Method of sewage purification from cyanide-ions
SUBSTANCE: method of sewage purification from cyanide-ions includes its processing with sulfate of bivalent iron in quantity 293 wt.p to 100 wt.p. CN-ions in presence in water of sorbent in form of fibrillated cellulose fibres, which contain in wt %: not less than 54% of fibres with length not more 0.63 mm and not less than 94% of fibres with length not more than 1.23 mm, with formation of reaction product in form of insoluble particles of iron cyanide. Reaction product is obtained in form of composite material, which consists of cellulose fibres with sorbed on them iron cyanide particles. Product of processing is discharged from water with application of pressured flotation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify process of purification, reduce iron sulfate consumption, increase purification degree and provide possibility of carrying out purification in continuous mode.
2 cl, 3 ex
The invention relates to techniques for wastewater from cyanide and can be used at the enterprises of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, upon receipt of the gold cyanide way, in the chemical, machine-building industries.
The known method of wastewater treatment for cyanide ions by treatment with ferrous sulfate iron in its consumption of 10.5 parts by weight to 1 parts by weight of CN-ions in the presence of water, sodium carbonate, or potassium, or ammonium in an amount of 0.4 to 6.1 g/l (SU 1215307, C02F 1/58, publ. 29.02.88). After stirring the obtained suspension of the product of the reaction in the form of particles cyanide iron defend, the precipitate was separated. The residual content of CN-ions 0,06-0,40 mg/L.
The disadvantages of this method are the high consumption of ferrous sulfate, auxiliary substances, the long duration of the deposition product processing, noticeable residual concentration of CN-ion in water, the periodicity of the process.
There is also known a method of purification of waste water from cyanide ions by treatment of the mixture with a solution of sulphate ferrous iron in its consumption of 9.2 parts by weight to 1 parts by weight of ion CN with intensive mixing (SU 1380179, C02F 1/58, publ. 10.04.96). In the solution of iron sulphate is introduced into the flow of water parallel to the directional flow equal to the speed of the flow of waste water, followed by tightening the threads. The content of CN-ions in purified in the de after settling 0,08-of 2.86 mg/L.
The disadvantages of the method is the high complexity of the process, a high consumption of ferrous sulfate, noticeable residual content in the water CN-ions, the periodicity of the process.
New results from the use of the proposed method are simplifying the process, reducing consumption of iron sulfate, increasing the level of treatment, providing treatment in a continuous mode.
The above results are achieved by the fact that in the method of purification of waste water from cyanide ions, including its handling sulfate ferrous iron with the formation of the product of the reaction in the form of insoluble particles cyanide of iron, the removal of the product from water, according to the invention, the water treatment is carried out in the presence of water sorbent in the form of fibrillated cellulose fibers, containing in wt.% not less than 54% of fibres with a length of not more than 0,63 mm and not less than 94% of fibres with a length of not more than 1,23 mm, ferrous sulfate spend in the number of 293 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of CN-ions, the reaction product is obtained as a composite material consisting of cellulose fibers with sorbed on them particles cyanide of iron, with the treatment product is removed from water by using pressure flotation. Cellulose fibers are served in water in an amount of 50-150 mg per 1 liter
Cellulose fibers (black) with these characteristics have a very high sorbl the authorized ability to chemically precipitated particles at the moment of their formation. In the composite material (KM), particulate cyanide iron (CI) may be more than 800 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of fibers (CI:black>800:100). In practice, the sorption of particles, it is advisable to hold up to the value of the ratio CI:COL=300(±50):100. When increasing the length of the fibers of their activity and sorption capacity decreases, decreasing the length of the activity and capacity increase, however, at the same ratio CI:black increases the water retention KM and, consequently, difficulties arise when it is dehydration required for its disposal.
Fibrillated cellulose fibers have another important property. In the aquatic environment, they are even at a concentration of, for example, from 0.005% in water without stirring quickly form flocculi and cereals that are good at keeping air bubbles easily flatirons to the water surface and form a stable flotsam. When the use of such fibers in the process of pressure flotation there is no need to use auxiliary reagents, such as coagulants, flocculants and photoagency.
These properties fully possesses and KM.
Formed during flotation flotsam consisting of composite material, to be disposed of or cleaned. For this purpose it is first dewatered, for example, using a filter press or centrifuge, washed, again both voivat and dried. The dried material can be calcined at 500°C and to receive as a result of the decay scheme 3Fe(CN)2→3Fe3C+5C+3N2harmless products. You can also composite material treated with a solution of KCN and get the solution valuable product - yellow blood salt K4[Fe(CN)6]and regenerated silver.
The method is as follows. Preparing a suspension of the sorbent with the above characteristics of the fibers with their concentration, for example, 3 wt.%. Prepare a solution of sulphate ferrous iron to its concentration, for example, 10%.
Water cleaned in the unit of continuous action, including the mixer, reactor, saturator, the flotation machine and the filter press.
In the mixer serves the waste water and the specified number of color from obtaining a dispersion containing fibers 50-150 mg/l of water. The dispersion is sent to the reactor, which also serves sulfate solution of ferrous iron calculated 293 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of water contained in the CN-ions. As a result of reactions forms a water-insoluble product in the form of particles cyanide iron (II) Fe2[Fe(CN)6]that are sorbed on black with the formation of KM. The resulting dispersion is sent to the saturator, saturate it with air at a pressure of 2-3 ATM and served in the flotation cell. In the flotation cell composite material completely oated with the formation of flotsam. His conclusion is drawn from the flotation cell, direct to dehydration and further processing.
The following examples illustrate the possibilities of the proposed method.
Example 1. Purify water with the content of CN-ions in the composition of NaCN or KCN 10 mg/liter mixer to water add black at the rate of 50 mg/L. the resulting dispersion is sent to the reactor and serves in her solution of FeSO4from the calculation of 29.3 mg per 1 liter of dispersion. As a result of reactions are formed 20,75 mg CG in 1 l of water and, accordingly, 70,75 mg KM with a value in it in parts by weight CG:COL=41,5:100. The dispersion is sent to the saturator, then in the flotation cell, where KM is oated. In the starting period of operation of the plant since the beginning of the breeding flotsam from the flotation cell completely fed into the mixer and from that moment it was fresh sorbent stop. When you reach a ratio CI:black KM, equal to 300:100, part of MILES removed from the process, and in the mixer start fresh sorbent in the number equal to the number of color output from a process within KM.
Output KM dehydrated, washed, dried, treated with a solution of KCN and get 236,6 mg yellow blood salt out of every 100 mg CN-ions from waste water during its treatment.
Purified water contains sulphate of sodium or potassium in an amount equivalent to equal content in wastewater CN-ions, i.e. 9,105 mg Na2SO4or 11,17 mg K2SO4 in 1 l of treated water. CN-ions in the water are not detected.
Example 2. Unlike example 1, the waste water contains 278 mg/l CN-ions in water color is supplied from the calculation of 150 mg/l, the solution of FeSO4dispense in dispersion in the reactor based 814,54 mg per 1 l of water. As a result of reactions in 1 l of water are formed 576,57 mg CG and, accordingly, 726, 57 mg km, with the balance of CG:COL=384:100. From the process shows all KM. It is washed, dewatered, dried and calcined at 520°C with the formation of iron carbide FeC, carbon and gaseous N2. Purified water contains 253,12 mg PA2SO4or 310.5 mg K2SO4,CN-ions in the water are not detected.
Example 3. Purify water with the content of CN-ions in the form of Na2[Zn(CN)4] in the amount of 120 mg/L. gray served in the water in the mixer at the rate of 100 mg/L. Solution of FeSO4dispense in a dispersion solution in the amount of 351,6 mg/l In the reaction are formed 163,88 mg/l Na2SO4,186,26 mg/l ZnSO4and 248,95 mg/l particles CJ, adsorbed on 100 mg black with education 348,46 mg/l KM. KM can be processed as described in examples 1 and/or 2. Purified water can be used to obtain a composite sorbent in the form of silver adsorbed on them particles of zinc hydroxide. This sorbent can be used to obtain gold cyanide way. In this method, after the separation of the gold in the waste water in RA is solved form contains Na 2[Zn(CN)4].
1. The method of purification of waste water from cyanide ions, including its handling sulfate ferrous iron with the formation of the product of the reaction in the form of insoluble particles cyanide of iron, the removal of the product from water, wherein the water treatment is carried out in the presence of water sorbent in the form of fibrillated cellulose fibers, containing in wt.% not less than 54% of fibres with a length of not more than 0,63 mm and not less than 94% of fibres with a length of not more than 1,23 mm, ferrous sulfate spend in the number of 293 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of CN-ions, the reaction product is obtained as a composite material consisting of cellulose fibers with sorbed on them particles cyanide of iron, with the treatment product is removed from water by using pressure flotation.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cellulose fibres are served in water in an amount of 50-150 mg per 1 liter
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of waste water containing organic contaminants in industry, agriculture and household conditions. The waste water treatment method involves treatment of the initial waste water with a coagulant and flocculant, separation thereof into sludge and clarified waste water. Further, the clarified waste water is treated with nanostructured boehmite until achieving a given degree of purity of the clarified waste water and then separated into purified waste water and a solid residue. The solid residue, which contains contaminated nanostructured boehmite, is collected and regenerated, while undergoing supercritical aqueous oxidation. The regenerated nanostructured boehmite is collected for subsequent recycling.
EFFECT: method enables recycling of treated waste water and nanostructured boehmite.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in small-size continuous purification plants for precipitating phosphorus from waste water, particularly household waste water. An apparatus, which is connected to the small-size purification plant, has a pumping tank (1), a discharge pump (2) for draining the pumping tank, a chemical reservoir (6) and a dosing pump (5) for the chemical coagulant which is meant for feeding the chemical coagulant from the chemical reservoir (6) into the waste water discharged from the pumping tank (1), wherein separation of the formed residue of chemical substance from water released from said purification plant takes place in the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The apparatus can entirely be placed inside the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The dosing pump (5) is configured to pump the chemical coagulant into a stream generated by the discharge pump (2) during the entire or almost entire operating cycle of the discharge pump (2).
EFFECT: invention provides complete mixing of treated water and reactant, increases the efficiency of precipitating phosphorus and enables to control the amount of chemical coagulant depending on fluctuations of the flow of waste water for efficient and simple precipitation of phosphorus.
11 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in production of extra-pure quartz concentrate which is one of the main sources of contamination by fluorine, chlorine and salts containing fluorine and chlorine. The method is realised via reactant treatment in two steps. The first step involves neutralisation of acidic waste water with 23% NH4OH with separation of the SiO2 precipitate and formation of NH4F solution. At the second step, said solution is treated with 20% lime milk. The formed CaF2 precipitate and previously separated SiO2 precipitate are washed, dehydrated and removed from the process as end products. The 7-8% NH4OH solution obtained after separating the CaF2 precipitate and flush water are returned to the first step for reactant treatment of waste water to prepare the starting NH4OH solution. The 7-8% NH4OH solution formed at the second step is concentrated by evaporation to 23% and returned to the first reactant treatment step. The condensate obtained during evaporation is directed for preparation of 20% lime milk, washing the SiO2 precipitate and into recycling cycle of the main production.
EFFECT: invention enables to cut the volume of discharge of industrial wastes into the environment, prevents formation of non-recyclable sludge and also reduces consumption of fresh water during production and enables to obtain high-quality products used in different industries.
3 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to treatment of underground water from gases dissolved therein and can be used in water treatment. Source water containing hydrogen sulphide and impurities is fed through a pipe 1. The water is then fed into a floatation plant 3, having at least two chambers. At the first floatation step, a hydrogen sulphide neutraliser is fed through a nozzle 2 and at the second step, a chemical which facilitates precipitation of sulphates and sulphides is added. The treated water enters a settling tank 4, from where it is fed into a contact flocculator 6, having a gravel filling. The contact flocculator 6 is connected to the settling tank 4 through a nozzle 5, needed for feeding a flocculant.
EFFECT: group of inventions improves quality of treatment, simplifies and reduces the cost and labour input.
9 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: set of intention relates to water treatment and may be used in various industries. First, chlorinated coagulant is subjected to electrochemical treatment at membrane or diaphragm electrolysis unit 3 with insoluble electrodes to produce high-basic coagulant and gaseous chlorine. High-basic coagulant is mixed with water flow fed into settler 4 for coagulation and flocculation of undissolved suspensions and mechanical impurities. Gaseous chlorine withdrawn from electrolysis unit is fed into chlorine proportioner 6 to make bleaching water. Said water is fed for decontamination in cleaned water flow between said settler 4 and mechanical filter 8.
EFFECT: higher quality of purification.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to waste water treatment techniques. The method involves treating water with sodium phosphate in the presence of fibrillated cellulose fibres in amount of 100 pts.wt per 100-900 pts.wt of the formed aluminium phosphate. Water can be pre-treated with sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of said fibres. The treatment product is separated by pressure flotation.
EFFECT: invention provides high treatment efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of whatever effluents and may be used in oil production and processing industries, petrochemical industry, etc. Proposed device represents treatment system comprising intake chamber communicated with flotation assembly inlet and settling assembly as well as with unit distributing inert gas and gas-water mix communicated with flotation unit outlet and settling unit inlet. Note here that settling unit is composed of tight modules of thin-layer settlers while flotation unit is composed of a system of tight modules of flotation chamber with impeller-type dispersers. Note also that foam product collector assembly is equipped with inert gas feeder and communicates with flotation unit inlet, settling unit inlet and aforesaid distributing unit to make closed-circuit circulation system.
EFFECT: higher safety and efficiency.
17 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: methods are realised using a system comprising a mobile platform; an input pump for pumping a treatment stream through the system; a centrifugal separator operatively connected to the outlet of the input pump for treating the treatment stream under centrifugal forces; a borate filter operatively connected to the outlet of the centrifugal separator for filtering the treatment stream capable of removing at least a portion of borate when the treatment stream is at a pH of 8 or higher; and a chemical-additive subsystem capable of selectively adding one or more chemical agents to the treatment stream before the centrifugal separator, wherein the chemical agents can be selected so as to enable precipitation of dissolved ions selected from the group consisting of: sulphate, calcium, strontium or barium, magnesium, iron; and selectively adding a chemical agent to the treatment stream before the borate filter to increase the pH of the treatment stream to 8 or higher.
EFFECT: obtaining treated water with considerably low concentration of dissolved ions.
20 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for cleaning of natural (ground and surface) and technogenic waters from arsenic. The method includes oxidation on psilomelane of trivalent arsenic to pentavalent and subsequent sorption of the later on brucite. The oxidation of trivalent arsenic is performed by filtration through psilomelane layer or by addition of psilomelane sized less than 0.1 mm into treated water, mixing for 30-60 minutes with subsequent sediment separation. The sorption is performed by the way of filtration of treated water through the layer of brusite or by the way of addition of brucite sized 10:50 μm to treated water, mixing for 30 minutes and subsequent sedimentation separation.
EFFECT: high quality of water cleaning and costs reduction due to use of natural sorbent and available mineral catalyst of oxidation process.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in mining. In compliance with this method, underspoil acid sulphate-containing effluents are neutralised by 5%-lime milk to pH 9.4-9.5. Then, added are anionic flocculant in concentration of 5-8 mg/l and pyrite final tailings in concentration of 2.5-10 g/l. Produced mix is mixed and settled. After settling, water is divided into two flows. One flow is directed for tertiary treatment before discharge into water structures. Another flow is directed for irrigation of spoils for partial neutralisation of underspoil waters to form circulation flow. Degree of water circulation for spoil irrigation purposes makes 20-30%.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of lime milk and amount of formed sediments.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: decanter contains inclined bottom 8, pump 3 for supply of liquid slit, device for injection of polymer into liquid slit, discharge of said product 23 and pump 26 for pumping preliminary thickened slit from decanter. Decanter also contains means for acceleration of slit decantation, means for regulation of suspended substance concentration in thickened slit on output, able to hold permanent concentration of preliminarily thickened slit, removed from decanter, in spite of fluctuations of concentration on output, and means for regulation of slit suspension level, capable of preserving said level as low as possible.
EFFECT: increased degree of slit preliminary thickening, which eliminates additional processing of slit before device of slit thickening.
12 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition includes polyguanidine compound based on poly-(4,9-dioxadodecanguanidine) or polyhexamethyleneguanidine and hydroxiethylcellulose with the following component ratio in wt %: polyguanidine compound - (0.1-8.0), hydroxiethylcellulose - (0.1-3.0) and water - the remaining part.
EFFECT: increase of degree of water disinfection efficiency, reduction of toxic properties of preparation, including its allergic activity.
3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: device of water deironing includes not less than two vessels, which represent vertically placed cases of cylindrical shape from dielectric, on internal surface of which placed are inert anodes 7 in form of spiral, and in the middle iron cathodes 8 in form of round rods; electrified dampers 9, connected with supply tube of pump 3, are fastened to inputs into cases, air-valves 10, connected with ventilating tubes 11, are located in upper parts of cases, on outputs of cases placed are tubes for discharge of clean water 12 with electrified dampers 13 and discharge of washing water 14 with electrified dampers 15. Sensor of water discharge 16 and sensor of iron content in water 17 are placed on tube of clean water discharge. Tube of washing water is connected to tangential input of hydrocyclone 18, whose upper output is connected with tube of washing water dumping 19 inti sewage, and lower output is directed into reservoir for iron hydroxide utilisation 21. Control unit 5 is connected by means of conductors with source of constant current 4, all electrified dampers, sensor of water consumption and sensor of iron content in water.
EFFECT: increase of deironing process reliability, guaranteed quality if purified.
1 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of preparing electro-activated water includes water processing by electrolysis in order to obtain two fractions of water: alkaline - catholyte, saturated with OH- ions, and acid - anolyte, saturated with H+ ions. Hydrogen, released during electrolysis process, is collected into reservoir with volume not more than 5 l and used to bubble formed catholyte with pH 7.5-8 in amount (6-8)·10-4 mol/l until it completely dissolves in catholyte.
EFFECT: method simplification with possibility of its application in household, obtaining catholyte with optimal indices of pH and oxidation-reduction potential.
SUBSTANCE: system of measuring and control in general case includes a set of measurements, means for ensuring of control logics and set of control actions, which includes activation of ion-exchange device for processing supply water. Measurements can include physical measurements of flow speeds, chemical measurements of water composition and measurements of parameters, connected with productivity, such as corrosive activity of water or its ability to form sediment. Preferably, measurements include measurements of one or more of the following parameters: pH, conductivity, hardness, basicity, corrosive activity, ability to form sediments, dosing of additives for processing and residual content of additives for processing in supply water and recirculating water.
EFFECT: in addition to reduction of corrosive activity of water and its ability to form sediments method eliminates or reduces emission from system, without creating any local conditions for formation of sediments or corrosion resulting from processing.
14 cl, 7 ex, 5 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely veterinary science, and may be used for treating skin diseases in sheep. That is ensured by preparing the affected skin. The affected skin is prepared with 70% ethanol. That is followed by processing the affected skin with electrochemically activated water using a spray head first with an acid fraction at pH 3.0 in the amount of 20-30 ml per the surface of 10 cm2 for 10-15 seconds at 15-20 cm. That is followed by keeping for 25-30 minutes and processing with an alkali fraction at pH 11.00 in the amount of 20-30 ml per the surface of 10 cm2 for 10-15 seconds at 15-20 cm. The skin is processed twice a day.
EFFECT: higher clinical effectiveness, reduced length of treatment, and respectively its cost.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: there is a pause from several seconds to several hours between electric power switch-off moment and moment of switch-on with opposite polarity.
EFFECT: elimination of clogging of inter-electrode space with deposits of hardness salts on electrodes of electrolysis devices, and increasing operational life of those devices.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of deactivation of toxic wastes of galvanic and radio-electronic production and can be applied for deactivation of waste solutions of galvanic and chemical metal coatings, which contain anion of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid, as well as for neutralisation of waste solutions of etching of printed circuit boards, which contain ammonium perpxodisulphate. Method consists in mutual neutralisation of two liquid wastes of production as a result of oxidation of anion of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid by peroxodisulphate to nontoxic chemical substances.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to convert more than 99% of anion of 1-hydroxyethan-1,1-diphosphonic acid into orthophosphate, reduce material costs for neutralisation of toxic wastes of production of galvanic coatings and printed circuit boards and extend arsenal of methods for utilisation of waste solutions of etching of printed circuit boards, which contain ammonium perpxodisulphate.
11 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of electro-chemical processing of water by disinfectants, which can be applied for processing of drinking water, domestic and industrial sewages, and water of swimming pools. Method includes introduction into processed water of disinfectants, obtained by direct electrolysis in flowing regimen of processed water, which contains sodium chloride, with application of water, which contains 0.1÷20 mg/l of sodium chloride. Invention also relates to device for electro-chemical processing of water by disinfectants, which contains body with input and output branch pipes, polarity-changing titanium electrodes, means for supply of current to electrodes, and change of polarity takes place with pause from several seconds to several hours, and inter-electrode distance constitutes less than 1 mm.
EFFECT: possibility of reagent-free control of water properties with low content of chlorides, resulting in direct disinfection.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in field of deactivation of sea ballast water of ships. Method includes supply of ozone in quantity, ensuring concentration not more than 2 mg of ozone per 1 litre of processed sea water from ozone-containing gas mixture or from mixture of ozone with fresh water into deactivated sea ballast water. Ozone is introduced directly before supply of sea ballast water which is to be deactivated into block of UV-C (3) irradiation and time from introducing ozone into it to output of sea ballast water from block UV-C irradiation (3) does not exceed 10 seconds. Dose of UV-C irradiation is in the range 100-200 mJ/cm2. Ozone-containing gas mixture is supplied through bubbler plate, placed perpendicularly to direction of movement of flow of sea ballast water to be deactivated.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to effectively deactivate sea ballast water due to synergism of biocidal processing by complex impact of ozone and bactericidal ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation, as well as to ensure protection of coastal waters of the world ocean from invasive organisms, namely, from bacteria, spores, viruses, unicellular phyto- and zooplankton.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.