SUBSTANCE: this mix comprises oil slime, boring mud, peat, sand, water, sorbents, hydrocarbon biodestructors at the following ratio of components, in wt. %: oil slime and boring mud - 20-25, sand - 20-30, peat - 30-35, sorbents - 2-5, hydrocarbon biodestructors - 2-5, water - 10.
EFFECT: better environmental conditions, reclamation of oil contaminated soils.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex
The invention relates to the protection of the natural environment, in particular to gerontology mixture resulting from reprocessing (decontamination) drilling waste, contaminated by oil and soil, sludge cleaning of pipelines, tanks, and is intended for use in reclamation of disturbed lands during construction of linear structures and pad sites; elimination of drilling mud pits, tailings ponds, waste oil pits (making the insulating layer); create reclamation layer when remediation of contaminated land; the consolidation of embankments and slopes infield roads, pad facilities on the territory of the license areas of subsoil users; reclamation of quarries minerals, ores when open mining, overburden dumps to create the fertile soil layer; filling the peripheral parts of the cluster bases; dumping areas short-term leases granted for the period of construction of field facilities construction; strengthening of embankment embankment pads, slurry pits; the device of the foundations of roads and pipelines in trenches, bases of vertical steel tanks (RVS) and other; ukrytii and waste isolation when resultif the operation of disposal sites.
The prior art soil binder and the composition of reclamation, including the products of the mixture: water, carbohydrate, protein, iron compounds, solid base and a fibrous material (US 7005005, 28.02.2006).
Known soil binder and the composition of reclamation, suitable for applying to bare soil to prevent or slow down soil erosion, and products including mixtures: part of the soil binder needed to bind soil particles and contains: water, carbohydrate, protein, iron compounds and a solid Foundation for increasing the solubility of carbohydrates and proteins in water, making the composition of a strongly alkaline pH, at least initially; and part of the soil recultivation of disturbed lands, including: fibrous material containing at least two different types of fibers, one of the types of fibers that contribute to the adhesion of the composition soil, and other types of fibers, which contribute to the emergence of new germinated seeds or plants through the fibrous material in the soil (US 7021864, 04.04.2006).
Known composition for remediation of oil-contaminated soils, in which the oxidizing component is used along with other fine sulfur, for intensification of the process of biodegradation in the composition is added activated sludge or organic material and the adsorbent, and as the oxidizing component may be used in AWANA nudegailoannude or insufficiently degassed sulfur (EN 2009101698, 27.07.2010).
The disadvantage is the lack of disinfection of oil sludge and other contaminants.
The problem to which the proposed invention is directed, is to create gerontology mixture, which would exclude the disadvantages indicated above.
The technical result of the invention is the improvement of environmental conditions, restoring the productivity of contaminated and disturbed land as a result of enrichment when cleaning contaminated lands oxygen and mineral fertilizers and accordingly reducing neftezagryaznennyh sites.
This technical result is achieved in gerontology mixtures containing sludge, drilling mud, peat, sand, water, sorbents and biodestruction hydrocarbons in the following ratio, wt.%:
The sludge and drill cuttings - 20-25
Sand - 20-30
Peat - 30-35
Sorbents - 2-5: Mixail or Miu-
Biodestruction hydrocarbon - 2-5: SOILEX or Centrin
Water - 10.
Gronostajowa mixture is produced from a mixture of drilling sludge), sludge (NSH), sand, peat sorbents (Mixail or IIM-C) and biodestruction hydrocarbons (SOILEX or Centrin), drugs destructors oil for disposal, drilling waste into secondary raw material according to GOST 30772.
Neutralized and pererabotannnoy BSH, NSH after its processing are inert, environmentally safe soil. Class hazardous to the environment resulting soil refers to substances not exceeding IV class of danger.
Use gerontology mixture, as a rule, is carried out when forming the profile with overlapping layer of clean soil not less than 0.5 m
Physical-mechanical indicators prigotavlivaemy gronostajowa mixture must comply with the parameters specified in table 1.
|in the embankment||in the barn|
|Humidity, %||from 20 to 40||from 30 to 50||GOST 5180|
|The density of soil, kg/m3||from 1600 to 2000||from 1400 to 1600||GOST 5180|
|The dry density of soil, kg/m3||from 1450 to 1750||from 1250 on the 1500||GOST 5180|
|The strength of resistance of the soil slice, kgf/mm2||>0,005||GOST 12248|
|The coefficient of soil compaction||0,80-0,90||GOST 5180|
Physico-mechanical parameters obtained gerontology mixture is defined for two conditions:
- Kare barn, after preparation of the mixture in the loosened condition for storage or burial;
- in the filling, in a constructive layer after compaction, when used in construction or as an insulating layer.
The effect of neutralization processing slams, NSH and obtaining the claimed mixture is achieved by the binding of the particles of drilled rock, which is part of BSH made materials, and degradation of pollutants (oil and other toxic substances) biodestruction manufactured or grown from indigenous cultures on media, peat, and naturally due to the included peat hydrolyzable carbohydrates, humic acids, fulvic acids, cellulose and lignin, which contribute to the destruction of residual oil to bitumen.
Mo is reginaldi effect when use is achieved through the transformation of drilling wastes and NSH in an inert loose weight by adding peat, sand, sorbents (Mixail or IIM-C) and biodestruction hydrocarbons (SOILEX or Centrin) for binding in its structure pollutants and imparting material of a specified property as a building material in the form of a given composition.
The main physico-chemical characteristics of soils depending on the application must comply with table 2.
|The name of the parameter*||Norma|
|Appearance||dry loose weight|
|Color||dark brown, allowed reddish, reddish shades|
|Humidity, %, not more than||12,3|
|Water-soluble inclusion chloride salts by weight||no more than 5%|
|Water-soluble inclusion sulfate or sulfate-chloride salts by weight||no more than 10%|
|The content is not fully decomposed organic substances by weight||no more than 5%|
|The content of t is d decomposed organic substances, located in the amorphous state, mass||no more than 8%|
|The content of particles larger than 2 mm, % by weight, no more than||25|
|Content icy inclusions||not frozen; no strongly icy lumps of soil, snow and ice|
|The measure of concentration of hydrogen ions 1%aqueous solution pH||7,5|
|The nitrogen content N (total nitrogen), % dry matter not less than***||1,8-2,0|
|Phosphorus P (R), % dry matter not less than***||0,4-0,5|
|The content of total potassium (K), % dry matter not less than***||0,4-0,5|
|The angle of internal friction, deg (schedule 1)||26-30|
|Permissible content of heavy metals (trace elements), mg/kg, not more:|
|- lead;||130,0||- mercury;||2,0|
|Permissible levels of pesticides (residues), mg/kg***||0,4-0,5|
|The permissible content of benzo(a)pyrene mg/kg||0,02|
|The number of plasticity ***||1-7|
|Specific cohesion, kPa (kgf/cm2) - schedule 1||21 (047)÷47 (0,47)|
|Modulus, MPa (cm2)||45 (450)|
|The filtration coefficient, m/day***||of 0.01-0.1|
In barns where there is no major drive to the gathering of liquid fraction. In the barn is added to the flowing water, peat, sand, sorbent Mixail or IIM-C, biodestruction hydrocarbons SOILEX Il is Centrin. All these components are mixed and displace oil:
The sludge and drill cuttings - 20-25%
Sand - 20-30%
Peat - 30-35%
Sorbents - Mixail or Miu-With - 2-5%
Biodestruction hydrocarbon - SOILEX or Centrin - 2-5%
The mixture prepared according to the description of preliminary reinforcement and insulation (using the tension of the polymer film on the bottom and walls of the barn) is disposed in the reinforcement of the sludge in the barns.
The technology of waterproofing (reinforcement) drill cuttings (imparting water-repellent properties by consolidating its mass and binding in solid inert mass) by curing cuttings eliminates migration of contaminants beyond the body of the cured material through a layer of impervious screen sludge pits. The reinforcement is carried out using cement or any other substances with similar properties and composition on the cement.
Freshly prepared gronostajowa mixture is a homogeneous gruntovalnoy mixture from plastic to crumbly consistency depending on the moisture content of the feedstock.
Humidity freshly gerontology mixture should be in the range of from 20 to 50%. In the process of elaboration and storage of the mixture under stirring and the exposure to air for 1 to 30 days is balanced humidity in us is PE mixture, and becomes loose or visco-plastic consistency. Immediately before laying gerontology mixture humidity should be increased to values close to the optimum, depending on the direction of use gerontology mixture at the seal, i.e. from 25% to 30% when carrying out reclamation works and from 13 to 20% when used in construction.
The composition of the BSH. In the process of drilling wells in the drilling slurry barn can accumulate up to 60-70% water, 25-35% slurry (drilling), 5-6% oil 0.5% bentonite and 0.5% of various additives, ensuring optimal performance of the rig. After purification and pumping of the liquid phase remaining in the barn solid phase - BSH is the raw material for thermal treatment.
When preparing to BSH neutralization should be determined (including the field) the following physical characteristics:
the density is in the range of 1.5-1,85 kg/m3(on a model project for payments made 1.5 kg/m);
- humidity is in the range of 30-60%;
- oil content to 15% (without additional application of inert material), more than 15% (required current introduction of inert material).
In the calculations adopted the average density of the waste drilling mud - 1140 kg/m, drill cuttings - 2200 kg/m according to the data.
In the calculations made in the routings like the CSO project the number of battleships in recultivation slurry barn 4000 m
The fluidity of SB increases with water content and with a weak cleaning solution. When drying BSH loses fluidity and easily ground into powder.
The freezing point of the liquid BSH is from minus 10 to minus 14°C, evaporating temperature from + 120 to + 140°C, the increase in the water content reduces the given range.
When working with PG, you must consider the season of the year. When working at low temperatures (scraping, excavation of sludge) have to work with man-made frozen ground (when the air temperature is below 25°C is payable estimated amount of calcium chloride to improve thermal conditions during the processing of technogenic soil according CPD)in the warm season when the neutralization BSH works are carried out to disperse the soil.
Drilling waste accumulated in the structural-sorption slurry barn, contain a wide range of pollutants mineral and organic origin in the materials and chemical reagents used for the preparation and treatment of drilling fluids.
Polluting properties and polluting potential of drilling wastes (in the broad concept of slams, drilling waste water, waste drilling mud components of the environment caused in their composition of chemical substances and materials.
Otrb is subjected to the drilling fluid, containing slams, may contain organic components and salts, which are toxic to plants and fish. Unmanaged (in case of emergency) release of drilling fluids or slam on the area surrounding the drilling site, could adversely affect vegetation and surface waters.
The source BS should be a plastic pasty mass having a dark gray color with a metallic tinge, oily to the touch and a faint but characteristic odor of the oil.
Density BS is determined by the density of the drilling fluid and drilling cuttings. For the region of the Middle Ob basin this average value between the density of the wet sand and mud from 1300 to 1600 kg/m3.
Viscosity (inverse property of fluidity) BSH is the index of from 0.1 to 4.5 PA·S.
Granulometric composition of the particles slam in the range from 200 to 300 μm. This explains the low waterproofing property slams, which is explained by the passage of small particles of bentonite under the action of hydraulic pressure between the larger particles of rock.
Chemical indicators, BSH is a colloidal solution of particles of clay, sand, chemicals and oil in water. The pH value usually corresponds to an alkaline environment and is from 8.5 to 10.5.
Raw materials should not contain extraneous contaminants(construction debris, woody debris, and other), salts, and wastes of various industries.
Sand for making gerontology mixture must comply with GOST 25100. The soils. Classification.
Granulometric composition constraints are not imposed, but when the sand is preferred coarse fractions of river sand. It is possible to use homogeneous Sands.
The ratio of water saturation Sruse Sands low and medium degree of water saturation at the value of Srfrom 0 to 0.8.
According to the degree of salinity Dsatused sand (soil) no restrictions are imposed. Preference in selecting the source of the soil is given to non-saline type of soil.
Sand - mineral soil of natural origin as a filler of technogenic soil.
Peat for ground preparation should be used is preferably air-dried, dried in natural conditions until equilibrium moisture at the site preparation and appropriate technical parameters for GOST R 51661.3. Peat for soil improvement. Technical conditions. GOST R 51661.4. Peat neutralized. Technical conditions or GOST R 52067. Peat for the production of nutritious soil. Specifications.
The moisture content of air-dry peat (moisture content) before using it in a mixture is revising 65%.
According to GOST 25100. The soils. Classification for cooking gerontology mixture should be used mainly air-dry peat decomposition degree of peat Ddp- from 20 to 35% (laboratoriesa and sredneslozhivsheysya varieties, respectively). According to the degree of ash content in the raw material selection preference is given to the high-ash peat with metric Dasfrom 25 to 30 cu
The use of peat as part gerontology mixture leads to sorbirovaniya, the binding of toxic substances contained in slams and NSH, and thereby prevents their migration into the environment. The presence of peat in the prepared gerontology mixture performs the role of organic substrate, providing optimal conditions for seedling plants ameliorants used for biological reclamation at sowing, planting them directly in technogenic soil.
Peat - organic rock formed as a result of dying and incomplete decomposition of marsh plants in conditions of high humidity when the lack of oxygen and content of not more than 50% of mineral components in the dry substance.
Peat is not a toxic product and is biologically friendly material that does not contain pathogens, weed seeds and safe when used in rekultivace is the R purposes.
The sludge - waste production, preparation and transportation of oil obtained from the Stripping tank farms pump stations, which are hardly separated mixture of oil, boiling in a wide temperature range, include water, fur. impurity - clay, sand, iron sulfides, and more. Intervals boiling 80% of the mass from 216 to 350°C. the water Content of 18% by weight, content of sand, clay and iron sulfide - 10% by weight. Selected from a tank of slime is a black gelatinous paste, followed by heating up to 57°C low liquid with density 0,854 g/ cm3.
NSH in the waste oil pits and trap oil tanks, regardless of the sources of the formation over time settle and are separated into three layers:
- the top layer - paleobotany oil with relatively low mass of the solids content of 0.5% (for trapping oil) to 1.5% (for barn oils);
- middle layer - fine emulsion complex type ("direct" and "reverse") with the mass water content of up to 70-80% and mechanical impurities from 1.5 to 15.0%. The middle layer is usually small in volume. Water and mechanical impurities may increase monotonically from top to bottom, can be placed chaotically in volume, and can be distributed virtually one is one;
- bottom, bottom layer consists 70% of the solid phase, saturated with oil up to 5-10% water to 25%; the oil content is relatively constant, the number of mechanical impurities increases with depth. When this liquid phase is a stable oil emulsion.
For manufacturing gerontology mixture provides for the use of mineral soil (sand) one of two types. First of all in the barn moves the soil composing the mound rises, then imported. Made in slams and NSH materials (peat, sand) mixed with the excavator bucket. In order to create a recultivation layer on the surface of the ground covered barn at the end of the backfill is to prepare the site for further biological reclamation - design and plating peat crumb.
In the calculations on a model project adopted the average density obtained technogenic soil from 1600 to 2000 kg/m3.
The pH of soil extract prepared soil shall be taken not less than 5.8.
Gronostajowa mixture can be used for the construction of the subgrade of roads, fixing embankments and slopes infield roads, pad facilities on the territory of the license areas of subsoil users, dumping lane is farinah parts of the cluster bases, to strengthen the embankment embankment pads, slurry pits, areas of short-term leases granted for the period of construction of field facilities construction, shelter and isolation of waste during remediation of disposal sites due to the presence of the corresponding density of the skeleton of technogenic soil and the density of the mixture with the required bearing capacity and confirming the hazard class of the soil is not higher than class IV on the basis of the results of biological testing or calculation hazard class (if any component composition).
The application prepared gerontology mixture is carried out by land reclamation, oil-contaminated soil, backfilling previously developed ground pits, sludge pits, quarries minerals, ores in open-pit mining, overburden dumps, construction of earth structures by layer-by-layer stacking and seal.
From sludge (barn) pumping the liquid fraction, which is then discharged into the collector.
The remaining component in the tailings pond NSH and SB in the amount of 20 wt.% mix and then add sand to 30 wt.%, peat - 35 wt.%, Mixail - 3 wt.%, SOILEX - 2 wt.% water and 10 wt.%.
All mix, in the presence of near Bush wood residuals and the and other waste of wood, they are placed on the surface of the cuttings evenly after pumping for reinforcing the surface of the sludge.
Filling the barn is made up by thrust fault ground. Slept during driveways, dismembering the barn on 4 or more equal parts, pour driveways and the periphery, is dumping the rest of the square barn (method Kvantovaya). This order backfill reduces the mobility of plastic cuttings, reduces the likelihood of subsidence or heaving rekultivirovanie surface.
After filling the barn, its surface is planned, compacted by rolling tracked vehicles. The result should be a small hill with gentle slopes.
If in the process of filling occurred extrusion of slime on the surface, extruded sludge is left for drying to a plastic consistency and is subject to reclamation of the barn.
Further, if necessary, can be added to the sand and peat, after which the soil is sown with grass.
The collection of spilled oil in the repair of wells. Pumped liquid fraction, which was formed from the precipitation of waste of groundwater, and then discharged into the collector. The contaminated layer of soil is cut and he is neutralized by installing the office of the Ombudsman-MHG.
Cleaning the area from solid waste, dead wood, forest residue, territory planning - cutting Bugrov, backfilling of pits and uglublenie is, the storm and flattening slopes, slopes with a bulldozer.
Loading material into dump trucks excavator, loader, transport the mixture to the place of laying in the notches, pits, sludge pits. Move the mixture into the hollow excavator, bulldozer levelling layer thickness of 0.3-0.5 m Compacting the mixture by the bulldozer marsh modification. Repetition of the operations for each layer of backfill excavation. The film, previously used for waterproofing site preparation protoslavic mixtures utilized in the reinforcement of the sludge in the barns.
In sloping sandy soils (slopes of roads, quarries) when fixing the Sands gronostajowa mixture is prepared from sludge and peat with the highest allowable share of waste drilling, applied to a thickness of 10-15 cm and mixed with the soil by milling to a depth of 25-30 see
For deoxidation and ostrukturivaniyu peat soils preparing a mixture of drilling wastes and sand, is applied to the surface soil layer of 10-15 cm and mixed with peat milling to a depth of 25-30 see In this and previous cases, the final formation gerontology mixture of THE desired 0391-003-00138614-2012 component composition is in the process of land reclamation.
Create reclamation layer
Gerontologie mixture for forming a layer reclamation can prigotovleniya directly at the venue reclamation works.
When creating a recultivation layer on soils with unfavorable for plant physical or chemical properties using a three-gronostajowa mixture of mud, sand, peat) in the above-described technology by sequential layer-by-layer stacking of peat, sand and sludge, while the thickness of each layer of 5-10 see the results of chemical analysis of the mixture before milling on the surface of the upper layer are made in the necessary quantities of mineral nutrients, reducing agents and, if necessary, additives that reduce the toxicity of the composition. When conducting remediation on soils with favorable physical and chemical properties on the surface of the substrate sequentially stacked peat and sludge layers 5-10 cm, makes the necessary additives and the milling site to a depth of 25-30 cm, which allows you to enter in a mixture of soil and to provide the required mechanical and environmental characteristics reclamation layer.
To neutralize excess acidity in gerontology mixture made of limestone materials. Used limestone materials must meet the following requirements:
- chalk natural powder according to GOST 17498-72 brand MIP-1 or MIP-2,
- limestone flour 2 nd class or dolomite powder, 3rd class. The rate of limestone flour and chalk depends on acidity of the mixture.
Prepared gronostajowa mixture: NSH and SB in the amount of 25 wt.%, sand - 25 wt.%, peat - 30 wt.%, Miu-With - 5 wt.%, SOILEX - 5 wt.% and water 10 wt.%.
In the resulting mixture cooked add mineral fertilizers and fall asleep 2 layer after the sand cleared land, which had previously been spilled oil.
Further, if necessary, can be added to the sand and peat, after which the soil sow grass or planted seedlings.
Preparation of the mixture may on a special polygon, prepared site in the slurry barn. The device platform for processing drill cuttings and mixing with peat and sand:
- marking works, landscaping the grounds, playgrounds, soil compaction;
- waterproofing pad by laying polyethylene film layer 2 on square base;
- the dumping ground soil at the project level when the thickness of the protective layer is not less than 0.5 m to groundwater levels;
- waterproofing pad can be provided clogging pores sandy soil clay-colloid phase slams, which occurs in the process of work, when the impregnation of the surface of the soil suspension slams, or after mixing in the layer thickness of 15-20 cm
Processing of drill cuttings in building material - mixture gerontology:
- transportation of sludge to the place where re is abode in equipped trucks;
- developing, loading and transportation of the prepared peat and sand or finish tortoishell mixture;
- unloading of the components of the mixture to the working area with the formation of the shafts (with stirring excavators) or layers (with stirring mills).
In the first case, the discharge is "clamping" with the formation of 3 closed series components, followed by stirring their excavator.
In the second case, pre-importation of soil preparation and consistent "spreading" the bulldozer peat, sand and sludge layers 15-20 cm length of 100 m and a width of the strip of 2.0 - 2.5 m, followed by stirring layers cutter FBN-2 in the unit with the tractor DT-B. Sampling for test and confirm the suitability of the material for use. Introducing, if necessary, additives to bring the mixture up to 5 hazard class, giving it the necessary water-physical and agrochemical properties and then milling strips. Collection of prepared mixture with the hook in the piles - piles bulldozer, storage of the mixture.
Preparation of a mixture in the slurry barn is performed by the above-described technology with advanced armirovanie and insulated polymer film contained in the barn sludge. Stirring of the mixture is carried out by excavator.
The remaining component in the tailings pond N and SB in an amount of 23 wt.% mix and then add the sand - 23 wt.%, peat - 34 wt.%, Miu-With - 5 wt.%, Centrin - 5 wt.% water and 10 wt.%.
Preparation of a mixture in the slurry barn is performed by the above-described technology with advanced armirovanie and insulated polymer film contained in the barn sludge. Stirring of the mixture is carried out by excavator.
Further, if necessary, can be added to the sand and peat, after which the soil is sown with grass.
In the composition of the solid phase slams are different degrees of dispersion of the particles drilling and injecting washing fluid claypowders (bentonite, montmorillonite). Lithological characteristics of the geological section of the wells indicate the presence in the slurry of particles of sand, clay, siltstone, Sandstone, claystone, marl, limestone and other rocks.
The density of particles of species within 2,00-2,40 g/cm3the porosity of 20-30%. The liquid phase of the drilling mud is formed by the discharge of a certain quantity of drilling mud and waste water when washing equipment - shale shakers, screws, etc.
According to the passport of hazardous waste waste drilling mud includes the following components:
- chemicals 5-15% (including bentonite - bentonite PMBA 80-86%, oil and oil products up to 0.5-1.5%), drugs CMC 1-2%, soda and caustic soda 0,1-0,2%, drugs FC 20008-9%, Saipan 1,5-2%, other additives: gipan, hydrochloric acid and others - the rest).
In the composition of the reagents are the following groups:
1 - lubricating fatty additives, crude oil, NGL, ribeiroia lubrication. The oil in these drilling fluids do not enter, its small presence in the sludge caused by the drilling of productive horizons;
2 - structure controllers thixotropic or rheological properties (acrylic compounds, water-soluble polymers, CMC);
3 - the weights (barite), pH regulators (alkalis, acids and other substances. When preparing cuttings to the processing defined by the following characteristics:
- density - must have values in the range of 1.5-1.85 g/cm3,
the humidity should be in the range of 30-60%. At lower moisture content of the sludge enters plastilinovye status and poorly mixed, with a higher water content of the mixture has a fluid consistency and is not suitable for sealing.
The remaining component in the tailings pond NSH and SB in the amount of 25 wt.% mix and then add sand to 30 wt.%, peat - 30 wt.%, Miu-C - 3 wt.%, SOILEX - 2 wt.% water and 10 wt.%.
When semi-liquid consistency of the sludge in the barn to prevent extrusion of filling is the reinforcement of the surface of the wood residues and non-toxic waste and / or backfilling SL is eating dried peat.
In any case, the presence of nearby Bush forest residue or other waste of wood, they are placed on the surface of the cuttings evenly after pumping for reinforcing the surface of the sludge.
Backfilling barn ground
In the process of viticulture flattened slopes are additionally reinforced to prevent erosion by flood waters by planting willows based 3-5 seedlings per 1 sq.m.
Preparation of a mixture of at the landfill
Preparation DSCM produced on-site disposal of industrial waste in the licensed site of the Customer. On the site there are moisture-proof platform for accumulation of waste drilling of wells, platforms for mixing the sludge with soil and additives detoxication, areas for accumulation of finished goods, ponds, sumps to collect and clarification of the aqueous phase of drilling wastes. In the period with negative temperatures is the accumulation of waste drilling in the spring as the thawing of the sludge is moved on site for mixing components DSCM. If the products can be within four hours removed to places of use, the mixture is immediately injected cement. In the absence of such possibility is the mixing of sludge with soil and additives detoxication and the mixture is temporarily stored on the sites is aquaplane finished products. Cement is added to the mixture then when you have an opportunity to bring DSCM to the consumer, not later than 4 hours after mixing.
The technological process of harvesting the mixture consists of the following operations:
1. Site preparation site.
2. Drill cuttings are transported by trucks, unloaded on a layer of soil and levelled by a grader. ARR is transported by tank, is introduced into the mixture by injection using the unit of CA-320 at one time.
3. Mixing in a single pass of the cutter. Pets stirring grader or excavator. When the moisture content of the mixture in excess of 1.25 optimal, aged technological break, during which you are re-mixing for drying the mixture.
4. Delivery and distribution of cement through the machine SMM-20 or distributor DS-72.
5. The final stirring the mixture for two passes of the cutter with governanee (if necessary) after the first pass, or mixing a backhoe, a grader.
6. Collection (steblevanie) and loading the mixture into a dump truck with bulldozer and loader (backhoe).
The use of composite materials in the reclamation of sludge pits
The remaining component in the tailings pond NSH and SB in the amount of 22 wt.% mix and then add sand to 28 wt.%, peat 32 wt.%, Mixail - 4 wt.%, SOILEX - 4 wt.% water and 10 wt.%.
When reclaiming sludge pits to prevent extrusion of the sludge is reinforced wood. Use for reinforcement of composite materials allows you to save the wood, to ensure not only better reinforcement and reliable waterproofing slurry.
Preparation of reinforced soil can be made on the grounds specially equipped areas or directly in the slurry barn.
When using a pre-prepared composite material is lightweight reinforcement sludge khvorostyanoy the pavement and the bulldozer method thrust fault is applied fortified soil. Work is carried out sequentially along the perimeter of the barn stripe 5-6 m with a layer thickness of 50-100 see 4-5 days, after hardening of the cement-soil, formed following the band with the arrival of the bulldozer on reinforced soil. When viscosity of the slurry can be prepared mixture directly in the slurry barn with the help of an excavator. The excavator on the surface of the sludge layer of sand with a capacity of 25-50 cm, on top of sand cement and the mixture is repeatedly mixed bucket excavator. Band width depends on the length of the boom of the excavator. After setting cementownia similarly formed following polacas using the previous as a platform for excavator
Further, if necessary, can be added to the sand and peat, fertilizers, after which the soil is sown with grass.
1. Gronostajowa mixture, characterized in that it contains sludge, drilling mud, peat, sand, water, sorbents and biodestruction hydrocarbons, in the following ratio, wt.%:
|The sludge and drill cuttings||20-25|
2. The mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that the sorbents are Mixail or IIM-C.
3. The mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that biodestruction hydrocarbons are SOILEX or Centrin.
SUBSTANCE: strain of bacteria Exguobacterium mexicanum RNCIM V-11011 is grown, and the suspension is made from it, which is applied in the cryomorphic soil and water environment. It is exposed under the specified parameters from 7 to 60 days and the quantitative content of oil and petroleum products in the test soil and water environment is determined.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the time of denaturation of oil and petroleum products and to reduce the concentration of oil and petroleum products in the soil and water environment.
3 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiology and can be used in monitoring environmental-microbiological investigation of the quality of sea water to determine the amount of oil-oxidising microorganisms. The method involves preparing a mineral medium - bases containing NH4NO3, K2HPO4, KH2PO4, MgSO4, CaCl2, FeCl2, a concentrated solution, agar and distilled water in a given ratio, followed by addition of an oil product in a given amount, said product being bunker oil. Seeding sea water on the surface of the culture medium and incubating the seed for 3-4 hours enables to detect colonies of oil-oxidising bacteria.
EFFECT: invention increases precision of the method when detecting oil and hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria when carrying out environmental monitoring.
2 tbl, 3 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: strain of Rhodococcus sp. is deposited in the All-Russian Collection of Microorganisms under the registration number Ac-2046 D. The strain exhibits high destructive activity against petroleum hydrocarbons included in the composition of oil slurries, as well as against crude oil and black oil fuel.
EFFECT: disposal of crude oil on the 7th day of cultivation is 100 percent.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to field of biochemistry, ecology, protection of the environment. Claimed is preparation for purification of water and soil from oil pollution, which contains microorganisms, oil destructors, sorbent, cryoprotector - glycerol, microfertilisers - sodium nitrate 0.5% and potassium phosphate 0.5%. As oil destructor, it contains association of oil-oxidising microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis VKM B-81, Pseudomonas spp. VKM B-892, Pseudomonas putida VKM B-1301, Rhodococcus sp. VKM Ac-950, Mycobacterium flavescens VKM Ac-1415 in amount 75-85% of the total number of cells, as well as soil bacteria Agrobacteium radiobacter VKM B-1219 in amount 15-25% of the total number of cells. Sorbent in preparation represents finely-dispersed dehydrated zeolite with size of granules 0.1-0.5 mm, powdered with Aerosil A-300 nanoparticles. Ratio of components in preparation (wt %) is the following: zeolite - 94±1, Aerosil A-300 - 3±0.5, glycerol - 1±0.2, sodium nitrate - 0.5±0.2, potassium phosphate- 0.5±0.2, association of oil-oxidising microorganisms with Agrobacteium radiobacter in efficient quantity 2-3*108 kl/g - 1±0.5. Also claimed is method of preparation obtaining. Assocoation of oil-oxidising bacteria and fraction of soil bacteria are grown separately. After that, two obtained culture liquids are mixed in ratio 75-85% of association of oil-oxidising bacteria of the total quantity of cells and 15-25% of soil bacteria of the total quantity of cells. Suspension is concentrated to concentration 2*1011 kl/ml. Zeolite is preliminarily crushed to granules with size 0.1-0.5 mm, kept in furnace at temperature 250°C to the stage of swelling, cooled to temperature 20°C at humidity 10-12% and mixed with Aerosil A-300. Glycerol, sodium nitrate, potassium phosphate are introduced into concentrated suspension, and after that mixed with zeolite. Obtained zeolite and concentrated suspension are mixed with ratio 9:1. After that process of contact-chemical dehydration is carried out.
EFFECT: inventions make it possible to perform 90-98% utilisation of oil hydrocarbons, as well as petrol, Diesel fuel, mazut, kerosene in short term (2-3 days) at temperatures to -5°C Dry form of preparation makes it possible to increase term of its storage up to 1,5 years at temperature not higher than 25°C.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: strain of bacteria Bacillus vallismortis VKPM V-11017 is proposed - destructor of oil and oil products. Strain may within short period of time in the wide range of temperatures from +8 to +37°C degrade oil by 78.3%.
EFFECT: strain may be used to clean soil and water contaminated by oil and oil products, such as diesel fuel, motor oil, gas condensate.
3 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: strain of bacteria Bacillus atrophaeus VKPM V-10592 is grown, and suspension is prepared from it, which is introduced into permafrost soil and water environment. Maintained at the specified parameters from 7 to 60 days, and then they determine quantity content of oil and oil products in permafrost soil and water environment.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce time for oil and oil product denaturation and to reduce their concentration in permafrost soil and water environment.
5 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the protection of environment and can be used in cleaning of agricultural lands and soil from pesticides, as well as for sewage purification. The device for cleaning of agricultural soil from pesticides comprises a photocatalytic reactor, a photocatalyst in the form of titanium dioxide, and an ultra-violet radiation source. The photocatalytic reactor is located horizontally. The device additionally comprises a receiving hopper for soil with a crusher situated under it. The crusher is connected through the conveyor with the photocatalytic reactor. Along the horizontal axis of the reactor a mixer with a drive is located. The ultra-violet radiation source is placed in the butt end of the reactor, and in its upper part there is a dispenser for the photocatalyst - titanium dioxide. The outlet of the reactor through the conveyor is connected to the upper part of the transparent housing. In the lower part of the housing there is the auger for removal of cleaned soil through the pipe. In the central part of the housing the mixing device is mounted. The internal cavity of the housing is connected to the container for the photocatalyst of the ferrous and ferric salts. Under the container there is a pipe for water supply. In the opposite side wall of the housing there is a pipe of removal of waste photocatalyst.
EFFECT: increased intensity of cleaning the agricultural soil from pesticide residues is provided.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention proposes an association of strains of bacteria-oil decomposers, which have been extracted from oil-contaminated soil, Acinetobacter species B-1037, Pseudomonas species B-989, Bacillus species B-1040, deposited at The State Research Centre of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR. Besides, at least 30% bacteria of each strain is contained in the association. Remediation of oil-contaminated soils includes water suspension of lyophilic dried biomass of the strain association based on 109 cells per square metre. Strains of the association can utilise a wide range of oil components at the temperature of 10-15°C.
EFFECT: improving cleaning efficiency of oil-contaminated soils.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the use of cellulose-containing wastes and soil, administration of microorganisms, moisturizing and incubation. At that the wastes are sorted and crushed into particles of 1-2 cm, then they are placed in layers in the fermenter, alternating with the ground, the height of each layer is 2-3 cm, and then treated with the suspension of the preparation Tamir obtained by cultivation of microorganisms without access of air at a temperature of 20-30°C with stirring once a day for 1-2 min with addition of water, sugar and the preparation of Urgas in a ratio of water: concentrate of Tamir: sugar: preparation of Urgas is 30:0.3:1:0.5. It is humified in mesophilic conditions at a temperature of 30-40°C for 120 days.
EFFECT: method enables to simplify the technology and reduce the time of obtaining of humified soil.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiological cleaning of environments. Proposed method comprises introduction of consortium of oil oxidant microorganisms along with introduction of mineral nutrients. Said oil oxidant microorganisms represent strains of bacteria Rhodococcus qingchengii All Russian Collection of Industrial Microorganisms AC-1877, strain of bacteria Rhodococcus erythopolis All Russian Collection of Industrial Microorganisms AC-1878 and strain of yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa All Russian Collection of Industrial Microorganisms Y-3604. Consortium of said oil oxidants is introduced into contaminated medium in amount of 0.2-0.5 wt % of contaminant mass. Note here that along with oil oxidant microorganisms and mineral nutrient introduced in contaminated medium, introduced is surfactant in amount of 0.2-0.5 % of contaminant mass.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of oil products removal.
SUBSTANCE: material for intermediate isolation of compacted layers of solid municipal wastes in landfill is proposed. The material is used is the final slag formed during the manufacture of ferro-vanadium with aluminium-silicothermal method.
EFFECT: obtaining material which enables to insulate year round the compacted layers of solid municipal wastes in landfills without the use of natural materials, and expansion of raw material resources.
SUBSTANCE: for environmentally safe thermal deactivation of biogas of solid domestic waste landfills the biogas is removed by drainage and creation of forced vacuum gauge pressure. Then the moisture content in the removed biogas is reduced due to the sharp decrease in temperature, the biogas is compressed and the preliminary purification of biogas from moisture and hydrogen sulphide is carried out, it is filtered from dust, and the biogas is burnt. The exhaust flue gases are cooled and purified from acidic components and halogenated hydrocarbons. At that in the flow of flue gases and the concentration of hydrogen sulphide and acidic gaseous compounds of sulphur and carbon are measured continuously, taking into account which the dynamic consumption adjustment of sorbents and the reagent is carried out based on the previously obtained experimental data of approximating regression relationships.
EFFECT: increase in environmental safety, it stabilises the operation of the gas purification system and reduces the consumption of reagents.
3 cl, 5 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to oil and gas industry and namely to treatment methods of an acid gas containing hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide for injection into a formation through an injector. The concept of the invention is as follows: according to the method treatment of the acid gas for injection into the formation through the injector is made by the acid gas delivery to several compression and cooling stages at a temperature of 40÷60°C, drying of the compressed acid gas by glycol at a compressive pressure and temperature of 45÷65°C, transition of the dried gas into liquid state by further compression and cooling up to a temperature of 40÷65°C. At that before delivery to the compression stage acid gases are mixed with a liquefied gas C3-C5 or natural gasoline in quantity of 10÷40% by weight. Compression-cooling and drying of the acid gas is made at a pressure up to 0.4÷0.6MPa and its transition to liquid state is made at a pressure up to 0.8÷4.0MPa.
EFFECT: reduction of power consumption, reduction of gas hydrate formation risk, decrease in the number of compression and cooling stages for acid gases and utilisation of associated liquefied gases and natural gasoline containing hydrogen sulphide.
2 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed radioactive waste storage (RWS) comprises a foreshaft 1, fixed with the steel shell 2, the well 4 drilled through this foreshaft 1 in rock mass 3, cased with the metal casing 6 with the bottom 7, the thermoinsulator 11 of inert waterproof and heat-resistant material, located on the inner generant of the metal casing 6, the external engineering protective barrier 9 with the lower protective screen 10 of bentonite-cement monolith, the internal engineering protective barrier 12 with upper protective screen 13, the aggregate state control system 14 of the material of the internal engineering protective barrier 12, made of pipes 15, tripping column 16 with containers 17, 18 placed on it with RWS, the radioecological monitoring system 20 and the lid 21 of the casing 6. The bottom 7 is provided with alighting bearing-centring hubs 8. The external engineering protective barrier 9 is created by grouting the annulus. The internal engineering protective barrier 12 with the upper protective screen 13 is formed inside the metal casing 6 with inert material which is solid in natural conditions, but able to change its aggregate state (solid-liquid) under the thermal effect.
EFFECT: invention improves environmental safety, area usage factor of land allocation intended for RW storage, increases the amount of waste of increased activity in the storage, reduces the labour intensity of RW storage decommissioning at the end of its period of use.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The soil slurry-ground mixture for remediation of borrow pits and disturbed lands is proposed, which consists of two mixtures. At that the mixture used as a lower remediation layer comprises, volume percent: drill cuttings - 50-65, sand or sandy-loam soil - 16-25, peat - 15-23, the rest - active neutralising and ameliorating supplements, including gypsum or phosphogypsum in an amount of 2-3% of its volume. The mixture used as the upper remediation layer comprises, volume percent: drill cuttings - 35-50%, sand or sandy-loam soil - 20-30%, peat - 27-32.5%, the rest - active neutralising and ameliorating supplements, including gypsum or phosphogypsum in an amount of 1.5-2% of its volume. Also a method of remediation of borrow pits and disturbed lands is proposed.
EFFECT: group of inventions enables to improve fertility of disturbed lands and use more effectively the natural resources in Western Siberia.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils. Method comprises placing solid household wastes in landfill bowl, disposal of drainage waters to evaporation pool, forcing wastes and air into injection wells arranged in refuse tip, and forming aerobic, transitional and anaerobic zones. Oil-bearing wastes with moisture content of 80-95% are injected into wells in frost-free season at air temperature above 5°C in amount required to allow optimum concentration of oil products in the mix with solid household wastes of 1-2 wt %. Then, air injected. Note here that aeration of refuse tip saturated with oil-bearing wastes is carried out via aforesaid oil-bearing wastes injection wells. Set of placed wastes is defined by the following formula:
EFFECT: faster setting and increased set.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: insulating material contains clay and additionally a powdered composition of waste "non-contaminated dust of ferrous metals" from metallurgical production and dolomite flour, mixed in ratio of 1:3. To enhance biocidal action of the waste "non-contaminated dust of ferrous metals" from metallurgical production, a highly efficient preparation Bio Z is added.
EFFECT: material enables to reduce flammability of components of solid household wastes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves depositing a protective layer of air-permeable material onto the surface of solid household wastes, said air-permeable material being a powdered composition of waste "non-contaminated dust of ferrous metals" from metallurgical production and dolomite flour, mixed in ratio of 1:3. To enhance biocidal action of the wastes, a highly efficient preparation Bio Z is added. Primary methods of depositing the protective layer of air-permeable material are a float out method and a push method.
EFFECT: method cuts treatment time.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to community services, particularly, to sanitary purification. Municipal wastes are collected by trucks equipped with compacting facilities. Note here that unified container to carry wastes is fitted on the truck. Wastes are compacted by mounted compacting appliance. Said filled unified containers are delivered in territories of railway or water terminals for storage. Said containers are delivered from said territories on railway or water transport facilities and carried to stations of sorting, processing and recovery.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, better environmental protection.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: storage comprises regional confining layer, said layer there above, at least one layer of loam and/or clay sediments making sorption (filtration) shield above sand layer, system of horizontal tubular drains fitted in sand layer along storage edges to extend to pits for possible feed of filtrate to surface. Proposed method comprises selecting regional confining layer proceeding from hydrogeological data on estimates of flows over refining layer, analysing engineering survey of soil stratum section town to refining layer to reveal shielding and filtering layers at future storage bed and excavating soil to reach, at least, one pillar of loan and/or clay beds making a natural sorption and/or filtration shield. Note here that, additionally, cuts in pillar are exposed along pit edges down to sand layer under lower filtration layers for laying horizontal drains along pit edges and mounting pumps therein.
EFFECT: decreased costs.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to the field of treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes, in particular, to joint stacking of domestic solid waste products and the bioadditives produced on the basis of the settling sewage, the surplus active sludge of sewage treatment plants and the filling agents - composts from the factories for the domestic solid wastes processing. The technical result is an increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes and increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination. The method includes introduction of the bioadditives produced on the base of a mix of sludge of waste waters of the sewage treatment plants and composts from a factory on processing of the domestic solid wastes. At introduction of bioadditives in amount of 5-7 % of the total mass of the placed waste products, the contamination of which by microflora - decomposer makes 108 - 1010 cells/g. Intensification of the process of decomposition of organic components of placed waste products takes place and due to that increased their sedimentation. At that the value of sedimentation of the layers of the placed waste products is determined by formula: , where Hsed - a value of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; h - initial value of height of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; τ - time of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in day; Т - time constant of the process of sedimentation of the layers of the placed solid domestic solid wastes, in days. The time of a maximum sedimentation is determined by the formula: t = 3 ·T, where t - time during which the sedimentation process falls into a zone of 5 % from the value of maximum sedimentation of the layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, that is the time of termination of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of the introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes, increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination.