Method of neutralisation of household and industrial mercury-containing wastes

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes combined grinding of wastes with sulphur powder and crushing medium in rotary reactor for binding metal mercury into water-insoluble compound. As crushing medium used is sulphur pyrate with fraction 50-150 mm, which is simultaneously agent, binding mercury in ionised and neutral forms. Before combined grinding mixture of sulphur powder, sulphur pyrate and water is preliminarily homogenised, and reactor is filled with nitrogen, supplied at rate 7.5-8.5 m3/h, in amount which is at least 50 times less than weight of sulphur powder. After that mercury-containing wastes are charged and grinding is carried out to complete binding of metal mercury into water-insoluble compound HgS.

EFFECT: simplification of technology and increase of processing process safety.

2 tbl


The invention relates to the processing of mercury-containing waste and can be used for environmentally safe disposal of fluorescent lamps, mercury thermometers, barometers, switches and other devices containing mercury that are in the glass envelope. This shell, in turn, may be enclosed in an outer casing made of plastic, wood or other materials, or may contain internal or external parts of these materials, namely the case of energy-saving lamps/tubular fluorescent lamps, scales, thermometers and barometers, the electrodes of the lamps and mercury switches.

Mercury is a highly toxic substance, dangerous as in the elemental form by inhalation of vapors, when ingested in the form of water-soluble salts. Special toxicity of different low molecular weight organic compounds of mercury formed, including with the passage of mercury through the food chain. For example, in aquatic ecosystems mercury accumulated by plants, single-celled organisms and plankton, and already at this stage, much of it turns into organic lipophilic derivative - methylmercury. In the following food chain - invertebrate organisms and herbivorous fish mercury concentration increases and reaches maximum values in predatory fish, and ka is the sea (tuna, halibut)and freshwater (perch, pike). Predatory fish mercury and its organic derivatives can accumulate to concentrations exceeding the maximum allowable for human consumption as food (above 1 ág/g with a valid 0.6 ág/g).

In 2009, Russia adopted the law №261-FZ "On saving energy, increasing energy efficiency and on amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation". Paragraph 10 requires that the widespread rejection of the use of incandescent lamps and gradual transition to energy-efficient lamps. The vast majority of these lamps is of type fluorescent lamp contains mercury. During the operation of these light sources a significant proportion (13% according to Rey-Raap and Gallardo, journal of Waste Management, may 2012) enclosed mercury is absorbed by the glass bulb. The disposal of fluorescent lamps requires the use of an economical, effective and safe for operating personnel technology.

There are several known methods for treatment of mercury containing waste, most of which are based on the binding of mercury in solid compounds poorly soluble in water, in particular

a) amalgams of metals:

aHg+bX(TV)=HgaXb(TV), where X=(Cu,Se,Ni,Zn,Sn)

with the subsequent storage of the obtained solid amalgams in stores;

b) a sulfide of mercury:

Hg+S(TV)=HgS (TV)

with the settlement of edusim disposal of the resulting sulfide in landfills or by imprisonment in the construction materials (concrete, asphalt, other);

C) in phosphate of mercury with the simultaneous conclusion of his in ceramics:



with the subsequent disposal of the obtained ceramics.

Of these methods, the most popular is the process of binding mercury in its sulfide (HgS, cinnabar). This reaction is the production of artificial cinnabar mercury is the reverse of the one used in the extraction of mercury from its ores - natural cinnabar. Get mercury sulfide is toxic when ingested, but is practically insoluble in water (1*10-24g/l, ~1 molecule sulfide 370 liters of water). Negligible solubility allows to classify the substance as a waste of the fourth hazard class and to bury it in landfills corresponding class.

The process of binding mercury in low-soluble substances that are suitable for burial, is impossible without its removal from equipment in which it is used. A widespread method is the extraction of mercury from waste through thermal treatment. This method involves the evaporation of mercury at a temperature of 500-700°C and sorption of vapor in the traps, for example, in installations CFL processor and mercury distiller firm MRT System AB, Karlskrona, Sweden. The system allows to process up to 500 kg energy saving l the MT per hour and consumes up to 60 kW of power (see Similar ideology system of the Russian production (YFS-3000, NPK "mercury", Cheboksary) has similar technical characteristics.

The advantage of systems using high-temperature processing of mercury-containing waste, is the almost complete recovery of mercury from recyclable objects. By heating to high temperatures is achieved by evaporation not only mercury from the internal volume of the lamp, and mercury absorbed by the glass bulb. However, the stage of distillation of mercury in this process means that part of the mercury in the plant is in its most dangerous form - in the form of vapor. In plants using this technology are absolutely necessary are a reliable sealing of volumes, containing mercury vapor and reliable capture of mercury in the flue gas. Liquidation of consequences of leakage of mercury vapor can be quite expensive.

The use of high temperatures also imposes restrictions on the content of organic matter in the treated waste. This is because widespread in the industry of plastic, heated to high temperatures, decompose to form toxic products. For example, the polystyrene used in the hulls of compact lamps, thermal decomposition emits carbon monoxide and aromatic coal is torodi - styrene, toluene, benzene, etc. should Not exclude the possibility of formation of mercury vapor and hydrocarbons toxic mercury-organic compounds, for example, methylmercury. It is quite likely that for these reasons, the firm MRT System AB specifically specifies that for units in the processing of waste with a high content of organic substances may require adjustment process in accordance with the type of raw materials used. Another disadvantage of high temperature technologies is that their final product is liquid, elemental mercury, which in the future you want to translate into less dangerous compounds suitable for long-term disposal. These drawbacks are common to all technologies, based on the process of sublimation of mercury, regardless of what methods are used for heating - gas burner according to U.S. patent No. 6183533 B1, B09B 3/00, 06.02.2001, microwave radiation according to the application for the European patent No. 1712267 A1, B01D 53/02, 18.10.2006, or any other method.

Well-known and low-temperature processing methods of mercury-containing waste, characterized by technological simplicity, relatively low qualifications service installation personnel and the possibility of processing waste with a high content of organic is such substances.

In Japan patent No. 3005236 B, B03B9/06, 25.01.1991 described processing of mercury from waste fluorescent lamps by their joint grinding in a mixture with sulfur at a flow rate of sulfur from 0.1 to 0.5% by weight of waste. The grinding is to reduce the maximum particle size of 5 mm, after which the mixture is mixed with water and cement and utverjdayut for burial.

This technology is described in Russian patent for invention №2156172 "Method of disposal of mercury-containing waste", B09B 3/00, 20.09.2000, according to which is the fragmentation of mercury-containing waste grinding medium, which uses crushed, and their simultaneous treatment with sulfur powder in the mixer or mill drum. This technology is based on chemical reactions of mercury with sulfur occurring under normal conditions (temperature, pressure).

For example, this technology possible disposal of compact fluorescent lamps with bases type E14 and E27 without separation of the caps and plastic bodies. In a plant operating according to such a technology, not formed is heated mercury vapor or large amounts of liquid mercury. In sum, these factors make up the low-temperature setup is much safer for staff than high temperature. However, this method does not completely remove the mercury absorbed steklometallik stage of disassembly of the lamp causes electronic components ballast apparatus compact lamps, often containing toxic heavy metals (lead, cadmium), are not derived from the product processing and are not reused.

Formed during low-temperature processing, the product usually consists of a powder of sulphur and sulphide of mercury, small glass fragments and debris of buildings disposed of equipment proposed for use for the manufacture of building material - concrete. The content of mercury in a typical batch of concrete according to this technology is not more than 500 g at 6500 kg of concrete, i.e. less than 0.01%. This concrete contains a large excess of sulfur, capable of binding mercury, slowly diffusing glass recycling device and unreacted sulfur in a short-term process. The resulting concrete is proposed to be used for construction of hydraulic structures. Trace amounts of mercury contained in such concrete, give it a higher resistance to boonratana and recommend its use for the construction of sumps, clarifiers and other hydraulic structures environmental purposes. The products of low-temperature utilization in concrete can reliably associate the sulphide of mercury and to avoid its contact with the environment. Laboratory testing shows ctoni boiling sample of concrete in the form of block 100×100×100 mm, prepared with the inclusion of a batch of product low-temperature mercury within 50 hours, no heating in dry air enclosure to temperatures above 100°C did not lead to a detectable increase in the concentration of mercury in environmental sample environment - water or air.

The closest analogue of the claimed invention is a method of disposal of mercury-containing waste, disclosed in the patent of Russian Federation №2228227, B09B 3/00, 10.05.2004. The method includes a joint grinding of waste sulfur powder and grinding medium in a rotating reactor to bind metal mercury in the water-insoluble compound. Joint refining of mercury-containing wastes and their simultaneous processing of powder sulfur is carried out in automixer (mixer) with grinding bodies in the rubble. The peculiarity of this method is the use of so-called toxic aqueous alkaline catalyst consisting of padmaloka liquor, iron chloride, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. The main disadvantage of this method is that the waste treatment of this mixture leads to the formation of a variety of poisonous oxides and chlorides, including, as stated in the patent, mercuric chloride Hg2Cl2that is well soluble in water. These compounds are converted into the final product mercury sulfide only at the next stage of the process PR is the use of sodium sulfide. Obtained during the reaction of binding of free mercury chloride mercury (II) is very toxic and soluble in water connection (at 20°C to 7.4 g/100 g water). In addition, no attention is paid to preventing the formation of mercuric oxide from oxygen and compounds produced during the recycling of mercury-containing waste.

The present invention is to provide a method of recycling of mercury-containing waste, consisting of a minimum number of stages, during which there is formed a highly toxic intermediate compounds or incandescent mercury vapor, and all input into the process components could bind mercury. The technical result is to simplify the technology, the improvement of environmental safety of the process.

The technical result consists in that in the method of disposal of mercury-containing waste, mainly, fluorescent lamps, including joint grinding of waste sulfur powder and grinding medium in a rotating reactor to bind metal mercury in the water-insoluble compound, as a grinding medium used sulfur pyrite fraction of 50-150 mm, which serves as an agent that binds mercury in the ionized and neutral forms, while before co-grinding a mixture of sulfur powder, sulfur of Calced the and and water pre-homogeneity and fill the reactor with nitrogen, supplied with a speed of 7.5-8.5 m3per hour in the amount of at least 50 times less than the mass of sulfur powder, then download mercury-containing waste and grinding lead to complete bonding of metallic mercury in the water-insoluble HgS connection.

Used sulfur pyrite (iron pyrite or pyrite) is simultaneously grinding medium and a reagent that binds mercury. The primary role of iron pyrites is the binding of mercury ions by the reaction:


however, it is possible binding of oxidized mercury:


During the interaction of mercury with sulfur and sulfur pyrites it in one stage, bound in practically water-insoluble inorganic binary compound with the chemical formula HgS.

The mechanical properties of iron pyrites for shredding recyclable objects can simplify the process by refraining from using the reactor for more chopping objects.

To prevent the formation of oxides of mercury, the method is carried out in an environment of neutral gas is nitrogen, supplied with a speed of 7.5-8.5 m3/hour. Nitrogen atmosphere makes the oxidation of mercury is practically impossible due to the significant decrease in the concentration of oxygen is in the reactor volume and the corresponding shift in the equilibrium of the oxidation reaction to them mercury.

To prevent dust formation during the process of recycling to the reactor is introduced a small number of technical water.

The proposed sequence of boot components (sulfur+pyrite, then nitrogen purging and loading recyclable products) eliminates the ingress of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. The presence of pyrite in the reaction products can reduce the emission of ions of mercury as in the disposal of waste at the landfill, and when using them for the preparation of building materials due to their reaction with iron sulfide. Produced during the reaction the product is not toxic in contact with skin and reliably immobilize mercury, not allowing her to move in aqueous solutions.

The method is as follows.

In a closed reactor, made of iron or steel tanks of 4 m3containing the inner metal tabs for better mixing of the reaction mixture, download neutralizing agents consisting of elemental (technical) sulfur by weight of 3.5 grams per liter of reactor volume (14 kg), iron pyrites fraction of 50-150 mm weight 7.5 grams per liter of reactor volume (30 kg) and industrial water in the amount of 50 ml per liter of reactor volume (200 l). The quantitative composition of the reagents listed in table 1.

Table 1
IngredientsThe number of reagents used in the process of recycling
To 1 liter of reactor volumeFor a reactor with a volume of 4 m3For a reactor with a volume of 6 m3For a reactor with a volume of 8 m3
Technical sulfur3.5 g14 kg21 kg28 kg
Sulfur pyrite (pyrite)7.5 g30 kg45 kg60 kg
Water technical50 ml200 l300 l400 l

Once loaded into the reactor of the above components are conducting a preliminary homogenization of the mixture for 20 minutes at a rotation speed of the reactor 20 revolutions per minute. After that, the reactor insert the hose reaching to the bottom of the tank, which serves the technical nitrogen in an amount equal to or greater than the volume of the reactor, with a speed of 7.5-8.5 m3/hour. For measurement of the of Yama filed gas use counter rotating. If the process of waste disposal is carried out in a confined space (for example, in winter), should ensure good ventilation to remove excess nitrogen, or to purge the reactor in the open air to prevent accumulation does not support the breathing gas in a confined space.

Then charged to the reactor utilized the interest rate of 0.05 grams of mercury (which is equivalent to one lamp type MVL-40 or ten compact fluorescent lamps with socle type E-27 or E-14) per liter of reactor volume. The calculation of the mass of recyclable mercury is carried out in order to achieve not less than pyatidesyatiletnei excess weight sulfur powder in comparison with the mass of recyclable mercury (linking mercury sulfur pyrites in the calculation).

The operating cycle is carried out at 20 revolutions of the reactor per minute. Because the rate of chemical reactions depends on the ambient temperature, the duration of the operating cycle depends on the temperature of the reactor and are listed in table 2.

Table 2
The reactor temperatureWork cycle time, minutes
minimalMaxi is real
+25°C and above6090
from +15°C to +25°C90120
from +5°C to +15°C120150

When the reactor temperature below +5°C implementation of the method is not recommended due to significant slowdown in the speed of chemical processes at low temperatures. The acute need for work at temperatures from 0°C to +5°C should conduct a work cycle not less than 150 minutes, then check the end of the bind mercury as described below and, if necessary, to continue the process to complete the chemical reaction.

The end of the process of binding mercury in all cases controlled by razortooth analyzer AGP-01 or equivalent: the amount of mercury vapor in the reactor volume must be not higher than the MCL (0.01 mg/m3). In case of exceeding this value in the reactor add excess portion of the neutralizing reagent (1 g of sulfur + 2 g pyrites per liter of reactor volume) and conducting the reaction for additional 30 minutes Any measurement of the concentration of mercury vapor spend less than a minute after stopping the rotation the reactor it is necessary for sedimentation formed in the reactor dust. After processing the reaction products discharged from the reactor and either used for making building materials, or disposed of in the landfill IV class of danger.

The method of disposal of mercury-containing waste, mainly, fluorescent lamps, including joint grinding of waste sulfur powder and grinding medium in a rotating reactor to bind metal mercury in the water-insoluble compound, characterized in that as the grinding medium used sulfur pyrite fraction of 50-150 mm, which serves as an agent that binds mercury in the ionized and neutral forms, while before co-grinding a mixture of a powder of sulphur, pyrite and water pre-homogenized and fill the reactor with nitrogen, supplied with a speed of 7.5-8.5 m3/h, in the amount of at least 50 times less than the mass of sulfur powder, then download mercury-containing waste and grinding lead to complete bonding of metallic mercury in the water-insoluble HgS connection.


Same patents:

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: oxidised zinc-containing materials with coke dross as a hard carbon reducer are supplied into a rotary tubular furnace and exposed to Waelz process with supply of blow in the form of a steam and air mixture into zone of temperatures 1050-1150°C with content of steam in the mixture 14-25%.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of a reducer and content of zinc and lead in a clinker, eliminates softening of material in a furnace.

2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to extraction of precious metals. Continuous extraction of precious metal composition from raw stock comprises heating of said stock in plasma kiln to produce slag top layer and fused metal bottom layer. Then, slag layer and fused metal layer are removed. Fused metal removed layer is solidified and fragmented for extraction of precious metals from produced fragments. Note here that said raw stock comprises material containing precious metal and collector metal. The latter is either metal or alloy able to form solid solution, alloy or intermetallide compound with one or several precious metals. Proposed device comprises plasma kiln, teeming table for continuous teeming of fused metal pool to form solidified sheet, fragmentation device and separation unit for extraction of precious metals from sheet fragment alloys.

EFFECT: higher yield.

20 cl, 11 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: method of demercurisation of waste luminescent lamps comprises destruction of lamps and vibratory cleaning of lamp breakage from luminophore. At that the destruction of lamps is carried out to the glass particle size of no more than 8 mm. After the destruction of luminescent lamps the lamps bases are separated from the glass on the vibrating grate and removed to the collector which is sent to demercurisation- annealing electric furnace. The heat treatment of bases is carried out at a temperature up to 100°C and the holding time of at least 30 minutes. Division of luminophore from the glass is carried out by blowing it in the counterflow-moving system "broken glass-air" under the conditions of vibration.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and energy saving of recycling luminescent lamps, cost reduction and simplification of disposal technology.

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method of pyrometallurgical extraction of silver from secondary lead-bearing stock comprises stock furnacing in two steps. First, lead-bearing stock is furnaced at 1150-1200°C, the melt being cooled to 400°C at the rate of 1950°C/h to 2050°C/h. Then, the melt is heated from 400°C/h to 500°C/h to 1150-1200°C to remove the yellow lead from silver surface.

EFFECT: higher yield of silver.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cleaning of silver-bearing materials by hydrometallurgy processes, for example, scrap and wastes of microelectronics. Proposed method comprises dilution of silver-bearing material in nitric acid, addition of sodium nitrate to nitrate solution at mixing, extraction of silver salt precipitate and pits treatment to get metal silver. Note here that after addition of sodium nitrate the reaction mix is held for 1 hour to add sodium carbonate or bicarbonate to pulp pH of 8-10. Free silver salt precipitate as silver carbonate is separated from the solution by filtration. Sodium nitrite and carbonate or bicarbonate is added in the dry form. Note here that sodium nitrite is taken with 25% excess of stoichiometry.

EFFECT: higher purity and yield, simplified process.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrometallurgy of scattered elements, particularly, to extraction of bismuth and germanium from secondary stock sources, in particularly, to extraction of bismuth and germanium from oil-abrasive wastes of bismuth orthogermanium crystals production. Proposed method comprises hydrochloride-acid leaching of bismuth and extraction of bismuth from the solution by electrolysis. Said hydrochloride-acid leaching is performed with addition of surfactants to the solution to produce abrasive-germanium-bearing precipitate. Germanium is extracted from said precipitate by distillation of tetrachloride germanium in vapours of hydrochloric acid. Said surfactant represents the commercial mix of oxyethylated alkyl-phenols of commercial grade "АФ" 9-6 at the concentration of 0.01-0.1 wt %.

EFFECT: simplified low-cost process, higher yield.

2 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: processing method of zinc-containing metallurgical waste involves mixing of waste with coke fines, pelletisation of charge and further performance of a Waelz process in a tube-type furnace. Besides, calcium hydroxide in the amount of 20-30% of silica content in the charge and coke fines with the size of less than 1 mm in the amount of 13-17% of the charge weight are added to the charge at mixing. Charge pelletisation is performed so that granules with the size of 2-4 mm and humidity of 10-12% are obtained. Waelz process treatment is performed at the temperature of 900-1000°C.

EFFECT: improving furnace capacity and reducing flow rate of coke fines of zinc-containing metallurgical waste, for example dusts of electric-arc furnaces.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method involves separation of a cable into electrical strands in a polymer sheath, steel wire and processing of steel wire pieces into reinforcement elements and with that, separation of steel wire from the electrical strand in the polymer sheath is performed by cutting of steel wire into pieces as a part of the cable along one or two mutually opposite located constituents of the cable by means of adjustable drive disc knives, bending of the cable on rollers and separation of the remained wire pieces from electrical strands by a cutter, and transportation of wire pieces is performed by a vibrating tray with an annular screw-shaped route; deformation of wire pieces is performed by a gear pair having a tooth in the section of a semi-cylindrical shape so that deformation of wire pieces with rollers is provided.

EFFECT: high processing efficiency of wastes of cable products and production of finished products of improved quality, which is suitable for being used in construction of residential and industrial sites.

3 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to an area of secondary production of non-ferrous metals. An extraction method of cadmium and nickel from used alkali accumulators and batteries involves chemical treatment of waste alkali accumulators and batteries with ammonium chloride by passing through them of condensed vapours of heated solution of ammonium in water with dilution of cadmium and nickel oxides and formation of solutions of cadmium and nickel ammoniates, extraction of solutions of cadmium and nickel ammoniates and their heating with decomposition into cadmium and nickel hydroxides, deposition of cadmium and nickel hydroxides and separation of the obtained deposit from the solution, heating of the solution till evaporation, its condensation and passing of the obtained condensate through the rest mass. The solution separated from the deposit at chemical treatment is tested for cadmium and/or nickel ammoniates available in it by trial action on it with sodium or potassium sulphides, and the above test is repeated till there are no cadmium and/or nickel ammoniates in the solution.

EFFECT: invention provides effective extraction of cadmium and nickel hydroxides from used accumulators and batteries, as well as it allows improving environmental safety of the process.

5 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves electrochemical deposition of lead from alkaline solutions on asymmetric pulsed current with variation of the periodic sequence of packets of positive n+ and negative n- current pulses, wherein the number of pulses in a packet is selected from n+=20 and the interval 1≤n-≤10.

EFFECT: high degree of extraction of lead from alkaline solutions, low costs, environmental safety and wasteless production.

4 ex

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: method of demercurisation of waste luminescent lamps comprises destruction of lamps and vibratory cleaning of lamp breakage from luminophore. At that the destruction of lamps is carried out to the glass particle size of no more than 8 mm. After the destruction of luminescent lamps the lamps bases are separated from the glass on the vibrating grate and removed to the collector which is sent to demercurisation- annealing electric furnace. The heat treatment of bases is carried out at a temperature up to 100°C and the holding time of at least 30 minutes. Division of luminophore from the glass is carried out by blowing it in the counterflow-moving system "broken glass-air" under the conditions of vibration.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and energy saving of recycling luminescent lamps, cost reduction and simplification of disposal technology.

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes grinding of initial material, cyanide leaching with production of a product solution of gold with mercury admixtures, introduction of a sulfide-containing reagent for mercury deposition, sorption of gold onto activated coal with return of the reuse cyanide solution for leaching, desorption of gold and electrolysis of gold from a strippant. The sulfide-containing reagent is introduced in the form of an aqueous solution of a mixture of sodium sulfide and calcium oxide at their mass ratio of 4.3-4.4 per 900-1100 wt parts of the reuse cyanide solution. After separation of mercury in the form of a sparingly soluble residue, the suspension is separated to produce a clarified solution, from which the gold is adsorbed onto activated coal.

EFFECT: practically complete separation of mercury without negative impact at gold sorption.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: setup includes a lamp crushing unit, a container with demercurisation solution, a decontamination unit made in the form of a mixer for waste decontamination, which is fixed on the base with possibility of being rotated by means of an actuator and overturned for unloading of derivative product, a loading device with a movable tray, a derivative product collecting tank made in the form of a container installed on the tray with a chute for drainage of waste solution to the receiving tank and pumping of the solution by means of a pump through a filter with sulfonated carbon backfill of KU-2 type, and a furnace for combustion of backfill with sulfonated carbon and obtaining metallic mercury. The lamp crushing unit is made in the form of a continuous-action setup for obtaining fine powder from broken glass, which contains a receiving bunker, a jaw crusher for primary crushing, a screw conveyor for product supply to an elevator, a planetary mill made so that crushed product can be removed from it with an air flow, pipelines for transportation of crushed product to separator, in which the air flow is swirled with inclined blades with possibility of separation of material as to fineness degree by means of appearing centrifugal force, return of coarse material to the mill and transportation of fine product to the cyclone for collection of considerable part of ready product and its supply through a sluice valve via the pipeline to the receiving capacity.

EFFECT: improving efficiency and energy and resource saving of scrap processing and gas cleaning.

2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method involves connection of an inner volume of a lamp and a reservoir volume to a demercurisator so that contact of mercury vapours to the demercurisator is provided and the demercurisation process is performed in the lamp volume. The reservoir with the demercurisator is arranged in a lamp base. Demercurisation process is performed in a single tight volume formed with inner volumes of the lamp and the reservoir with the demercurisator through a connection of volumes of the lamp and the reservoir to the demercurisator by destructing a partition wall from low-melting material, which separates them, and by increasing pressure in the reservoir with the demercurisator.

EFFECT: providing possibility of utilisation of the lamp in situ after its failure; increasing safety and simplifying utilisation of lamps.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises feeding the tubes into grinder, grinding, separating metallic bases and crushed glass containing phosphor and mercury and mercury stabilisation of sulphide form. Heated calcium polysulphide solution is fed drop-by-drop in grinder along with tube feed therein. Device comprises unit of sulfidising and separation and that for process air cleaning. Said unit of sulfidising and separation comprises shell with cover connected with glass mass collector and having opening connected with intake of bases, acceleration tube arranged inclined to cover, service container with demercurisation solution connected feed tube, grinder and grate arranged there under. Grate center has truncated cone open at both sides with vertex directed upward. Note here that container is furnished with solution heater while process air cleaner is connected to acceleration tube.

EFFECT: simplified and faster process, higher degree of disposal.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed composition comprises 3.0-5.0 wt % of dichlorisocyanuric acid soda as halogen-bearing compound, 0.5-1.5 wt % of thiourea as complexing agent and water making the rest.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of removal mercury from soil, reduced aggressiveness of used substances relative to rooms interior, instruments and equipment.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves breaking down said lamps and devices, grinding, heating, evacuating the scrap lamps in a chamber and subsequent condensation of mercury vapour in cooled traps with successive sealing of all processes, wherein a batch of lamps and devices is broken down right away; grinding is carried out to particle size of not more than 20 mm, destruction and extraction of mercury is carried out at temperature of 150-200°C and a vacuum of up to 10 Pa and holding for 30 minutes; a second step for cleaning the scrap with a washing liquid (1 N sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid solution) is carried out, followed by separation of sockets and scrap glass. When filling the chamber with scrap lamps with washing liquid, circulation mixing is carried out for at least 5 minutes. After separating from the scrap, the washing liquid is subjected to filtration and thermal decomposition to metallic mercury at temperature higher than 500°C. Separation of cleaned sockets and scrap glass is carried out by sieving through a sieve with different cell size under vibration action.

EFFECT: high efficiency and environmental friendliness of the process, efficiency of extracting mercury while reducing power consumption.

5 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: plant includes two units, the first one of which is a lamp sorting unit, and the second one is a unit of multistage exit gas cleaning system. The first unit includes a lamp sorting device consisting of a loading assembly, a pneumatic vibrating separator with a crusher and a cyclone, a crushed lamp glass collecting hopper, a lamp base receiving container and a fluorescent dye container. The second unit is made in the form of multistage exit gas cleaning system consisting of a sleeve filter, adsorbers, a gas blower with a compressor, which creates negative pressure in the plant of 5-8 kPa in the lamp loading zone and up to 19-23 kPa before gas blower. The plant is equipped with a series pulverised-coal and gas emission cleaning system consisting of a cyclone, sleeve filters, a working adsorber operating on activated coal, which allows reducing mercury content in exit gases to the level of less than 0.0001 mg/m3.

EFFECT: improving utilisation efficiency owing to excluding the probability of PC-air emissions to a production room and improving energy resource saving of metal scrap processing and gas cleaning.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method for gold extraction from cyanide solutions with dissolved mercury contained in them, gold-bearing ores formed during leaching, involves sorption of gold and mercury on activated carbon with enrichment of activated carbon with gold and mercury. Then, gold desorption is performed with alkali-cyanide solution under autoclave conditions, gold electrolysis from strippants so that cathode deposit is obtained and its remelting is performed so that finished products are obtained in the form of raw base gold alloy. Prior to gold desorption the selective desorption of mercury is performed by treatment of saturated carbon with alkali-cyanide solution containing 15-20 g/l of sodium cyanide and 3-5 g/l of sodium hydroxide, at temperature of 18-20°C and atmospheric pressure during 10 hours.

EFFECT: simplifying the method due to mercury desorption in a separate cycle prior to gold desorption; improving selectivity of gold extraction and creation of possibility of safer conditions during processing of cathode deposits so that finished products are obtained.

4 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method of gold extraction from mercury-containing cyanic solutions consists in sorption by ion-exchange resin of AM-2B mark. Then mercury de-sorption is carried out from saturated ion-exchange resin at a temperature 40-50°C and for 6 hours and aurum de-sorption. Note that mercury de-sorption is done by solution containing sulfuric acid 30-50 g/l with the presence of hydrogen peroxide 5-10 g/l.

EFFECT: reduction of mercury content in saturated gold-containing ion-exchange resin till safe concentration or complete elimination of mercury penetration into finished products.

5 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: for production of mineral composite the galvanic sludge preliminary moistened to at least 80%, wastes of engineering, metallurgical, mining, concentrating manufacturing sectors, containing inorganic pollutants - heavy metal ions: manganese, chromium, vanadium, copper, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, lead are exposed to organomineral composition at ambient temperature and periodic stirring for at least 10 hours to convert the heavy metals into a fixed shape. The organomineral composition comprises glauconite preliminary ground to a fraction of 0.01-0.1 mm, and humic acids taken in a ratio by wt %: glauconite 97-99.5, humic acids 0.5-3.0.

EFFECT: reduction of process time, complete neutralisation of heavy metals in the final product, waste disposal of electrodeposition, the ability of use of the final product in road construction.

2 cl