Installation for preparation of desalinated water for synthesis-gas production
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technologies of purification of water from natural springs for their further application as initial water for obtaining vapour in processes of steam or vapour-oxygen conversion of hydrocarbon gases (synthesis-gas production). Installation for preparation of desalinated water contains successively connected heat exchanger for heating initial water, unit of preliminary clarification, unit of ultrafiltration, unit of ultraviolet decontamination, unit of filters with filtration degree not more than 5 mcm and unit of two-step reverse osmosis.
EFFECT: invention ensures increase of service term of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, water decontamination.
5 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the technology of water purification natural sources for further use as a source of water for the production of steam in the process of steam or steam-oxygen conversion of hydrocarbon gases (production of synthesis gas).
In the technologies of production of synthesis gas feedstock is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and water vapor. To produce steam, you must use demineralized water of a high degree of purification. There are many ways to clean water, but currently, the most effective are the methods based on membrane processes (ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis).
As a source of raw water used natural water, as a rule, the nearest river or groundwater. While qualitative and quantitative indicators of pollution have significant seasonal variations. During periodic degradation of natural water during flood periods can cause problems with production of synthesis gas demineralized water. In this case, some cleaning technology using membranes may not provide the proper quality, or quantity, or will work on critical loads with high-flow filter elements, chemicals, reduction of the period of slurrysampler, as well as the increase of the process effluent.
In addition it should be noted that when producing synthesis gas, from economic considerations, water purification should be carried out directly at the plants produced synthesis gas, and maintained by the staff of these facilities. When choosing a water purification technology that imposes additional requirements. First of all, should be the maximum compactness of the equipment, and secondly, the simplicity of its operation and maintenance involve specialists of the narrow profile of the water.
Known installation for the preparation of demineralized water (EN 78183 U)consisting of series-connected modules preliminary water treatment, reverse osmosis module, decarbonization, an intermediate tank, module, ion exchange softening and EDI. Module decarbonization can be performed, in particular, in the form of a membrane degassing.
Known membrane installation for the preparation of globalisasyon water (EN 56374 U)consisting of an ultrafiltration module, module of the first stage reverse osmosis module of the second stage reverse osmosis, electrodeionization module, control softener, pumps and systems membrane degasification.
Known equipment for water (EN 62923 U), consisting of a block tentative is Noah water preparation (installation straight-through coagulation with and clarifying by filtration on granular multilayer loading, either install UF), nanofiltration unit, reverse osmosis unit, block softening unit nanofiltration unit adjusting pH.
The disadvantages of these schemes are:
complex technological scheme, as a consequence, difficulties in maintenance and operation, large geometric dimensions;
- the high cost of purified water;
- the high cost of water production due to rapid failure of the expensive membranes, because there is no pre-lightening water (for example, methods of coagulation and sedimentation) before entering the block ultrafiltration;
- the use of certain types of flocculants leads to reduced service life of ultrafiltration membranes;
low reliability of the technology, in the period of deterioration of source water quality;
Known water treatment system (EN 79096 U)that contains the lines from the intake to the consumer by the flow of water being treated, the accumulation buffer tank, the capacity of the disposal, the block flow membrane filters, reaction chamber ozone degassing chamber, the capacity of the chemical processing of metal oxides, and clarifying filter, the second buffer tank, fresh water tank and block ultraviolet disinfection, while between the second buffer tank and fresh water tank are laid parallel to Truboprovod, which sequentially placed additional block UV disinfection and membrane separation unit reverse osmosis.
The disadvantages of the known system are:
- the use of coagulants low concentrations in the block clarifier, resulting in unnecessary transport costs;
- the lack of effective separation of flakes of coagulated particles in a unit clarification;
- the absence of a schema for automatic regulation of the pH of the medium in the unit of preliminary clarification of water;
- no block ultrafiltration, which leads to premature failure of the reverse osmosis unit.
The closest to the invention is a device for desalination of water, carrying out the coagulation/flocculation deposition of colloidal particles and contaminants, pre-filtration, ultrafiltration and processing of reverse osmosis. The installation includes a serially connected capacitance for coagulation and sedimentation, pre-filter, block ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis apparatus (CN A, published. 16.02.2011).
The disadvantages of the known system are:
- the use of certain types of flocculants leads to reduced service life of ultrafiltration membranes;
- inefficient mode of coagulation and deposition of colloidal particles in the unit prior the CSOs clarification of water due to the lack of aeration of the water and effective separation of the flakes of coagulated particles in a unit clarification;
- the absence of a schema for automatic regulation of the pH of the medium in the unit of preliminary clarification of water;
- no under water disinfection;
- no filters in front of the entrance of water into the reverse osmosis unit (possible "leakage" of colloidal particles)
The technical result of the proposed group of inventions is to increase the service life of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes; providing disinfection of water.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that the installation for the preparation of demineralized water contains serially connected unit preliminary clarification and block ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis unit, characterized in that it is equipped with a heat exchanger to heat the water source connected to the input of the pre-clarification, connected in a block ultraviolet disinfection and filter unit with a filtration degree of not more than 5 μm, mounted between the block ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis unit, representing two-stage reverse osmosis.
In addition, exit to concentrate first stage of the block two-stage reverse osmosis connected to the unit backwashing of the membranes connected to the ultrafiltration unit, a supply line of wash water is connected to the input unit PR is dwarfling clarification.
In addition, the outlet for the concentrate of the second stage of the block two-stage reverse osmosis connected between the ultrafiltration unit and block ultraviolet disinfection.
In addition, the unit of preliminary clarification includes sequentially connected tank aeration, coagulation tank and clarifier.
The clarifier is preferably in the form of a tank with a tapering lower part of the separating device in the upper portion, with a through channel with a slope to the horizon 40-70°.
Figure 1 shows a diagram of the installation for the preparation of demineralized water.
Installation for the preparation of demineralized water contains connected in series heat exchanger plate 1 type of heating source water regulating valve 2, the unit of preliminary clarification, including sequentially connected aeration tank 3, tank 4 coagulation and Dodge 5 with slurry pump 6, further receiving tank 7, the pump 8, block 9 ultrafiltration, the intermediate tank 10, a pump 11, a block ultraviolet disinfection (UV sterilizer 12), block 13 roll filters with a filtration degree of 5 μm (not more), block 14 two-stage reverse osmosis tank 15 for demineralized water and the pumps 16.
The output of the first stage unit 14 two-stage reverse osmosis to concentrate connected with the module about atoi washing of the membranes (the flush tank 18), connected to the block 9 ultrafiltration, which is the supply line of wash water is connected through the tank 17 to the input of the pre-lightening.
Outlet for the concentrate of the second stage unit 14 two-stage reverse osmosis connected to the intermediate tank 10 between the block 9 ultrafiltration unit 13 roll filters.
The device operates as follows.
Source water passing through the heat exchanger 1 plate type, is heated to a temperature of 20-25°C heating water from the all-shop circuit. The temperature of the source water is maintained constant by automatic control valve 2, is installed on the bypass plate heat exchanger 1 line heating water. Maintaining a constant temperature in a given interval is a necessary condition for the coagulation process. In-line water source consistently dosed coagulant solution (for example, aluminium oxychloride brand "Aqua-Aurat 30") and a solution of alkali, such as sodium hydroxide. The amount of the dosed coagulant is selected empirically, based on laboratory studies. One of the main conditions of the process of coagulation is to maintain a certain pH value. The dosage of sodium hydroxide necessary to adjust the pH of the water and is in automatic mode n is given pH value in the range of 5.5 to 7.5.
Then the heated water is mixed with wash water block 9 ultrafiltration (from tank 17 and is sent to the unit of preliminary clarification, which consists of a tank 3 aeration tank 4 coagulation and clarifier 5. The source water enters the lower end of the tank 3 aeration (with agitator), which served process air from a shop-wide network for the removal of dissolved gases, oxidation of dissolved iron and improve the mixing of the reagents with water. In the same tank 3 is the initial coagulation (escalation coagulant particles and contaminants. Then the water flows under gravity into the lower end of the tank 4 coagulation (with agitator), where degassing of the water and the final coagulation. Coagulated water from the top of the tank 4 coagulation of two parallel flows by gravity from opposite sides to the bottom of the clarifier 5, which is intended for the deposition and removal of the formed sludge (major connections coagulant and pollution in the form of flakes). Water upward flow rises from the bottom up. In the upper part of the clarifier 5 installed thin-film separation device consisting of specialized plates, forming in cross-section of the channels in the honeycomb. The tilt plate is 40-70° to the horizon. Separation of suspended particles by changing the direction of water flow in the channels of the disorder. In the middle of the clarifier 5 is formed with a weighted layer of coagulated particles in the form of flakes, which is a contact medium, when the water passes through this layer of dirt deposited. Suspended layer of coagulated flocs significantly accelerates the deposition process and makes it more effective. When the rate of sedimentation in the form of flakes becomes higher than the speed of the upward flow of water, they settle to the bottom of the clarifier 5 pyramidal form and frequency of 8-12 hours removed slurry pump 6.
Effective water clarification in the unit of preliminary clarification protects the membrane unit 9 ultrafiltration from early failure.
Clarified water is collected in the receiving groove in the upper part of the clarifier 5 and gravity fed into the receiving tank 7 block 9 ultrafiltration. From the receiving tank 7 pump 8 (one working and one standby) water is supplied to the apparatus unit 9 ultrafiltration (one working and one standby), where the purification from suspended solids, colloidal and organic impurities. In block 9 ultrafiltration integrated module backwashing of the membranes with the washing tank 18. Clarified water is collected in the intermediate tank 10, where the pumps 11 (one working and one standby) is supplied to the processing in the ultraviolet sterilizat is 12 for disinfection, next is the block 13 roll filters with the degree of filtration 5 µm (one working and one standby), which delayed the colloidal particles, "jumping" through the block 9 ultrafiltration, which can lead to early failure of the membrane unit 14 reverse osmosis.
Then disinfected and free from suspended solids water comes to the stage of the two-osmosis in block 14, the membrane blocks I and II stages which are connected in series to the filtrate. The filtrate of the first stage is input to the second stage for purification, and the concentrate of the first stage is directed to a container 18 for leaching unit 9 ultrafiltration. The concentrate of the second stage is returned to the intermediate tank 10 for re-cleaning.
To correct pH and to remove carbon dioxide to the input of the second stage unit 14 is the dosing of sodium hydroxide solution. The membrane blocks I and II levels are collected on one frame in the form of a monoblock and have a common module flush.
After purification on reverse-osmosis membranes demineralized water collects in the tank 15, where the pumps 16 (one working and one standby) is applied to the production of synthesis gas.
In the case of routine maintenance or washing at any stage reverse osmosis remaining in the work level continues to produce desalinated water and to provide its production with ntes gas.
The advantages of the proposed invention are:
optimal conditions of the coagulation process, as the temperature and pH of the water are maintained constant by automatic control;
- high efficiency of deposition of colloidal particles by the use of aeration and water separation devices in the unit clarification;
- increased service life of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes;
the stage presence of water disinfection.
1. Installation for the preparation of demineralized water, contains one United block of preliminary clarification and block ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis unit, characterized in that it is equipped with a heat exchanger to heat the water source connected to the input of the pre-clarification, connected in a block ultraviolet disinfection and filter unit with a filtration degree of not more than 5 μm, mounted between the block ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis unit, representing two-stage reverse osmosis.
2. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the outlet for the concentrate of the first stage of the block two-stage reverse osmosis connected to the unit backwashing of the membranes connected to the ultrafiltration unit, a supply line water washing is outinen to the input of the unit clarification.
3. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the outlet for the concentrate of the second stage of the block two-stage reverse osmosis connected between the ultrafiltration unit and block ultraviolet disinfection.
4. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the unit of preliminary clarification includes sequentially connected tank aeration, coagulation tank and clarifier.
5. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the clarifier is made in the form of a tank with a tapering lower part of the separating device in the upper portion, with a through channel with a slope to the horizon 40-70°.
SUBSTANCE: method of sewage purification from cyanide-ions includes its processing with sulfate of bivalent iron in quantity 293 wt.p to 100 wt.p. CN-ions in presence in water of sorbent in form of fibrillated cellulose fibres, which contain in wt %: not less than 54% of fibres with length not more 0.63 mm and not less than 94% of fibres with length not more than 1.23 mm, with formation of reaction product in form of insoluble particles of iron cyanide. Reaction product is obtained in form of composite material, which consists of cellulose fibres with sorbed on them iron cyanide particles. Product of processing is discharged from water with application of pressured flotation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify process of purification, reduce iron sulfate consumption, increase purification degree and provide possibility of carrying out purification in continuous mode.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of waste water containing organic contaminants in industry, agriculture and household conditions. The waste water treatment method involves treatment of the initial waste water with a coagulant and flocculant, separation thereof into sludge and clarified waste water. Further, the clarified waste water is treated with nanostructured boehmite until achieving a given degree of purity of the clarified waste water and then separated into purified waste water and a solid residue. The solid residue, which contains contaminated nanostructured boehmite, is collected and regenerated, while undergoing supercritical aqueous oxidation. The regenerated nanostructured boehmite is collected for subsequent recycling.
EFFECT: method enables recycling of treated waste water and nanostructured boehmite.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in small-size continuous purification plants for precipitating phosphorus from waste water, particularly household waste water. An apparatus, which is connected to the small-size purification plant, has a pumping tank (1), a discharge pump (2) for draining the pumping tank, a chemical reservoir (6) and a dosing pump (5) for the chemical coagulant which is meant for feeding the chemical coagulant from the chemical reservoir (6) into the waste water discharged from the pumping tank (1), wherein separation of the formed residue of chemical substance from water released from said purification plant takes place in the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The apparatus can entirely be placed inside the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The dosing pump (5) is configured to pump the chemical coagulant into a stream generated by the discharge pump (2) during the entire or almost entire operating cycle of the discharge pump (2).
EFFECT: invention provides complete mixing of treated water and reactant, increases the efficiency of precipitating phosphorus and enables to control the amount of chemical coagulant depending on fluctuations of the flow of waste water for efficient and simple precipitation of phosphorus.
11 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in production of extra-pure quartz concentrate which is one of the main sources of contamination by fluorine, chlorine and salts containing fluorine and chlorine. The method is realised via reactant treatment in two steps. The first step involves neutralisation of acidic waste water with 23% NH4OH with separation of the SiO2 precipitate and formation of NH4F solution. At the second step, said solution is treated with 20% lime milk. The formed CaF2 precipitate and previously separated SiO2 precipitate are washed, dehydrated and removed from the process as end products. The 7-8% NH4OH solution obtained after separating the CaF2 precipitate and flush water are returned to the first step for reactant treatment of waste water to prepare the starting NH4OH solution. The 7-8% NH4OH solution formed at the second step is concentrated by evaporation to 23% and returned to the first reactant treatment step. The condensate obtained during evaporation is directed for preparation of 20% lime milk, washing the SiO2 precipitate and into recycling cycle of the main production.
EFFECT: invention enables to cut the volume of discharge of industrial wastes into the environment, prevents formation of non-recyclable sludge and also reduces consumption of fresh water during production and enables to obtain high-quality products used in different industries.
3 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to treatment of underground water from gases dissolved therein and can be used in water treatment. Source water containing hydrogen sulphide and impurities is fed through a pipe 1. The water is then fed into a floatation plant 3, having at least two chambers. At the first floatation step, a hydrogen sulphide neutraliser is fed through a nozzle 2 and at the second step, a chemical which facilitates precipitation of sulphates and sulphides is added. The treated water enters a settling tank 4, from where it is fed into a contact flocculator 6, having a gravel filling. The contact flocculator 6 is connected to the settling tank 4 through a nozzle 5, needed for feeding a flocculant.
EFFECT: group of inventions improves quality of treatment, simplifies and reduces the cost and labour input.
9 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: set of intention relates to water treatment and may be used in various industries. First, chlorinated coagulant is subjected to electrochemical treatment at membrane or diaphragm electrolysis unit 3 with insoluble electrodes to produce high-basic coagulant and gaseous chlorine. High-basic coagulant is mixed with water flow fed into settler 4 for coagulation and flocculation of undissolved suspensions and mechanical impurities. Gaseous chlorine withdrawn from electrolysis unit is fed into chlorine proportioner 6 to make bleaching water. Said water is fed for decontamination in cleaned water flow between said settler 4 and mechanical filter 8.
EFFECT: higher quality of purification.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to waste water treatment techniques. The method involves treating water with sodium phosphate in the presence of fibrillated cellulose fibres in amount of 100 pts.wt per 100-900 pts.wt of the formed aluminium phosphate. Water can be pre-treated with sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of said fibres. The treatment product is separated by pressure flotation.
EFFECT: invention provides high treatment efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of whatever effluents and may be used in oil production and processing industries, petrochemical industry, etc. Proposed device represents treatment system comprising intake chamber communicated with flotation assembly inlet and settling assembly as well as with unit distributing inert gas and gas-water mix communicated with flotation unit outlet and settling unit inlet. Note here that settling unit is composed of tight modules of thin-layer settlers while flotation unit is composed of a system of tight modules of flotation chamber with impeller-type dispersers. Note also that foam product collector assembly is equipped with inert gas feeder and communicates with flotation unit inlet, settling unit inlet and aforesaid distributing unit to make closed-circuit circulation system.
EFFECT: higher safety and efficiency.
17 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: methods are realised using a system comprising a mobile platform; an input pump for pumping a treatment stream through the system; a centrifugal separator operatively connected to the outlet of the input pump for treating the treatment stream under centrifugal forces; a borate filter operatively connected to the outlet of the centrifugal separator for filtering the treatment stream capable of removing at least a portion of borate when the treatment stream is at a pH of 8 or higher; and a chemical-additive subsystem capable of selectively adding one or more chemical agents to the treatment stream before the centrifugal separator, wherein the chemical agents can be selected so as to enable precipitation of dissolved ions selected from the group consisting of: sulphate, calcium, strontium or barium, magnesium, iron; and selectively adding a chemical agent to the treatment stream before the borate filter to increase the pH of the treatment stream to 8 or higher.
EFFECT: obtaining treated water with considerably low concentration of dissolved ions.
20 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for cleaning of natural (ground and surface) and technogenic waters from arsenic. The method includes oxidation on psilomelane of trivalent arsenic to pentavalent and subsequent sorption of the later on brucite. The oxidation of trivalent arsenic is performed by filtration through psilomelane layer or by addition of psilomelane sized less than 0.1 mm into treated water, mixing for 30-60 minutes with subsequent sediment separation. The sorption is performed by the way of filtration of treated water through the layer of brusite or by the way of addition of brucite sized 10:50 μm to treated water, mixing for 30 minutes and subsequent sedimentation separation.
EFFECT: high quality of water cleaning and costs reduction due to use of natural sorbent and available mineral catalyst of oxidation process.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for preparation of ultra-pure water, safe for consumption by people, as a result of sorption purification of drinkable water from viruses. Method includes filtration of water through zones with sorption materials, where, at least, one of zones represents porous filtering element based on resins, obtained by condensation of aldehydes with aromatic phenols and amines. Sorption material possesses the following characteristics: ratio of absolute value of zeta potential of porous filtering element to value of effective radius of liquid flow canal constitutes not less than 104 V/m. Porous filtering element, based on resin, obtained by condensation of formaldehyde with resorcin or melamine, is used as such sorption material of, at least, one of zones. Porous filtering element can preferably contain onwashed layer of sorption material, characterised by ratio of absolute value of material zeta potential to value of effective radius of flow canal not less than 105 V/m.
EFFECT: method ensures high degree of neutralisation of viruses.
7 cl, 17 ex, 12 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of obtaining solutions with preliminarily specified properties, which can be applied in chemical technology, medicine, agriculture, in particular, in viticulture. Method includes influence on 0.6% solution of water-soluble sodium chloride salt in water with constant electric current in chambers of diaphragm electrolyser. Mixture, containing equal portions of 3 water-soluble substances in quantity making it possible to form two-phase system of saturated solution and equal in weight sediment is introduced into resulting from electrochemical processing of initial 0.6 sodium chloride solution anolyte and catholyte. Mixture of sodium silicate, potassium silicate and potassium nitrate with ratio of dry masses 1/1/1 is additionally introduced into activated 0.6% sodium chloride solution in amount 4.0% to solution mass.
EFFECT: obtaining activated water solutions, making it possible to increase fertility of vineyard soil, reduction of energy consumption.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil-bearing effluents treatment and can be used for treatment of oil field effluents used in system for maintaining seam pressure at oil field flooding. This device comprises main tank, perforated pipelines, one to feed oil contact mass in water supply layer and another one intended for discharge, arranged at the tank top and bottom parts, respectively. Besides, said device incorporates extra tank composed of two parts. First part is equipped with hydrophobic filter arranged horizontally, sealed and locked along the perimetre, and feed perforated pipe arranged downstream of the filter. Second part is equipped with water discharge pipe at bottom section. Note here that said first and second parts are communicated above extra tank while main tank water discharge pipe communicates with extra tank feed pipe. Main tank and extra tank feed pipe are communicated under contact mass layer via appropriate valves and accessories with hydrocarbon solvent feed pipe.
EFFECT: higher quality of water and oil yield.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to system of discharge flow purification, such as rain water and sewages, containing hard particles and dissolved substances. System of water purification contains, at least, one retention layer, constructed for receiving water, flowing into system, with retention layer containing media, which have composition, intended for retention of phosphorus, which contain residues of water purification; drainage layer, including drainage system under retention layer, with retention layer and drainage layer being constructed and placed in such a way that, at least, part of water, passing through retention layer will be received by drainage system.
EFFECT: improvement of removal of excessive nitrogen and phosphorus from polluted water flows.
20 cl, 8 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: reservoir includes, at least, three communicating with each other hermetic reaction tanks, made preferably of concrete, each in form of parallelepiped, located between pressure compartment, connected with source of processed water, and discharge compartment, which has outlet for supplying water to consumers, as well as equipped with system of ozone-air mixture supply into each reaction section and its dispersion into water, system of removal and destruction of residual ozone in ozone-air mixture, inter-sectional relief compartments are installed between sections, and each section of contact reservoir is additionally equipped with devices of even water distribution on its transverse section, at the top in form of installed under water horizon level dead from one butt end perforated tubes. Open butt ends of tubes, installed in first section are connected with pressure compartment of contact reservoir, and open butt ends of tubes, installed in second and third sections, are connected respectively with cavities of first and second inter-sectional relief compartment, and at the bottom below ozone-air mixture dispersers or in form of similar perforated tubes. Open butt ends in first and second sections are connected respectively with cavity of first and second inter-sectional relief compartment, and open butt ends of tubes in third section are connected with discharge compartment, or horizontally installed perforated partition. Through canals are made in walls, separating first section from first relief compartment, second section from second relief compartment, third section from discharge compartment below perforated partition.
EFFECT: increased quality of drinking water and efficiency of produced ozone application.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: weed plants are preliminarily mowed in discharge canal to water level and is left to dry. After drying reed and rush plants are selected. Selected plants are used as sorbent. Filtering cassette net of cassette-holding device is filled with sorbent. Sorbent-containing device is fixed in discharge canal bed in monolithic manner and drainage outflow is passed through it. Plant mowing and replacement of filtering cassette are carried out when rice plant passes from one vegetation stage into another.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve reclamation state of soil and ecological situation on rice fields due to reduction of suffusion and removal of nutrients from soil.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in treating electroplating wastes. The method of purifying waste water from heavy metal cations with a low-frequency pulsed field involves treatment in a heterogeneous medium formed by at least 12 mmol/l of calcium hydroxide, in an electromagnetic apparatus using energy of an alternating electromagnetic field formed by magnetic elements made of hard-magnetic material moving under the effect of said field.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of purification from heavy metal cations and cuts the duration of treatment.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to "from outside-to inside" filtration modules including capillary membranes intended for water or other turbid fluid treatment. Proposed device comprises membrane shutters, each being formed by one row of capillary membranes, lower manifold arranged nearby lower end of membrane shutters and connected therewith, and at least one membrane shutter. Appropriate top manifold arranged nearby upper end of membrane shutter and connected with its capillary membranes is arranged for every membrane shutter. Membrane shutters are arranged vertically while top manifolds are spaced apart to allow fluid flowing upward between membrane shutters and top manifolds. Top manifolds of at least two adjacent membrane shutters are located at different height while capillary membranes of adjacent shutters feature different length.
EFFECT: lower turbulence, lower life and/or material fatigue in filtration module.
16 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves measurement, sampling of hydrocarbon gas-liquid mixture supplied from wells for analysis and supply to mixture flow in the beginning of the pipeline of composition of surface active substances, which converts multiphase multicomponent flow to pseudohomogeneous bubble system, and consisting of oil-soluble demulsifier and depressant or inhibitor of paraffin depositions taken in the weight ration of 1:7 to 7:1. The above composition is introduced in the amount of 0.01 to 0.02 or 0.2 to 0.5 wt % of hydrocarbon constituent of mixture liquid phase.
EFFECT: improving mixture transport efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of removing bivalent iron from drinking, predominantly carbonic mineral waters. Method of deironing mineral drinking bottled water, includes pre-purification of mineral water from suspended admixtures, and deironing is realised by only one operation - processing mineral water with active granulated carbon sorbents in presence of natural humic acids in concentration not less than 1 mg/dm3. This method makes it possible to reduce content of bivalent iron to quantity 0.3 mg/dm3, and, as it has been found out, such residual concentration of iron does not worsen marketable state of bottled water in storage.
EFFECT: increase of method efficiency.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.