed soil with a dose of peat is judged according to increase in dehydrogenase activity of sample No 3 relative to the dehydrogenase activity of the sample No 2. The completion of reclamation is judged according to leveling the dehydrogenase activity of sample No 3 with the dehydrogenases activity of sample No 1.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of control of efficiency of reclamation of disturbed soils with different particle-size distribution, and to use rationally peat in the conditions of Far North.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land recultivation. In the method a mixed compost is used produced from the bark of fir-tree, larch and birch which is applied on the surface of toxic wastes in an amount of from 25 to 30% of the total mass. After laying, the mixing is carried out by disking to improve the conditions of establishment and survival of plants and to ensure a high biological activity of the substrate. The layer of mixed compost laid on the surface of the tailing storage facility with toxic wastes of mineral processing, disked at a depth of 5-10 cm and mixed with wastes, then seeds of legume-cereal mixture are sown, and heavy metals are bound by organic matter carbon and their main amount is immobilised up to non-hazardous limits. The area for recultivation of toxic wastes is contoured around the perimeter with the water-permeable boards and drainage grooves to speed up the discharge of storm water.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the negative impact of mineral processing wastes on the environment objects and to ensure the effective protection of the environment from industrial pollution.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of decontaminating oil-contaminated soil involves preparation of a treatment area, collecting, excavating and delivering oil-contaminated soil to the treatment area, preparing the oil-contaminated soil, adding a humic-mineral complex and providing processes for biological decomposition of the oil-contaminated soil. The method of decontaminating spent drilling mud involves lime treatment, reagent coagulation, adding flocculants and a humic-mineral complex, step-by-step cutting of the drilling mud into a buffer layer while laying the mud in a layer of not more than 8-10 cm, drying the drilling mud and stacking into piles for subsequent recycling. The humic-mineral complex is obtained by low-temperature mechanochemical extraction of humic acids with by crushing brown coal in a dispersion machine while mixing the crushed brown coal with an alkali.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of methods in which a humic-mineral complex is used.
2 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants in oil recovery and transportation regions.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): chemical ameliorant 3.5-5.7; organic fertilizer 15.7-29.0; adsorbent 67.5-78.6. Method for sectioning soil treatment includes application of composition onto soil layer with 30 cm of depth. Then treated layer is shifted out of spot boundary. Opened surface is covered with composition of present invention. Then mole drainage of 60-65 cm in depth is made in soil by using mole plow or chisel plow, followed by plowing of 58-51 cm in depth and returning of sheared soil into spot.
EFFECT: effective soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: methods for phytomediation (phytorecultivation) of soil contaminated with petroleum.
SUBSTANCE: method involves planting perennial grasses into soil contaminated with petroleum, said perennial grasses being preliminarily grown for at least one growing period in non-contaminated soil and then replanted in soil contaminated with petroleum with their rootstocks and/or stolons and/or seedlings. Phytocultivation method may be used at earlier stages of soil contamination with petroleum to allow recultivation time to be reduced.
EFFECT: increased survival rate and yield of plants and reduced recultivation time.
2 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises land ploughing, sowing of perennial herbs, which are natural accumulators of heavy metals and naturally growing on given area or in given locality, and finally cutting and utilization of overground part of plants. Preferred perennial herb is Austrian absinth (Artemisia austriaca). In case of iron salt pollution, cutting is executed during the end of vegetation period and, in case of other heavy metal pollution, in the beginning of vegetation period.
EFFECT: enabled biological protection of land from heavy metal pollution.
FIELD: environmental protection; oil and gas producing industry; methods of purification of subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of environmental protection, in particular, to purification of the subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution by liquid hydrocarbons. In the polluted zone they drill a borehole, create and maintain in it a negative pressure within the limits of 2 kgf/cm2 up to 0.8 kgf/cm2. At that they simultaneously exercise extraction of the product of impurity from the borehole. The technical result of the invention is an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole per a unit of time.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole and its purification per a unit of time.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: disposal of solid waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises removing the contaminated layer of soil, separating the large impurities and biomass, grinding the contaminated layer by dispersing in water environment to produce pulp which is treated by ultrasound for disintegration of water-resistant agents, and supplying the pulp for separating the destructed agents into density and sizes of the particles by gravity to produce and separate the rectified coarse mineral and organo-mineral fraction, and draining contaminated fine dispersed mineral, organo-mineral, and organic fractions. The deposit containing radionuclides and heavy metals are separated, dried, and fed to the processing and burying. The purified water solution is returned for the repeatable use.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and quality of cleaning.
22 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, environment protection, more particular, reduction of 137Cs level in soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing accumulating plants such as lentils and Jerusalem artichoke on contaminated soil during three vegetation periods; alienating the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period; determining soil cleaning extent from formula: Cη=(Ca-Cs/Ca)*100(%), where Cη is extent of cleaning soil; Ca is level of 137Cs in soil before planting of said accumulating plants; Cs is level of 137Cs in soil after withdrawal of the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period.
EFFECT: reduced specific activity of 137Cs in soil, increased efficiency in removal of radio nuclides and obtaining of ecologically clean plant products, reduced possibility of external and internal radiation of people.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of ecologically pure farm products on soil contaminated with radio nuclides.
SUBSTANCE: method involves practicing steps enabling reduction in accumulation of radio nuclides within various crops, said steps including utilizing mineral and organic fertilizers; introducing mineral fertilizers for cultivation of the following crops: winter rye, winter wheat, oats, and potato, with nitrogen to potash ratio making 1:1.5; applying organic fertilizers for cultivation of lupine and serradella, and additionally providing liming of soil for barley cultivation.
EFFECT: reduced content of radio nuclides in main rotation crops.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises applying mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers simultaneously with the natural high-porosity mineral draining agent made of an aluminosilicate and subsequent loosening down to a depth of 25-30 cm. The ratios of the components are presented.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
FIELD: disposal of solid waste.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises vehicle provided with the tank filled with coolant, collector that is used for supplying coolant and is connected with the tank though a T-shaped hose having detachable branch pipes connected with the appropriate cooling chambers. The cooling chamber is made of a box whose open section faces the surface to be frozen and receives the collector for spraying the coolant. The outer walls of the chamber are provided with face and side flanges that form a closed space for circulating coolant. The chamber walls are provided with means for interconnecting the chambers.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reduced coolant consumption.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: restoration of soil contaminated with oil.
SUBSTANCE: at first stage, upper layer of oil sludge is collected and refuse is separated on vibrating screen; then oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of water, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures. At second stage, middle layer of oil sludge is collected; this layer contains substratum water which is first cleaned from refuse by passing it through vibrating screen; then, water is subjected to centrifuging for separation of oil sludge, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures from it; they are washed in surfactant solution. At third stage, bottom sediment is collected and is washed in surfactant solution for separation of oil sludge; then, refuse is separated from oil sludge in vibrating screen, after which oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of remaining water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.
EFFECT: increased degree of separation of oil sludge into cleaned oil sludge, water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.