Device to clean soil of oil products
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils contaminated with oil products, decontamination of soils, liquidation of oil spillage, etc. Proposed device comprises intake bin, mixer, crusher, cleaned soil handling device, screw conveyor and vibrator. Crusher is arranged above intake bin and communicated via screw conveyor with mixer. Mixer represents and encased horizontal screw mixer with pelletised sorbent dispenser arranged at its top part. Mixer outlet is connected via screw conveyor with drier bin. Drier is composed by housing accommodating belt conveyors to carry the material along the drier and to pour it down onto belt conveyor. Conveyor top runs contact with vibrators mounted there under. Said vibrators are composed by roller eccentrics with individual or group drive. Burners to combust sorbent with oil products are arranged in drier housing above said conveyors. Drier top section accommodates the off-gas collection chamber communicated with cyclone and absorber via smoke sucker. Cleaned soil handling device is mounted at outlet of the last conveyor and composed by discharge channel connected with opening in drier housing sidewall to be closed by shutter.
EFFECT: higher intensity of oil removal irrespective of seasons.
The invention relates to the protection of the environment, namely the remediation of oil-polluted lands, disposal of soil, liquidation of emergency floods of oil and mineral oil.
A device for cleaning the capillary-porous medium, comprising a chamber for placing the cleaned environment with electrodes connected to a constant current source, the capacity of the treated liquid and the container for waste fluid (EN 2106432 C1, IPC 6 C25C 1/22, publ. 10.03. 1998).
Famous line for cleaning contaminated soils, soil and sludge containing hopper, a screw conveyor, the capacity of the overflow oil, vibrating screen, boot grill, washer (EN 2244686 C1 IPC C02F 1/40, publ. 20.01. 2005).
The disadvantage of the above devices analogue design is the complexity and cost of the process of cleaning contaminated soil and sludge, which consists in multistage treatment process.
Closest to the proposed device is to install, taken as a prototype, containing a bunker with a mixing device, with the device for transporting liquid in the form of a screw conveyor in the capacity of the overflow and the output device is a solid inclusions, the delivery system of washing liquid vibrator (EN 2330734 C1 IPC B09C 1/00, publ. 10.08.2008,).
The lack of PR is the totype is the lack of efficiency of cleaning soils from petroleum products, additional economic costs required for mixing the contaminated material with water, laundering of contaminated material with water, separation of the pure material in liquid and solid phase, i.e. water and oil. The impossibility of operation of the device in the cold season, as the water used to launder soil from oil, freezes, which reduces the efficiency of cleaning soils from petroleum products.
The objective of the proposed device for cleaning soil from petroleum products is to increase the efficiency of cleaning the soil from petroleum products, as well as reducing the economic cost of additional operations, such as mixing the contaminated material with water, laundering of contaminated material with water, separation of the pure material in liquid and solid phase.
The technical result from the use of the device for cleaning soil from petroleum products is achieved by the fact that it includes a hopper, a mixing device, the device for shipment of treated soil, screw conveyor, vibrator, unlike the prototype, it has established under the receiving hopper, crusher, screw conveyor connected with the mixing device made in the form of a horizontal in the case of screw agitators in the upper part of which is mounted a dispenser for granulares the spent sorbent, the output of the mixing device is connected to screw conveyor with hopper dryer, representing a body placed in it, one above the other belt conveyors on which the material is moved along the dryer and poured into a located below the conveyor belt, the upper branch of the conveyor in contact with established under them vibrators made in the form of eccentric roller having individual or group drives, in the case of the dryer under the conveyors installed burner for combustion of the adsorbent adsorbing the oil in the upper part of the dryer is a camera for collecting exhaust gases, connected through the cyclone and the absorber with smoke, and the device for shipment of treated soil is placed on the output the last of the conveyor and is an outlet channel connected to a slot in the lower portion of the side wall of the casing of the dryer, close the gate.
General view of the device shown in the drawing.
The device includes a hopper 1, the crusher 2, the screw conveyor 3, the hopper 4 mixing device, mixing device 5 in the form of screw agitators, metering device 6 for granular sorbent, the hopper 7, the conveyor belt 8, the lead 9 and the driven rollers 10, the dryer 11 tunnel type, eccentric roller 12 of the vibrator 13, the gas burner 14, ve is tilator 15 to supply air into the dryer, the camera 16 for collecting the exhaust gases, the cyclone 17, the absorber 18, the exhaust fan 19, the gate 20, an outlet channel 21, the hole 22.
The operation of the device is as follows.
Contaminated petroleum soil (soil) using a bucket loader (not shown) is fed into a hopper 1, is built into the upper part of the crusher 2, which reduces the size of the lumps of soil.
The crushed soil with oil products by means of the screw conveyor 3 moves into the hopper 4 mixing device 5 in the form of a screw mixer. The sorbent is fed into the mixer through the spout 6. In the mixer is mixing the soil with oil products from the sorbent, which are used as active charcoal, and graphite powder with a macroporous structure, sorbent based on graphene. While it adsorbs drops of oil adhering to the surface of the soil. Further, the material (soil, mixed with the adsorbent and adsorbed oil) through the screw conveyor is fed into the hopper 7 of the dryer 11. From the hopper 7, the material falls on the upper belt conveyor by which it is moved along the drying chamber and poured into situated below the middle line and then at the bottom conveyor belt. An endless conveyor belt 8 is stretched between the lead 9 and the driven rollers 10. The combustion of gas in the burners 14 installed in the dryer, obrazets the combustible gas, which penetrates the layer of material on the upper, middle and lower conveyor belt 8. To maintain the combustion process in the kiln through the fan 15 is air. The influence of low-frequency oscillations at layers of material located on the upper branches of an endless conveyor belt 8, is created by using eccentric roller 12 of the vibrator 13. Eccentrics have individual or group drive (not shown). Under the action of heated gases sorbent with adsorbed oil is burned and converted into exhaust gases, which is collected in the chamber 16 of the dryer. The resulting combustion sorbent with adsorbed oil exhaust gases pass into the cyclone 17 and then to the absorber 18, where they are cleaned, and using exhaust fans 19 are released into the atmosphere. When opening the gate 20, closing the hole 22, the treated soil is shipped from the dryer through the outlet channel 21 in the container or the vehicle (not shown).
If necessary, the exhaust gases can be used for recovery dryers.
Implementation of the invention allows to significantly increase the intensity of cleaning the soil from petroleum products regardless of warm or cold season, as the exploitation of known analogs and prototypes based on the use of water for ottavani the contaminated soil from oil, in the winter time of year can not be implemented, and also to reduce the economic costs of additional cleanup operations.
Device for cleaning soil from mineral oil containing a hopper, a mixing device, the device for shipment of treated soil, screw conveyor, vibrator, characterized in that it has established under the receiving hopper, crusher, screw conveyor connected with the mixing device made in the form of a horizontal in the case of screw agitators in the upper part of which is mounted a dispenser for granular sorbent, the output of the mixing device is connected to screw conveyor with hopper dryer, representing a body placed in it, one above the other belt conveyors on which the material is moved along the dryer and poured into a located below the conveyor belt the upper branch of the conveyor in contact with established under them vibrators made in the form of eccentric roller having individual or group drives, in the case of the dryer under the conveyors installed the burner for combustion sorbent of oil in the upper part of the dryer is a camera for collecting exhaust gases, connected through the cyclone and the absorber with smoke, and the device for shipment of treated soil is s placed at the output of the last line and is an outlet channel, coupled with a hole made in the side wall of the housing of the dryer, close the gate.
SUBSTANCE: for bioremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils first before sowing peas, the inoculum is prepared from symbiotic microorganisms resistant to cadmium, consisting of soil-root mixture containing the strain of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus sp.Fo 1 deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM00630, in the amount of 0.5-1.0 g of a mixture per 1 pea seed; the aqueous suspension of nodule bacteria containing the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM1066, containing 106-107 cells of bacteria per 1 ml of the suspension, in the amount of 0.1-0.5 ml suspension per 1 pea seed, and the aqueous suspension of associative bacteria containing the strain Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2, deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM00049, containing 106-107 cells of bacteria per 1 ml of the suspension in an amount of 0.1-0.5 ml of the suspension per 1 pea seed. Then in the cadmium-contaminated soil the seeds of genetically modified peas SGECdt are sown, which have higher resistance and accumulation of cadmium in an amount of 20-60 seeds per 1 m2, combining them during sowing with an inoculum following the specified standards, and the plants are grown to full maturity of beans, then the peas are mowed and removed from the soil surface.
EFFECT: accelerated recovery process of healthy biocenosis of soil.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture, in particular to revegetation. Method includes sowing perennial grasses with introduction of mineral fertilisers. Vermiculite substrate with granules up to 2-4 mm and pH from 6.5 to 7.2 is placed on ground in up to 1 cm layer. Seeds of grasses are sown on substrate surface with their irrigation with water solution of mineral fertilisers. After that, substrate surface is covered with polymer film, which is removed on 5-7 day. Vermiculite substrate represents swollen vermiculite with pH from 6.5 to 7.2, obtained by method of high-temperature burning at temperature up to 850°C with regulation of rate and temperature of burning, containing wt %: silicon oxide (SiO2)-34.0-36.6; iron oxide (Fe2O3)-5.6-6.5; aluminium oxide (Al2O3)- 9.1-9.9; magnesium oxide (MgO)-24.7-26.6; iron oxide (FeO)-0.20-0.27; titanium oxide (TiO2)-0.40-0.47; calcium oxide (CaO)-1.02-1.22; manganese (Mn)-0.05-0.07; potassium oxide (K2O)-0.70-0.87. Before application of vermiculite substrate layer on very dense ground, its tillage is carried out.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase efficiency of formation of sown culture phytocenoses and their longevity, initiate processes of seed germination and further growth and development of herbaceous plants and reduce terms of formation of culture phytocenoses.
3 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of forestry and reclamation. The method comprises coating the slopes with soil substrate by uniform shifting it from the horizontal surfaces, covering the horizontal sites with soil substrate by leveling, planting the nursery plants of trees and shrubs, planting seeds of herbaceous plants. As the soil substrate, a mixture of material with a high content of nutrients is used in the form of sewage sludge, organic matter, peat, manure and phosphogypsum with the ratio of the mixture components of 2:1 by volume. The mixture is stirred by milling on horizontal plate. Covering the surface of the slopes with the resulting mixture with the thickness of 25-30 cm is carried out by uniform sliding on the slopes. Then, a continuous layer with the thickness of 15-20 cm is formed on the horizontal surfaces. The layer of the soil substrate is covered on top with a mulch layer of sand with the thickness of 1-3 cm using a spreader. At the final stage of reclamation across the entire surface the nursery plants of fast-growing trees and shrubs are planted, which have the developed root system and aboveground part with the height of 0.5-1.0 m, followed by sowing seeds of herbaceous plants.
EFFECT: invention enables to accelerate biological reclamation due to creation of optimal conditions for growth of tree and shrubbery vegetation by optimising the composition of the artificial soil substrate used.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to reclamation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (oil products), radioactive nuclides and heavy metals with the help of electric osmosis. Proposed method consists in inducing nonuniform electric field between central and peripheral electrodes and applying magnetic field perpendicular to cleaning zone. Proposed device comprises central electrode. Said electrode is composed of a rod with cross-section of polygonal shape with concave sides. System of peripheral electrodes is composed by separate rods. The latter are interconnected by plates arranged in zigzag line so that its recess or ledge is aligned with those of central electrode surface. Besides, proposed device comprises two extra solenoids arranged one above the other. First solenoid is plunged in submerged zone soil while second electrode is fixed by crossbar at the post extending through central electrode axis.
EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to revegetation. Proposed method comprises harrowing and forming of growth and top soil by spreading local plant types phytomass on top bare soil. Note here that after harrowing, seed of grass mixes of local plants are sown to introduce nitrogenous phosphatic potash fertilisers on the basis of 100 kg per one hectare. Layer of 8-20 cm-thick aged local plants are applied on the surface to make a protective layer. Seed of grass mix of annual and perennial local far north alien species can be used to this end.
EFFECT: higher quality of revegetation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of environment. The method is carried out by treating the soil with an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol into which mineral or organic fertilisers are added. The seeds of perennial grasses and coniferous plants are added, and mixed with soil. It is frozen at temperature below freezing, and then thawed at positive temperatures.
EFFECT: method enables to structure and stabilise the soil, to improve the quality of the strengthening turf due to development of a stronger and more branching root system.
2 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and reclamation. Proposed method comprises using stimulatory substance representing an organomineral compost prepared by mixing phosphogypsum, elementary superphosphate and KPC compost at the their following ratio subject to alkaline metal concentration in wt %: phosphogypsum - 10.0-15.0, elementary superphosphate - 0.8-1.0, KPC compost making the rest. Said compost is introduced in soil one time for 4-5 years in amount of 100-110 t/hec with content of organic substance of up to 20% and pH 6.0-6.5 to reduce alkalinity of black earth soil to 7.2-7.8 followed by placement of compost by cultivator to the depth of 20-25 cm.
EFFECT: simplified and accelerated reclaiming of soil contaminated with heavy metals.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils contaminated in oil-and-gas production. For reclamation of soils special site is arranged to make soil-slime mix by mixing drilling slime, said and peat, to be held for definite time and delivered to application point. Mote here that drill cuttings are transferred to said site by specially equipped dump trucks as well as peat and sand. In compliance with the first version, the mixes are dumped to make three enclosed rolls to be mixed by excavator. In compliance with the second version, peat, sand and slime are uniformly spread in 15-20 cm-thick 100 m-long and 2.0-2.5 m-wide bay and mixed by cutter. Now, the mix is cured for 1-30 days to level moisture content of mix pile and to make equal to from 10±5% up to 40±10% .
EFFECT: better environmental conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology and soil science. The method includes the application of peat in the soils and control over their fertility restoration. At the first stage the particle-size distribution of disturbed soil is determined, such as by pyrophosphate method, and the doses of peat are established depending on the particle-size distribution of soils. Then the samples of peat are taken - sample No 1, of disturbed soil - sample No 2, and disturbed soil with the addition of peat - sample No 3. The activity of the enzyme dehydrogenase of the taken samples in the dynamics is determined not less than every 10 days and for not more than 40 days. At that, the start of reclamation of disturbed soil with a dose of peat is judged according to increase in dehydrogenase activity of sample No 3 relative to the dehydrogenase activity of the sample No 2. The completion of reclamation is judged according to leveling the dehydrogenase activity of sample No 3 with the dehydrogenases activity of sample No 1.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of control of efficiency of reclamation of disturbed soils with different particle-size distribution, and to use rationally peat in the conditions of Far North.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land recultivation. In the method a mixed compost is used produced from the bark of fir-tree, larch and birch which is applied on the surface of toxic wastes in an amount of from 25 to 30% of the total mass. After laying, the mixing is carried out by disking to improve the conditions of establishment and survival of plants and to ensure a high biological activity of the substrate. The layer of mixed compost laid on the surface of the tailing storage facility with toxic wastes of mineral processing, disked at a depth of 5-10 cm and mixed with wastes, then seeds of legume-cereal mixture are sown, and heavy metals are bound by organic matter carbon and their main amount is immobilised up to non-hazardous limits. The area for recultivation of toxic wastes is contoured around the perimeter with the water-permeable boards and drainage grooves to speed up the discharge of storm water.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the negative impact of mineral processing wastes on the environment objects and to ensure the effective protection of the environment from industrial pollution.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants in oil recovery and transportation regions.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): chemical ameliorant 3.5-5.7; organic fertilizer 15.7-29.0; adsorbent 67.5-78.6. Method for sectioning soil treatment includes application of composition onto soil layer with 30 cm of depth. Then treated layer is shifted out of spot boundary. Opened surface is covered with composition of present invention. Then mole drainage of 60-65 cm in depth is made in soil by using mole plow or chisel plow, followed by plowing of 58-51 cm in depth and returning of sheared soil into spot.
EFFECT: effective soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: methods for phytomediation (phytorecultivation) of soil contaminated with petroleum.
SUBSTANCE: method involves planting perennial grasses into soil contaminated with petroleum, said perennial grasses being preliminarily grown for at least one growing period in non-contaminated soil and then replanted in soil contaminated with petroleum with their rootstocks and/or stolons and/or seedlings. Phytocultivation method may be used at earlier stages of soil contamination with petroleum to allow recultivation time to be reduced.
EFFECT: increased survival rate and yield of plants and reduced recultivation time.
2 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises land ploughing, sowing of perennial herbs, which are natural accumulators of heavy metals and naturally growing on given area or in given locality, and finally cutting and utilization of overground part of plants. Preferred perennial herb is Austrian absinth (Artemisia austriaca). In case of iron salt pollution, cutting is executed during the end of vegetation period and, in case of other heavy metal pollution, in the beginning of vegetation period.
EFFECT: enabled biological protection of land from heavy metal pollution.
FIELD: environmental protection; oil and gas producing industry; methods of purification of subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of environmental protection, in particular, to purification of the subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution by liquid hydrocarbons. In the polluted zone they drill a borehole, create and maintain in it a negative pressure within the limits of 2 kgf/cm2 up to 0.8 kgf/cm2. At that they simultaneously exercise extraction of the product of impurity from the borehole. The technical result of the invention is an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole per a unit of time.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole and its purification per a unit of time.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: disposal of solid waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises removing the contaminated layer of soil, separating the large impurities and biomass, grinding the contaminated layer by dispersing in water environment to produce pulp which is treated by ultrasound for disintegration of water-resistant agents, and supplying the pulp for separating the destructed agents into density and sizes of the particles by gravity to produce and separate the rectified coarse mineral and organo-mineral fraction, and draining contaminated fine dispersed mineral, organo-mineral, and organic fractions. The deposit containing radionuclides and heavy metals are separated, dried, and fed to the processing and burying. The purified water solution is returned for the repeatable use.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and quality of cleaning.
22 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, environment protection, more particular, reduction of 137Cs level in soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing accumulating plants such as lentils and Jerusalem artichoke on contaminated soil during three vegetation periods; alienating the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period; determining soil cleaning extent from formula: Cη=(Ca-Cs/Ca)*100(%), where Cη is extent of cleaning soil; Ca is level of 137Cs in soil before planting of said accumulating plants; Cs is level of 137Cs in soil after withdrawal of the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period.
EFFECT: reduced specific activity of 137Cs in soil, increased efficiency in removal of radio nuclides and obtaining of ecologically clean plant products, reduced possibility of external and internal radiation of people.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of ecologically pure farm products on soil contaminated with radio nuclides.
SUBSTANCE: method involves practicing steps enabling reduction in accumulation of radio nuclides within various crops, said steps including utilizing mineral and organic fertilizers; introducing mineral fertilizers for cultivation of the following crops: winter rye, winter wheat, oats, and potato, with nitrogen to potash ratio making 1:1.5; applying organic fertilizers for cultivation of lupine and serradella, and additionally providing liming of soil for barley cultivation.
EFFECT: reduced content of radio nuclides in main rotation crops.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises applying mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers simultaneously with the natural high-porosity mineral draining agent made of an aluminosilicate and subsequent loosening down to a depth of 25-30 cm. The ratios of the components are presented.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
FIELD: disposal of solid waste.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises vehicle provided with the tank filled with coolant, collector that is used for supplying coolant and is connected with the tank though a T-shaped hose having detachable branch pipes connected with the appropriate cooling chambers. The cooling chamber is made of a box whose open section faces the surface to be frozen and receives the collector for spraying the coolant. The outer walls of the chamber are provided with face and side flanges that form a closed space for circulating coolant. The chamber walls are provided with means for interconnecting the chambers.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reduced coolant consumption.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: restoration of soil contaminated with oil.
SUBSTANCE: at first stage, upper layer of oil sludge is collected and refuse is separated on vibrating screen; then oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of water, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures. At second stage, middle layer of oil sludge is collected; this layer contains substratum water which is first cleaned from refuse by passing it through vibrating screen; then, water is subjected to centrifuging for separation of oil sludge, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures from it; they are washed in surfactant solution. At third stage, bottom sediment is collected and is washed in surfactant solution for separation of oil sludge; then, refuse is separated from oil sludge in vibrating screen, after which oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of remaining water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.
EFFECT: increased degree of separation of oil sludge into cleaned oil sludge, water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.