Method of reclamation of spoil banks and sites of industrial waste
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of forestry and reclamation. The method comprises coating the slopes with soil substrate by uniform shifting it from the horizontal surfaces, covering the horizontal sites with soil substrate by leveling, planting the nursery plants of trees and shrubs, planting seeds of herbaceous plants. As the soil substrate, a mixture of material with a high content of nutrients is used in the form of sewage sludge, organic matter, peat, manure and phosphogypsum with the ratio of the mixture components of 2:1 by volume. The mixture is stirred by milling on horizontal plate. Covering the surface of the slopes with the resulting mixture with the thickness of 25-30 cm is carried out by uniform sliding on the slopes. Then, a continuous layer with the thickness of 15-20 cm is formed on the horizontal surfaces. The layer of the soil substrate is covered on top with a mulch layer of sand with the thickness of 1-3 cm using a spreader. At the final stage of reclamation across the entire surface the nursery plants of fast-growing trees and shrubs are planted, which have the developed root system and aboveground part with the height of 0.5-1.0 m, followed by sowing seeds of herbaceous plants.
EFFECT: invention enables to accelerate biological reclamation due to creation of optimal conditions for growth of tree and shrubbery vegetation by optimising the composition of the artificial soil substrate used.
2 cl, 8 dwg
The invention relates to the field of forestry and industrial production, including mining, in particular to the restoration of disturbed lands by establishing forest plantations on industrial waste dumps. The invention can be used for recultivation of landfills phosphogypsum, which is the secondary material (waste) in the production of phosphoric acid, as well as for recultivation similar in shape to the tiered flat dumps, which are formed from loose rocks, such as dolomite lime.
Phosphogypsum is a material, which for a number of reasons, primarily due to the contamination of phosphate, fluoride and other compounds, cannot find full utilization by processing in the public provisions and accumulated in large quantities at special landfills storage.
The most widespread currently dry storage in landfills even when neutralization of soluble impurities and correct operation can lead to adverse changes in the natural environment, which may include air pollution, surface and groundwater, soil and vegetation harmful substances as a result of the transfer by the wind and washout of their precipitation from the surface of the blade, is also in violation of the aesthetic appearance of the surrounding landscape. Landfill disposal of phosphogypsum have to alienate a large area. All of the above may adversely affect the functioning of surrounding natural ecosystems, lead to the formation of the center for complex environmental conditions.
In order to mitigate the environmental impacts of such zones on adjacent natural areas should be implemented preventive and subsequent environmental events. One of them is the creation of a sustainable vegetation cover on the surface of phosphogypsum dumps (afforestation).
There are various ways reclamation (afforestation) violated industry lands and industrial waste dumps. In particular, when silvicultural development selenocyanate soils dominated by marl, when planting plants root system of the seedling close up slurry: a mixture of water and fine-grained deposits in certain proportions (see Vfend and other Device for sealing root systems of crops on stony soils. - M.: Forestry, 1986, No. 10, p.54-55). The survival rate of seedlings was higher by 20%than when planting, the roots of which were fixed by the fine-grained deposits. The disadvantage of this method is that it is time-consuming in the process and to mechanize it can be only on the small steepness of the slope.
Most R is protaranennym in the world and in our country is the way, upon the surface of industrial dumps is covered with artificial soil, or soil substrates, or improver layer thickness up to 30 cm with a mixture of sedimentary rocks with application of organic (compost, peat, soil, etc) and mineral fertilizers (see Wahpeton. Afforestation of lands disturbed by mining. - M.: Czntinho, 1973, p.6-7). The disadvantages of this method are great complexity and relatively high cost.
Known method of remediation and landscaping of existing flat stacked dumps (see USSR Author's certificate No. 929842, M CL3AS 41/00, 30.07.1980), where the formation of each layer make ahead layered remediation and landscaping of the slope around the perimeter with the subsequent dumping stock breeds. The disadvantage of a very high consumption of soil at pre-band of each tier of the blade.
The results of the research ATM, Lot and Vinkuran in 2002, received a patent (No. 2186474 "Method for afforestation of industrial waste dumps", IPC7AV 79/02, 13/16, 28.11.2000), which implies the bulk soil to the surface dumps secondary materials industry to apply sewage sludge from treatment plants because osedc the wastewater do not find full utilization and constantly accumulate in wastewater treatment plants, rich in organic matter and plant nutrients, can serve as fertile soil substrate. Sewage sludge is delivered from a treatment plant with sludge cards after soaking in the dumps for several years, which reduces their sanitary danger.
This method is adopted for the prototype.
However, this method has drawbacks. When the slide sewage sludge with horizontal sections on the slope of the dump large lumps and glybki sewage sludge rolled down, not stopping on the slope of the landfill, to the very foot. As a result, the layer of sediment on the slope is formed of insufficient thickness (15-20 cm), and on the convex parts of the slope is almost entirely absent. Therefore, the proposed method provides a preliminary grinding applied topsoil.
In addition, in the method, taken as a prototype, there is a very rapid (within the first 1-2 months after coating blade precipitation wastewater) obliteration of berms and slopes weeds because of the significant content in the sediments seeds of herbaceous ruderal vegetation. On the one hand, this fact is an advantage of the method, as immediately achieved the main goal of phytoremediation (covering the surface of the blade), but on the other hand, ruderal herbaceous vegetation inhibits the establishment and growth of the trees and shrubs, which has a great aesthetic landscape value.
The objectives of this invention are:
1) create on the slopes of the dump protective layer of fertile soil greater height, more evenly distributed across the thickness;
2) the acceleration of biological recultivation of landfill waste by creating optimal conditions for the growth of trees and shrubs by optimizing the structure of applied artificial soil substrate.
This is accomplished by the fact that in the proposed method as an artificial soil substrate using a mixture of sewage sludge with phosphogypsum, which is created by disking or milling with subsequent coating layer of a mixture of sand. For obtaining an artificial soil substrate to produce a horizontal leaf blade. Coating the surface of the slopes of the ground mixture with a thickness of 25-30 cm produce a slow steady slide on the slopes. In the second stage form a continuous coating layer thickness of 15-20 cm on the horizontal surfaces. A layer of artificial soil substrate from the top cover with a thin mulch layer of sand with a thickness of 1-3 cm by using a spreader. Mulching is carried out with the aim of preserving humidity and looseness of the applied layer to slow down the PoWPA is stania ruderal vegetation, and to reduce the negative effects of rainfall. At the final stage of reclamation on the entire surface of the planted seedlings are most suitable for growth in artificial soils of fast-growing trees and shrubs with subsequent sowing seeds of hardy herbaceous plants.
Currently, sewage sludge do not find full utilization and accumulate in wastewater treatment plants. At the same time they are rich in organic matter and plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, trace elements and other) and can be used in reclamation purposes fertile soil substrate.
Phosphogypsum is a by - product of the manufacture of wet-process phosphoric acid obtained by the decomposition of phosphate rock with a mixture of sulfuric and phosphoric acids, can be used in agricultural production as an ameliorant on saline soils, saline, and for other purposes as agreed with the consumer.
For this we have the certificate of state registration of a pesticide or agrochemical No. 1270 from 03.09.2008, issued by the Federal service for veterinary and phytosanitary surveillance. Phosphogypsum is recommended under all culture with regard to agrochemical parameters of soil. Phosphogypsum is composed of impurities nerazlochennom Apatite and salts of phosphorus is Oh acid, that is, the element power plant - phosphorus, so it can be used for the preparation of the soil substrate.
Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including the search for patents and scientific and technical information sources containing information about the analogues of the proposed solutions did not reveal analogues characterized by signs, identical to all the essential features of the claimed invention.
The proposed method of reclamation of industrial waste dumps has a set of distinctive characteristics in relation to the prototype set forth in the claims. Therefore, the claimed invention meets the criterion of "novelty".
To verify compliance of the claimed invention to the requirement of inventive step was conducted an additional search to identify known methods of biological recultivation of landfills for the disposal of phosphogypsum and other industrial waste dumps in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the characteristics of the claimed invention. The test results show that the claimed invention is not necessary for the expert in the obvious way from the prior art by providing a method, in particular, the claimed invention does not provide a known transformation.
Therefore, awseme invention meets the requirement of "inventive step".
In figures 1-8 show the stages of work on the upper part of the formed stacked flat blade:
figure 1 - the dumping of phosphogypsum,
figure 2 - levelling phosphogypsum layer of the desired value,
figure 3 - the dumping of a mixture of sewage sludge,
figure 4 - levelling mixture of sewage sludge layer of the desired value,
figure 5 - disking of the obtained layers to mix and additional grind,
6 is a uniform sliding of the obtained soil on the slopes,
Fig.7 - mulching surface using a spreader
Fig - planting.
The method of conservation of polygons storage of phosphogypsum method for accelerated biological reclamation is as follows.
After completion of the dumping of phosphogypsum shall cover the surface of the polygon artificial soil substrate. To do this, on a horizontal surface (the berm) preparing a mixture of sewage sludge from treatment plants with phosphogypsum with an average ratio of these components of the mixture is about 2:1 by volume. The ratio of the components in this particular case is chosen on the basis of the adequacy of nutrient concentration in the resulting mixture for subsequent plant growth.
Forming a layer of fresh phosphogypsum thickness of about 10 cm, and then the top layer of sewage sludge is a thickness of about 20 cm Multiple passes of a disk plow (for example, the type of within-1,2), or disc harrows (type BDT-2,2)or cutter (type FLS-1) mixed layers, breaking up large lumps and glybki sewage sludge. The total height of the layers when the mixture chosen on the basis of features used agricultural machinery.
The mixture of slow steady slide using a bulldozer to move on the slope of the area, forming a continuous layer with a thickness of 25-30 see then similarly cover artificial soil substrate surface of the berm layer of 15-20 cm within the specified limits the minimum height of the layer selected in order to secure the creation of the cover, resistant to further erosion processes when exposed to wind and precipitation, as well as sufficient for the development of the root system of trees and shrubs. The maximum height is determined by the profitability of the proposed method with respect to the prototype.
A layer of artificial soil substrate is then top coated with a thin mulch layer of sand with a thickness of 1-3 cm using centrifugal spreaders fertilizer. The creation of lower layer height does not provide a mulching effect, and a layer of greater height will prevent the growth of grasses by reducing fertility.
For planting IP is result seedlings of trees and shrubs with well-developed root system and aerial part with a height of 0.5-1.0 m, that provides them with sufficient competitiveness among dense and strongly growing ruderal grass. Before planting the root system of planted seedlings dipped in a thick aqueous suspension ("mash"), prepared from a mixture of vegetable soil, clay and sewage sludge. On soil horizontal surfaces (berms) landing produce tree-planting machines or by hand to the sword Kolesov, as well as using a shovel. On the slopes produce a manual landing with the required compaction of the soil around the root collar planted seedlings.
Carry out contractor's planting seedlings (step landing can vary in the range of 1.0-2.0 m inter-row spacing of 3.0-4.0 m). On the slope part of the polygon landing exercise top-down and horizontal rows. Make the placement of seedlings by species separate planting rows, alternating rows of trees and shrubs.
After planting trees and shrubs all rekultiviruemye square sow the grass seeds. To better survival rate of plants use 3-5 or more different types.
Recommended for planting tree species composition: birch, aspen, poplar silver, goat willow, American maple, buckthorn-buckthorn, mountain ash. Out of the bushes you can arivat rose wrinkled, elder grass, acacia, spirea Severability, snowberry white, turf red, Loch silver, etc. are Recommended to be sown the following herbs: hairy willow-herb, dandelion, calendula officinalis, garden sow-Thistle, common tansy, the mother-and-stepmother, leucanthemum vulgare. Cereals are recommended: meadow fescue, Calamagrostis epigeios, Kentucky bluegrass and other (total seeding rate of all seeds is approximately 50-100 kg/ha) Experiments showed that the sewage sludge is already available seeds of herbaceous plants (bittercress, quinoa spreading, nettle, wormwood ordinary and others), as well as some trees and shrubs. In addition, the seeds of many plants are systematically recorded on the ground by the wind and birds, resulting in a tree-shrub vegetation appears in a natural way.
According to the results of observations at the experimental sites phosphogypsum JSC "Voskresensk mineral fertilizers", conducted in 2005, found that the described method allows to increase the survival rate of trees and shrubs from 60% (in the prototype) to 75-87%. Suppression of ruderal herbaceous vegetation before planting of trees and shrubs results in the acceleration of their growth by 5-10% in comparison with the prototype that was revealed by statistical clicks the development of the annual height measurements for the same species.
The proposed method of reclamation landfill disposal of phosphogypsum allows comparison with prototype:
- create on the slopes of the dump protective layer of fertile soil more height, more evenly distributed over the thickness without gaps on the bumps, as pre-crushing and loosening of the used soil;
to minimize the risk of negative impact of sewage sludge on the environment, save before planting moisture and friability by creating a mulch layer of sand;
for a shorter period of time to give the landscape a more natural look.
The invention can be used for other similar multi-tiered flat dumps, which are formed from loose rocks, for example, dolomite lime. In this case, the rock pile should consist of fine fractions, which are easily mixed with fertile soil using agricultural machinery. The breed also must not adversely affect the growth process of plants. As a fertile component can be used humus, peat, manure, etc. Instead of sand can be applied mulch and other materials used in agriculture.
1. Method of reclamation of dumps and landfills industry is built waste includes floor slopes soil substrate by a uniform sliding it from horizontal surfaces, floor horizontal sections of soil substrate by levelling, planting of trees and shrubs, planting seeds of herbaceous plants, characterized in that the quality of the soil substrate using a mixture of material with a high content of nutrients and phosphogypsum when the mixing ratio 2:1 by volume, the mixture is stirred milling on horizontal painting, coating the surface of the slopes of the resulting mixture with a thickness of 25-30 cm spend even slide on the slopes, then form a continuous coating layer thickness of 15-20 cm on the horizontal surfaces, the layer of soil on top cover with a mulch layer sand thickness of 1-3 cm using a spreader at the final stage of reclamation over the entire surface of planted seedlings of fast-growing trees and shrubs with well-developed root system and aerial part with a height of 0.5-1.0 m with subsequent sowing seeds of herbaceous plants.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the material with a high content of nutrients for subsequent mixing with phosphogypsum use sewage sludge, humus, peat, manure.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to reclamation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (oil products), radioactive nuclides and heavy metals with the help of electric osmosis. Proposed method consists in inducing nonuniform electric field between central and peripheral electrodes and applying magnetic field perpendicular to cleaning zone. Proposed device comprises central electrode. Said electrode is composed of a rod with cross-section of polygonal shape with concave sides. System of peripheral electrodes is composed by separate rods. The latter are interconnected by plates arranged in zigzag line so that its recess or ledge is aligned with those of central electrode surface. Besides, proposed device comprises two extra solenoids arranged one above the other. First solenoid is plunged in submerged zone soil while second electrode is fixed by crossbar at the post extending through central electrode axis.
EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to revegetation. Proposed method comprises harrowing and forming of growth and top soil by spreading local plant types phytomass on top bare soil. Note here that after harrowing, seed of grass mixes of local plants are sown to introduce nitrogenous phosphatic potash fertilisers on the basis of 100 kg per one hectare. Layer of 8-20 cm-thick aged local plants are applied on the surface to make a protective layer. Seed of grass mix of annual and perennial local far north alien species can be used to this end.
EFFECT: higher quality of revegetation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of environment. The method is carried out by treating the soil with an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol into which mineral or organic fertilisers are added. The seeds of perennial grasses and coniferous plants are added, and mixed with soil. It is frozen at temperature below freezing, and then thawed at positive temperatures.
EFFECT: method enables to structure and stabilise the soil, to improve the quality of the strengthening turf due to development of a stronger and more branching root system.
2 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and reclamation. Proposed method comprises using stimulatory substance representing an organomineral compost prepared by mixing phosphogypsum, elementary superphosphate and KPC compost at the their following ratio subject to alkaline metal concentration in wt %: phosphogypsum - 10.0-15.0, elementary superphosphate - 0.8-1.0, KPC compost making the rest. Said compost is introduced in soil one time for 4-5 years in amount of 100-110 t/hec with content of organic substance of up to 20% and pH 6.0-6.5 to reduce alkalinity of black earth soil to 7.2-7.8 followed by placement of compost by cultivator to the depth of 20-25 cm.
EFFECT: simplified and accelerated reclaiming of soil contaminated with heavy metals.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils contaminated in oil-and-gas production. For reclamation of soils special site is arranged to make soil-slime mix by mixing drilling slime, said and peat, to be held for definite time and delivered to application point. Mote here that drill cuttings are transferred to said site by specially equipped dump trucks as well as peat and sand. In compliance with the first version, the mixes are dumped to make three enclosed rolls to be mixed by excavator. In compliance with the second version, peat, sand and slime are uniformly spread in 15-20 cm-thick 100 m-long and 2.0-2.5 m-wide bay and mixed by cutter. Now, the mix is cured for 1-30 days to level moisture content of mix pile and to make equal to from 10±5% up to 40±10% .
EFFECT: better environmental conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology and soil science. The method includes the application of peat in the soils and control over their fertility restoration. At the first stage the particle-size distribution of disturbed soil is determined, such as by pyrophosphate method, and the doses of peat are established depending on the particle-size distribution of soils. Then the samples of peat are taken - sample No 1, of disturbed soil - sample No 2, and disturbed soil with the addition of peat - sample No 3. The activity of the enzyme dehydrogenase of the taken samples in the dynamics is determined not less than every 10 days and for not more than 40 days. At that, the start of reclamation of disturbed soil with a dose of peat is judged according to increase in dehydrogenase activity of sample No 3 relative to the dehydrogenase activity of the sample No 2. The completion of reclamation is judged according to leveling the dehydrogenase activity of sample No 3 with the dehydrogenases activity of sample No 1.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of control of efficiency of reclamation of disturbed soils with different particle-size distribution, and to use rationally peat in the conditions of Far North.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land recultivation. In the method a mixed compost is used produced from the bark of fir-tree, larch and birch which is applied on the surface of toxic wastes in an amount of from 25 to 30% of the total mass. After laying, the mixing is carried out by disking to improve the conditions of establishment and survival of plants and to ensure a high biological activity of the substrate. The layer of mixed compost laid on the surface of the tailing storage facility with toxic wastes of mineral processing, disked at a depth of 5-10 cm and mixed with wastes, then seeds of legume-cereal mixture are sown, and heavy metals are bound by organic matter carbon and their main amount is immobilised up to non-hazardous limits. The area for recultivation of toxic wastes is contoured around the perimeter with the water-permeable boards and drainage grooves to speed up the discharge of storm water.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the negative impact of mineral processing wastes on the environment objects and to ensure the effective protection of the environment from industrial pollution.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of decontaminating oil-contaminated soil involves preparation of a treatment area, collecting, excavating and delivering oil-contaminated soil to the treatment area, preparing the oil-contaminated soil, adding a humic-mineral complex and providing processes for biological decomposition of the oil-contaminated soil. The method of decontaminating spent drilling mud involves lime treatment, reagent coagulation, adding flocculants and a humic-mineral complex, step-by-step cutting of the drilling mud into a buffer layer while laying the mud in a layer of not more than 8-10 cm, drying the drilling mud and stacking into piles for subsequent recycling. The humic-mineral complex is obtained by low-temperature mechanochemical extraction of humic acids with by crushing brown coal in a dispersion machine while mixing the crushed brown coal with an alkali.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of methods in which a humic-mineral complex is used.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation of disturbed soils, in particular technogenic wastelands. The method comprises application on the soil surface of wastes, mineral fertilisers, and sowing of perennial grasses. At that, on the soil surface the mining wastes are applied with the layer not less than 5 cm, containing calcite and/or hydrous magnesium silicate. Compound fertilisers N70P70K70 are applied, then exfoliated vermiculite is spread with a layer of up to 1 cm with granules of up to 4 mm, a mixture of seeds of perennial plants is sown, watered and covered with a polymer film which is removed at the 5-7th day. As mining wastes the carbonatite wastes are also used, or screened olivinite ore or serpentinite magnesite. As the seeds of perennial plants the red fescue, timothy, awnless brome, European dune wild ruttishness is used in the amount of 50-100 g/m2. Watering is carried out at the rate of 5 l/m2.
EFFECT: method reduces complexity of technical and biological works on recultivation of disturbed soils and planting of urban areas, wastes recycling of mining and processing complex, increasing the efficiency of formation of sowing culture phytocoenoses and their durability, accelerating the process of recultivation with creation of conditions for accelerated accumulation of elements of fertility in the disturbed layer.
4 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recultivation of soils contaminated with oil and oil products. Proposed method comprises oil processing, introducing fertilisers, biological agents and sowing of grass. Note here that plowing is carried out without trenching to depth of 30-35 cm with introduction of zeolite-bearing clays, alanites, in amount of 5-6 t/hec together with minced vegetable residues of leguminous plants and leaf litter in amount of 1.5-2 t/hec and autumn planting of annul clover in amount of 25-30 kg/hec. Clover seed are pre-wetted in the solution of Baikal-EM-1 bio preparation mixed with p-amino-benzoic acid with 0.001%-concentration of every component for 2-3 h. In spring, in budding-blooming phase, bio mass is tilled into soil and herbage is pre-sprinkled with the same mix in amount of 200-300 l/hec.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of soil reclamation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil-and-gas production and reclamation. Proposed method comprises mixing the cuttings, quicklime, peat, cement and sand. Additionally, said cuttings are mixed with industrial carbon and quick lime. Then, obtained mix is mixed with peat, cement and sand. Then, obtained mix is cured for 2-3 days at the following ratio of components, in wt %: cuttings - 40-60, industrial carbon - 2-5, cement - 10-15, sand - 10-15, peat - 15-20, quick lime making the rest.
EFFECT: better decontamination, non-polluting soil suitable for mulching.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of oil slimes. Solid oil slimes are processed by separate withdrawal of oil-slime top layer and oil-slime bottom layer from accumulation pit. Oil-contaminated soil is separated from oil-slime bottom layer and fed to biodecomposition site or used as insulation material at domestic and industrial wastes store pit. Both said oil-slime layers are combined or modified by dilution with light oil fraction. Oil-slime thus processed is fed to heat exchanger, heater and forced to shower. Thereafter, it is sprayed. Flue gas flows upward in counter current to oil slime. Oil slime is heated to 120-140°C at the rate of 143-+15 degree/sec. Then, heating is performed in compliance with dwg. 2 to 340-350°C at the rate of 10-+2 degree/sec. Note here that extraction oil fractions is carried out at final stage of heating. Extraction of oil fractions results in production of tar for road bitumen, light oil fraction to be used as boiler fuel or as additive to hydraulic cleaning stock.
EFFECT: accelerated process, higher yield and efficiency.
1 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of integrated waste management for oily wastes with random composition with production wide range of energy sources include low-temperature pyrolysis with heating source, before pyrolysis oily wastes with random composition are sorted during accumulation, mixed mechanically in the preset ratio and homogenised thermally with moisture evaporation by flue gases at temperature of 100-130°C, in process pyrolysis gas is sent to condensation unit in order to separate light hydrocarbon fractions from heavy ones. Light fractions are directed to rectification tower with production of benzene, kerosene and diesel fuel, heave fractions with residual oil from condensation unit are delivered to pre-activation unit where oxidation cracking takes place within temperature range of 250-350°C with air purging with ratio of 1:(300-500); after oxidation cracking activated heave fractions are delivered to catalytic cracking for additional production of benzene, kerosene and diesel fuel and fuel oil, bitumen and tar oil; after pyrolysis solid pyrolysate is transferred and water-gas generator, flue combustion gases from condensation column are delivered to water-gas generator, at that flue combustion gases are enriched by superheated steam and in solid pyrolysate they are converted to gaseous energy carrier - water gas. Additionally one proposes a plant for the method implementation.
EFFECT: increasing energy efficiency of integrated waste management for oily wastes with random composition with additional receipt of wide range of energy carriers and construction materials.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in accordance with claimed method material of technogenic or natural origin from group, including solid products, obtained by burning solid fuels, metallurgical slag, products of surface fires, products of burning dumps in extraction of fossil fuels, waste products of glass production, waste products of ceramics production, waste products of building bricks and concrete, thermally activated clays, low-crystalline fragmental igneous rocks, sedimentary laterite, bauxite, opalolite, allophanolite, diatomite, limestone, argillite and clays, are subjected to physical processing. Processing lies in action of, at least, one force impulse for passing mechanical energy to particles of processed material by impact of force from 50 to 3·105 H with respect to 1 g of processed material for period from 1·10-6 to 1·10-2 and/or magnetic energy of alternating magnetic field with frequency from 150 to 15·106 Hz and magnetic induction from 10-2 to 103 Tesla.
EFFECT: method ensures obtaining high-quality binders from different materials of both natural and technogenic origin.
7 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of solid domestic wastes. Proposed process comprises plasma chemical pyrolysis of homogenised mix. Said mix represents a three-phase system homogeneously dispersed in raw stock. Said system consists of highly-dispersed catalyst particles of methane-hydrogen fraction extracted at pyrolysis product separation and pyrolysis fluid products. Besides, this process comprises quenching of pyrolysis products extraction of commercial carbon and solid particles of used catalyst by filtration and pyrolysis products separation to obtain methane-oxygen fraction and pyrolysis liquid products. Finally, this process recycles a portion of methane-hydrogen fraction to plasma chemical pyrolysis.
EFFECT: simplified process adapted to solid wastes processing.
4 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: concrete recycling plant comprises a screen, an electromagnet and a system of water treatment, and also three technological chains. The first chain is a preparatory one and comprises hoppers for storage of mixtures, concrete, bricks, asphalt delivered by motor transport. The second chain is technological and comprises a plant for screening of heavy metal, the electromagnet for its trapping, a plant for sifting of sand and its storage into a hopper as a filler and a crusher for separation of concrete pieces from reinforcement joined with the second electromagnet. The third chain is a finishing one and comprises a reserve hopper connected with an impact-reflecting mill connected with the third electromagnet, and also comprises two screens connected with a system of water treatment comprising a mixer with a unit of wood chips and organic components supply, then a unit of fractionating, from where the treated items are sent to a warehouse of secondary fillers. To separate concrete pieces from reinforcement, a jaw breaker is used, comprising an electric motor with a pulley, an eccentric, movable and fixed jaws and a discharge window.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of broken concrete recycling.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to composition of composite building material. Composite building material contains drilling waste, cement in quantity from 10 to 20% of drilling waste volume, technical carbon from 0.5 to 1% of drilling waste volume, quick lime in quantity from 3 to 5% of drilling waste volume, peat in quantity form 5 to 10% of drilling waste volume, sand in quantity from 10 to 30% of drilling waste volume, and building material in addition can contain hydrocarbon-based drilling fluid used or unused with content of hydrocarbons in quantity from 10 to 50% of drilling waste volume.
EFFECT: increased degree of environment protection, obtaining ecologically safe building material with increased durability and resistance against wind and water erosion, binding in structure polluting substances, excluding their migration into environment and strengthening slopes of highways, sand bankings of technological areas, for instance, from erosion during downpours and floods, strengthening construction sites, including those with non-homogeneous, and unstable composition of ground.
2 cl, 9 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of wastes, particularly, to ash-and-slag wastes of thermal electric power stations. Coal combustion ash is placed in reaction zone to add carbon sorbent thereto in amount of 10-25 kg per ton of ash. Then, it is processed by the mix of ammonium fluoride and sulfuric acid, heated to 120-125°C and held thereat for 30-40 minutes. Tetrafluorosilane resulted from said processing is absorbed by ammonium fluoride. Solution of ammonium hydroxide is introduced into that of ammonium tetrafluorosilicate to precipitation of silicon dioxide. Then, concentrated sulfuric acid in double surplus is added to aluminium residue, held at 250°C for 1.5 h and processed by water. Solid residue is calcined at 800°C.
EFFECT: production of highly-dispersed silicon dioxide, aluminium sulphate, concentrate of rare and rare-earth elements.
2 cl, 6 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed method relates to field of utilisation of concentrated organic substrates, such, as litter-free manure, dung, sediments and sludge of stations of mechanical-biological purification of household and industrial sewages close to them in composition. Method of processing organic substrates into fertilisers and carrier of gaseous energy includes aerobic processing of initial substrate with formation of heated and hydrolysed substrate and heated humid oxygen-containing gases, anaerobic processing with formation of heated effluent and biogas and separation into fractions. Separation into fractions is carried out after aerobic processing. Liquid fraction is subjected to anaerobic processing. Heated effluent is applied as heat carrier for regulation of heat mode of aerobic processing and as source of ammonia nitrogen for enrichment of solid fraction. Heated humid oxygen-containing gases are applied for preliminary heating and aeration of initial substrate.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce duration of aerobic-prepared heated and hydrolysed substrate stayingat limiting anaerobic stage, reduce weight and dimension indices of equipment, refuse from unreliable heat-exchanging equipment and ensure effective application of elements of effluent supply for agrotechnical purposes, with increase of process energy efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of processing of concentrated organic substrates - litter-free manure, dung, sediments of local purification constructions of processing enterprises, wastes of mechanical-biological purification of urban sewages - into gaseous energy carrier - biogas and stabilised disinfected products - biosludges - effluent, which can be applied in preparation of fertilisers. Device for aerobic-anaerobic processing of organic substrates consists of hydraulically connected aerobic bioreactor 3 with gas 15 and liquid parts 14, methane tank 2 with system of heat carrier circulation, apparatus 4 for hydraulic concentration of methane tank 2 effluent with clearing 25 and sedimentation 26 parts. Clearing part 25 is separated from sedimentation part 26 by canals, formed by, at least two inclined plates 27. Liquid part 14 of aerobic bioreactor and clearing part 25 of apparatus for gravitation concentration 4 have common separating wall 22. Inside clearing part 25 placed is central tube 19, in hollow wall 20 of which heat carrier circulates. Space between external wall 23 of central tube 19 and separating wall 22 is connected with gas part 15 of aerobic bioreactor by gas pipeline 16.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce material consumption of construction and increase efficiency of application of primary energy resource - biogas.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aqueous mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Andreaeopsida moss and Larix kaempferi larch needles, in different amounts which are reflected in versions of the polymer-natural mulching compositions.
EFFECT: use of said compositions improves the environment.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex