Method of biological revegetation of technogenically disturbed lands

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture, in particular to revegetation. Method includes sowing perennial grasses with introduction of mineral fertilisers. Vermiculite substrate with granules up to 2-4 mm and pH from 6.5 to 7.2 is placed on ground in up to 1 cm layer. Seeds of grasses are sown on substrate surface with their irrigation with water solution of mineral fertilisers. After that, substrate surface is covered with polymer film, which is removed on 5-7 day. Vermiculite substrate represents swollen vermiculite with pH from 6.5 to 7.2, obtained by method of high-temperature burning at temperature up to 850°C with regulation of rate and temperature of burning, containing wt %: silicon oxide (SiO2)-34.0-36.6; iron oxide (Fe2O3)-5.6-6.5; aluminium oxide (Al2O3)- 9.1-9.9; magnesium oxide (MgO)-24.7-26.6; iron oxide (FeO)-0.20-0.27; titanium oxide (TiO2)-0.40-0.47; calcium oxide (CaO)-1.02-1.22; manganese (Mn)-0.05-0.07; potassium oxide (K2O)-0.70-0.87. Before application of vermiculite substrate layer on very dense ground, its tillage is carried out.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase efficiency of formation of sown culture phytocenoses and their longevity, initiate processes of seed germination and further growth and development of herbaceous plants and reduce terms of formation of culture phytocenoses.

3 cl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to methods of biological reclamation of disturbed lands and may be used for the restoration of lands disturbed by mineral development, and to secure dusty surfaces dumps, tailings ponds.

Known methods of land reclamation (RF patents for inventions No. 2336684, 2338355, 2321979, 2101901 and others), including the formation of a soil layer with the introduction of mineral or organic fertilizers and subsequent sowing of seeds of various plants. Their disadvantages are the need not only for fertilizer, and a mixture of herbs, but ploughing that time-consuming and often impossible to secure dusty surfaces dumps, tailings ponds.

Known various compounds or compositions for land reclamation, including various organic additives and sorbents (patents for inventions of the Russian Federation No. 1730742, 2193590, 2277326, 2293103 and others), for example peat-sand mixture, sapropel, aluminum powder, lignin, etc. derived from waste local industries. Know the use of expanded vermiculite as additives to the soil in an amount of from 25 to 70% to improve their composition and improve crop yields, as well as in mixed soils, consisting of vermiculite with peat in the ratio of 1:1 or vermiculite with the ground or soil in aspect] is to 1:2. Defects produced at the temperature of 850-1000°C expanded vermiculite, which does not allow to use it as a clean substrate is its high alkalinity, and partially destroyed the crystal lattice, not carrying sufficient air and irrigation water emit alkalizing magnesium, which is not possible to maintain a specific pH level.

A known method of reclamation of post-technogenic and remote areas in the Far North (patent RF №2093974 from 09.11.1995 g), including the introduction of granulated fertilizer-seed obtained by microbiological transformation mixture of lignin-sawdust-bird droppings, enriched with mineral fertilizers, which contains the seeds of perennial grasses native species. The disadvantage of the proposed method is the complexity of manufacturing granular material.

The closest is the way to restore disturbed land to a Russian patent for invention №2030851 from 10.07.92, including the sowing of perennial grasses with mineral fertilization and subsequent tillage binder composition - water emulsion latex. Latex polymer coating protects the seeds on the surface, from the adverse effects of the environment and provides the opportunity for their growth and rooting in ekström is selected hydrothermal conditions. The emergence of 10-15 days. Continuation of coverage - 5 years. The disadvantage of this method is the use of equipment and machinery for the application (spray) aqueous emulsion of latex, for the operation of which requires the presence of a network of roads, approaches and entrances, as a consequence of the inability to reach hard to reach areas of man-made disturbed areas.

The invention as is known, involves the planting of perennial grasses with mineral fertilizers.

The problem solved by the invention is the provision of quality seed kulturpflanze in a short time, including in the Far North.

The technical result consists in increasing the efficiency of formation of the seed kulturprozent and their long duration, in the initiation of the processes of seed germination and further growth and development of herbaceous plants and reducing thereby the timing of forming kulturprozent up to 7-10 days, reducing the complexity of technical and biological re-cultivation.

Achieved technical result of the fact that the soil layer up to 1 cm spread vermiculite substrate with pellets up to 2-4 mm and a pH of from 6.5 to 7.2, on the surface of the substrate sow grass seed and produce their watering aqueous solution of mineral fertilizers, then the surface su of the stratum cover polymer film, which is removed at 5-7-th day. With a strong compaction of the surface layer of disturbed lands before applying a layer of the substrate can be made by loosening the soil.

Use as vermiculite substrate of expanded vermiculite obtained by the method of high-temperature calcination at temperatures up to 850°C with a speed control and temperature firing, containing, wt.%:

silicon oxide (SiO2)34,0-36,6
iron oxide (Fe2O3)5,6-6,5
aluminum oxide (Al2O3)from 9.1 to 9.9
magnesium oxide (MgO)24,7-26,6
iron oxide (FeO)0,20-0,27
the titanium oxide (TiO2)0,40-0,47
the calcium oxide (Cao)1,02-1,22
manganese (Mn)0,05-0,07
the oxide of potassium (K2Oh)0.70 to 0.87 for

provides a neutral or slightly alkaline alkalinity vermiculite - pH from 6.5 to 7.2, which allows the t to use it as a clean substrate, able to maintain a specific pH level and to create different types of kulturprozent due to the possibility of selection and use of different species of herbaceous plants. The substrate is an independent media valuable macro - and microelements, which increases the sustainability of turf.

Drawing on the soil layer up to 1 cm of vermiculite substrate with pellets up to 2-4 mm and a pH of from 6.5 to 7.2, sowing on the surface of the substrate of grass seed and watering aqueous solution of mineral fertilizers provides optimal conditions (plenty of moisture, air, nutrients)necessary for the initiation of the processes of seed germination and further growth and development of herbaceous plants, thereby reducing the timing of forming kulturprozent up to 7-10 days, contribute to the formation of powerful darmowego layer with a height of 40 cm or more and increase the long-term turf. The possibility of applying for revegetation of expanded vermiculite as a substrate with a neutral or weak alkalinity provides the possibility of planting different species of herbaceous plants, prevents them from freezing in extreme cold due to the good thermal insulation properties, but also reduces the technical complexity of the work to remediate due to the low weight of the substrate.

the covering surface of the substrate polymer (polyethylene, for example) the film keeps the temperature and moisture of the substrate with a seed in the initial starting period of germination of seeds and growth of seedlings, which also provides for the initiation of germination of seeds, thereby reducing the timing of forming kulturprozent up to 7-10 days.

Loosening the soil before applying a layer of substrate (with a strong compaction of the surface layer of disturbed lands) provides better penetration into the soil the roots of germinated plants and attaching the substrate on the surface rekultiviruemye territories.

The combination of the above distinctive characteristics, taken together, provides the claimed technical result.

The invention is carried out as follows.

The area in which the planned establishment of vegetative cover (kulturpflanze), cleared of debris. In the case of strong sealing surface reclamation she slightly (at a depth of 2-5 cm) richlite, for example, a rake. Vermiculite substrate is scattered on the surface layer of 1 cm manually or by special devices, such as the spreading of solid fertilizers. Seeds of herbaceous plants are planted manually or drills on the surface of the vermiculite substrate evenly without gaps (the rate of seeding depends on the species, quality, commodity germination with the mJy and projected density of future grass). Preparing of 0.2%aqueous solution of complex mineral fertilizers, for example commercially available nitrogen-phosphate-potassium fertilizers required for plant growth - rate of 20 g/l of water to which you have added trace elements, such as tablets microfertilizer "Effect of NPK or Uniflor-micro, standard making - 1 tablet per 10 l of the solution "NPK". It is possible to prepare a concentrated solution of mineral fertilizers of mineral salts, g/1 l of water: boric acid - 19,6, cobalt nitrate to 1.0, zinc sulphate, ammonium molybdate, copper sulfate - 1,4, sulfuric acid (concentrated) to 6.0 ml per 10 l of the solution prepared "NPK" should be taken to 1.4 ml of concentrated solution of micronutrients.

Preparation of a highly concentrated solution of complete mineral mixture is done, for example, in any convenient space, and on-site remediation it is diluted with water to the desired concentration, which facilitates the transportation of solution fertilizers. The seeds and the substrate is wetted with a solution prepared fertilizer at a rate of 5 l of solution/m2using a watering can or hose with a sprayer. The crop top seeds sown take cover with plastic wrap to protect from the adverse effects of external factors (wind, precipitation, low temperatures, mechanical and chemical effects). By peri is the ETP film is pressed improvised means (stones, boards and the like). In this position the crops leave for 4-6 days, on the fifth to seventh day, with the advent of mass of green shoots, the film is removed and no longer used.

To accelerate the formation of kulturpflanze to initiate the process of seed germination, but also the growth and development of seedlings to protect them from the destructive influence of external conditions (drought, rain, cold, harmful microorganisms and pests), and to achieve intensive (too rapid) growth and development of herbaceous plants during the next phases of their development, kulturpflanze. This is vital, and in limitiruesh and optimum quantities of water, 02favorable temperature and pH level (pH), nutrient availability. This can only be achieved by sowing seeds in the substrate with high moisture, vazduhoplovstvo, sterility, buffering capacity, nutrient-rich. The substrate must ensure that all these conditions plants for a certain period of time (until the seeds's born - 2-3 days until the spine will be fixed in the substrate - another 1-2 days until the seedlings will develop their roots and embedded in the soil for 2-3 days, and while a small plant will get stronger, form 1-2 of these green leaf). He should be able to hold a large number of DOS is available water, air, to withstand temperature extremes, supporting the required level of acidity (acidic environment with a pH below 3.5 and alkaline with a pH above 8.0, most seeds do not germinate) and sterile to protect hatched seeds and young seedlings from pathogenic organisms. Such conditions responsible vermiculite substrate with pellets up to 2-4 mm and a pH of from 6.5 to 7.2, obtained by the method of high-temperature Elektroonika at temperatures up to 850°C with a speed control and temperature firing - pochvoznanie from a natural mineral of the vermiculite, which, with a number of useful properties (sterility, high moisture and vozduhoochistki, buffering capacity, optimum sorption and ion-exchange properties), even in the Northern latitudes contributes to the creation of biologically active Pochvovedenie body optimum air / water, temperature and nutrient regimes, contributing to high rates of seed germination (regardless of species within 4-5 days), further growth and development of plants at all stages of ontogeny. The result is high-quality, resistant to adverse environmental factors plant communities of a wide range of destination is made possible in a short period of 7-10 days.

The method was tested in Karelia and Murmansk region. He has shown high efficacy in create the Institute of plant cover on apatitonefelinovoj TMF, on man-made wasteland in the Monchegorsk area, as well as in soil contaminated by oil and oil products. The versatility of the proposed method provides not only due to the fact that the expanded vermiculite is an active absorber (sorbent) chemical compounds, heavy metal ions and radionuclides, but mainly due to education at highly contaminated sites, soil Pochvovedenie layer, whereby plants created cover can grow and develop in the long term. This layer of vermiculite and protects the seeds, and grown from them plants from the effects of these pollutants.

Industrial applicability of the method is illustrated by examples.

Example 1. In 2006-2009 on-site backup apatitonefelinovoj tailings ANOF-2 OJSC "Apatit" investigations on the way to the establishment of erosion kulturpflanze. Sandy dumps this tailings are low species diversity of plants, 21 species (2.2% of the local flora). Natural processes of development of phytocenoses here is poorly expressed, the occlusion site is slow. The majority of native species characterized by low vitality, density, surface area, and erosion control features; to edification natural phytocenosis is in can be attributed Lime arenarius and Puccinella distans, with prospects for self-resettlement and land reclamation nepheline Sands.

The formation of kulturpflanze produced horizontal zigzag chevrons arbitrary length, width and interval of 0.5 M. This allows to construct primitive (consisting of 3-8 plant species) erosion plant communities with 50% projective cover almost instantly, more complex (30 species) closed for 2 years. The increase in species diversity in this kulturpflanze takes place in several ways: by self-propagating bands, check bare interstrip space adventive species from nearby areas of tailings, which provides a high similarity in overall performance systematic and coenotic diversity spectra of natural and cultural Flor and by attracting native rhizomatous plants.

Thus, using the proposed method using vermiculite substrate with pellets up to 2-4 mm and a pH of from 6.5 to 7.2 creates a biologically active Pochvovedenie body that performs functions traditionally used to stakeholders peat-soil layer.

Example 2. The method was tested in Monchegorsk district of the Murmansk region on man-made wasteland. As a rule, in conditions of heathland plant roots cannot penetrate deep is about in the soil and die. A layer of vermiculite with nutrients provides rapid establishment of vegetative cover, then sprouted vegetable coating begins to form secondary cushion from the roots, its height darmowego layer increases due to the constant formation and growth of new roots of those plants, which form created herbage, as in this case, the coating does not live at the expense of the nutrients of the soil, but due to nutrients, moisture and air, which are contained in the inventive substrate. The thus created the turf grows to the ground immediately, but gradually: in the first year of its roots penetrate into the soil for 1-2 cm, in the second - to 4 Adaptation of kulturpflanze occurs only due to a stock of moisture, air and nutrients in vermiculite substrate, cm layer which protects the roots of plants from the direct effects of pollutants, providing vital conditions for further growth and development of kulturpflanze; further litter grass, microbiological processes occurring in the emerging turf, contribute to the formation of additional supply of nutrients already organic in nature, thereby soften the conditions in the soil including the place where established vegetation by the claimed method.

Example 3. Were conducted experimental the e work to explore the possibility of using the proposed method on the landfill of waste in paravane Murmansk region in July-October 2009 In boxes with substrates from a mixture of peat and sand was added to the oil (2 boxes) and crude oil (2 boxes). Then in some boxes on the surface of the substrates were laid ready lawn mats, others have sown the seeds of grasses by the present method. The results of observations showed that after 2 weeks, the degree of prirastanija turf turf mats in the variants with the addition of fuel oil amounted to more than 70%, in embodiments using crude oil - 10%. With the method of direct seeding with initiation of germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of perennial grass plants in just 1 week was made of high quality vegetation with a 100% projective cover and deep penetration of the root system in man-made substrate.

Thus, the supply of nutrients in the seed, the higher the energy of germination, growth and development at the first stage of ontogenesis, nature, + 100% vermiculite substrate with a pH level of 6.5 to 7.2, which has a set of unique, favorable for planting and growing plants properties and is able to provide optimal conditions required for the initiation of processes of ontogenesis, + watering aqueous solution of mineral fertilizers + plastic film, keeping the temperature and moisture during the passage of these processes and protecting crops - all of them, VM is the extent taken allow you to create high-quality kulturprozent promptly - in just 7 days.

The method is simple in execution, applicable even in adverse climatic conditions of the Far North and can significantly reduce the cost of creating high-quality grass-darmowego coverage in advance to plan the timing and density of future grass and the type of kulturpflanze.

Bibliography:

1. Obrucheva, NV, O. Antipova Run growth axial bodies and training during germination of seeds that are in forced calm // plant physiology, 1994. Volume 41. No. 3. S-447.

2. Obrucheva, NV, O. Antipova Physiology initiation of germination of seeds /plant physiology, 1997. Volume 44. No. 2. Page 287-302.

3. Botany: Morphology and anatomy of plants: a manual for students of the Institute. in-tov on Biol. and chem. spec. / Vasiliev A., Voronin NS, Elenovski A.G. and others M.: Education, 1988. 488 C.

4. Galston A., Davis, P., Sutter R. the Life of green plants. TRANS. from English. M.: Mir, 1983. 552 S.

5. Developmental biology of cultivated plants: a manual for students of the Institute. in-tov on Biol. spec. universities / Kuperman F.M., Siberian branch, E.I., V.V. Murashov, etc. edited by Kuperman F. M. M.: Higher school, 1982. 342 C.

1. The method of biological remediation of man-made disturbed land, including planting megalyn the x grass with fertilizer wherein the ground layer up to 1 cm spread vermiculite substrate with pellets up to 2-4 mm and a pH of from 6.5 to 7.2, on the surface of the substrate sow grass seed and produce their watering aqueous solution of mineral fertilizers, then the surface of the substrate is covered with plastic film, which is removed at 5-7-th day.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the vermiculite substrate is an expanded vermiculite with a pH from 6.5 to 7.2, obtained by the method of high-temperature calcination at temperatures up to 850°C with a speed control and temperature firing, containing, wt.%:

silicon oxide (SiO2)34,0-36,6
iron oxide (Fe2O3)5,6-6,5
aluminum oxide (Al2O3)from 9.1 to 9.9
magnesium oxide (MgO)24,7-26,6
iron oxide (FeO)0,20-0,27
the titanium oxide (TiO2)0,40-0,47
the calcium oxide (Cao)1,02-1,22
manganese (Mn)0,05-0,07
the oxide of potassium (K2O)0.70 to 0.87 for

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before applying a layer of vermiculite substrate on a heavily compacted soil to produce loosening.



 

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1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to forest growing. The method comprises preforming of ridge, on which then sowing seeds is carried out followed by cultivation of seedlings. Before forming the ridge the microrelief is created on the soil, on which the film is laid, creating microcavities. Then, sidewalls are created, and the substrate is poured into the formed cavity, on which the seeds are sown and covered prior to seedlings with light-nontransmission material. The seeds are also sown on the ridge with increased seeding rate, and the sidewalls of the ridge are made of large-fractional material.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of high-quality planting material per unit of area.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of selection and primary seed breeding, in particular, to methods of reproduction of planting material. The method comprises the stimulation of growth of etiolated sprouts through cuts in the apical part and processing with the solution of thiourea. The tubers are germinated in dark at a temperature of 14-16°C and a relative air humidity of 90-95%. Detachment of apexes from basic etiolated sprouts of first order is carried out at the time of formation on the basic etiolated sprouts of the first order of 3-4 knots. During formation on the basic etiolated sprouts of the first order of 3-5 lateral etiolated sprouts of the second order and shoots of callus origin, tubers are planted in the soil. At that after planting the tubers are sprinkled with humus soil with the layer of 10 cm, and upon reaching the height of sprouts of 21-25 cm above the level of humus soil the sprouts are sprinkled with nutrient substrate of different density. The sprinkling is repeated several times upon reaching the height of sprouts of 21-25 cm above the substrate level. During sprinkling the tops of sprouts with length of 1-5 cm are left free over the substrate surface, and the substrate density is reduced with each sprinkling.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the reproduction factor of the initial material during growing the most valuable varieties as well as breeding lines.

1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to fruit growing. The method comprises the initial formation of a tree on a frost-resistant stembuilder. At that on the fruit-bearing tree, a backup young crown is formed, for this purpose, shoots from dormant buds are used, formed on the stembuilder after subfreezing. 2-3 well-placed strong sprouts are selected and left from shoots and that are formed in the vertical position. In the spring the desired breed is grafted on the selected developed shoots. The main old crown is thinned. After the first year of growth of the grafs one is left, and the rest are cut on the ring. After the final formation of the backup crown, the old crown is cut out.

EFFECT: method enables to speed up the process of restoring the crown of fruit trees after exposure to adverse weather conditions, to reduce sensitivity to climatic and predisposing factors, to increase productivity of fruit trees.

4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to the nursery. The method includes harvesting of cuttings, their processing with inducers of rhizogenesis followed by rooting in conditions of increased humidity and subsequent completion of growing. At that in the area of the cut of shoots the basal parts of cuttings are washed with hot water at a t=45-48°C for 30-45 min. Then, before using inducers of rhizogenesis the processing is conducted by soaking the basal parts of the cuttings in a solution of agents with antioxidant properties for 4-12 hours while the leaf unit of the cuttings is simultaneously sprayed with a solution of the agent Epin Extra.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the efficiency of breeding the valuable genotypes of Ficus sycomorus L.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used in breeding the horticultural crops, in particular for the production of plants of the highest quality categories. The method comprises performing the desktop grafting in the protected area. At that the rootstocks are prepared to grafting, planted into a container with the substrate and placed for regeneration. The aerial parts are cut at a height of 10 cm, the rootstocks are prepared, then cleft grafting is carried out. The places of fastening the components of grafting are tied up; the grafted plant is placed for completion of growing to standard, the aerial part of the plant is cut for use in replication. The root system is not subject to washing, drying and explosion to light, and grafting is carried out for a vegetative rootstock in the protected area.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the yield and quality of grafted plants.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes the cultivation of cereal crops and perennial grasses, fertilization and care for crops. At that in spring after plowing in the period of agronomic "ripeness of soil" it is levelled and compacted with smooth water-ballast rollers. Then the mixture composition of herbage is formed, which grows naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils, by planting during May the seed mixture at a dose of 100 kg/ha and introduction to the mixture of triticale with the seeding rate of 50% of the dose of the seed mixture. The depth of seed placement is 5 cm, the inter-row spacing - 15 cm, and the harvesting is carried out with the full maturation of grass and grains.

EFFECT: method enables to optimize the parameters of soil fertility and accelerate the development of green mass of grass and grains on sod-podzol sandy loam soils.

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