Method of water cleaning and decontamination

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of intention relates to water treatment and may be used in various industries. First, chlorinated coagulant is subjected to electrochemical treatment at membrane or diaphragm electrolysis unit 3 with insoluble electrodes to produce high-basic coagulant and gaseous chlorine. High-basic coagulant is mixed with water flow fed into settler 4 for coagulation and flocculation of undissolved suspensions and mechanical impurities. Gaseous chlorine withdrawn from electrolysis unit is fed into chlorine proportioner 6 to make bleaching water. Said water is fed for decontamination in cleaned water flow between said settler 4 and mechanical filter 8.

EFFECT: higher quality of purification.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

 

the invention is intended for purification and disinfection of drinking and waste water and can be widely used in various industries that require water treatment (chemical, metallurgical, oil refining, medical industry, utilities etc). Can also be used to produce chlorine, chlorine water and chlorine-containing coagulants different basicity.

The invention includes an automated control system and process control (DCS) 1; the system of preparation of reagents 2 for dissolution of initial reagents and dosing; electrolysis installation 3 to obtain chlorine and coagulant different basicity with improved properties; a sump for coagulation and flocculation of the insoluble solids and solids 4; device removal flakes 5; a device for dosing chlorine and receiving chlorinated water 6; mechanical filter 8.

Effect : lorazepama cleaning and disinfection of water with higher quality characteristics of the treated water and lower costs to achieve this goal, achieved due to optimization of process parameters and taking into account individual characteristics of the source water.

The invention is intended for cleaning and disinfection of p is theway water and can be used for cleaning various wastewater arbitrary origin. The invention can also be used for the production of chlorine, the chlorination of various substances, production of chlorine-containing coagulants different basicity, in medicine to produce a highly effective disinfectant solutions for the production of inorganic adhesive solutions in metallurgy, oil refining industry, for bleaching various materials, etc.

Known and widespread methods used for pumping and filtration stations, technical solutions are engaged in the cleaning and disinfection of water using supplied to these stations coagulants (prepared solutions or in solid form with subsequent preparation of working solutions and liquid chlorine in tanks, containers or cylinders (with subsequent dosing of chlorine disinfected water from these tanks and storage of chlorine), presenting a danger during transport, operation and storage (Lagowski, Say. The technology of purification of natural waters. Kiev, high school, 1986, 352 S., p.27-39).

The disadvantages of these stations are:

1) the need to purchase and store large quantities of hazardous chlorine;

2) high cost of using expensive coagulants high basicity or a large number of cheap coagulants low basicity;

3) use the used coagulants for water purification have weak coagulating agent and disinfectant;

4) lack of opportunities for the acquisition of coagulants optimum basicity intended for processing of water each water source, taking into account individual composition of its water;

5) lack of possibility of obtaining chlorine from the coagulant with the simultaneous optimization of purification, chlorination of water and minimizing reagent costs;

6) lack of automatic self-tuning of the reactants prior to their optimal properties at the station on indicators of purified water;

7) restrictions on use slightly basic coagulant (the cheapest of the total number of chlorine-containing coagulants different basicity) due to its high acidity.

Known for glorieuses agent (RU 2090519 C1, 1997, CL C02F 1/76, C25B 1/26). The installation includes a cell block preparation and dispensing of electrolyte, the communications system. The electrolytic cell used in the cell with separate anode and cathode chambers. The installation includes a flow line for water and the collector-separator. Unit preparation and dispensing the electrolyte solution includes a mortar unit, osmotic dispenser and piping, forming a circulation path of the electrolyte. The installation also includes a cleaning unit of the electrolyte solution hardness salts.

Known decontamination of the odes, producing from a solution of sodium chloride at the same time the chlorine water and caustic soda (EN 2281252 C2, 10.05/2006). The station includes a cell, the node dissolving and dosing of sodium chloride, ejector, communication. Between the electrolyzer and the ejector is installed circulation loop containing the drive alkali, heat exchanger and pump. Site dilution and dosing consists of adjusting tank, salt tank, pump dispenser, rotameter and a storage tank. For the separation of chlorine and alkali electrolyzer equipped ion exchange membrane. This solution provides "...the increase in the bactericidal activity of the obtained disinfectants, explosion protection process.

The main disadvantage of the above technical solutions - they only provide safe water disinfection with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite and chlorine water and does not provide treatment to remove insoluble impurities and sediment.

Closest to the proposed method to the technical essence and the achieved result is a technical solution described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2163894 from 10.03.2001, "Method of cleaning and disinfection of water" (EN 2163894 C2, 10.03.2001, bull. No. 7). This method provides a technical solution to use liquid suspension of coagulant and chlorine for simultaneous cleaning and disinfection of water is through the implementation of the electrolysis solution, based on the chlorine-containing coagulant.

The main disadvantages of this method are:

1) formation of explosive mixtures of chlorine and hydrogen over the surface of the resulting solution of coagulant;

2) the inability to precisely adjust the basicity of the resulting coagulant containing disinfectant components on the basis of dissolved chlorine;

3) in the absence of separation of anodic and cathodic areas experience higher costs of electricity compared with the proposed method, which is associated with the mixing of the reaction products of the cathode and anode spaces and obtaining a quantity of gaseous oxygen;

4) the difficulty of obtaining pure chlorine with insecure and unstable parameters of the composition of the explosive mixture of chlorine and hydrogen, which does not allow a sufficiently precise chlorine in the treated water.

The objective of the invention is to provide a safe and highly effective method of cleaning and disinfection of water and the creation of a cleaning station, providing cleaning and disinfection of contaminated water by using chlorine-containing coagulants due to: simultaneous receipt of chlorinated water; coagulant optimum basicity, high bactericidal properties. The basicity of the coagulant and to the quantity of the disinfectant component is selected and optimized automated control system of technological process control system (APCS) water treatment by assessing key indicators in treated water (content insoluble impurities and content disinfectant components, etc.) by controlling the amount of their feed metering pumps in the system of preparation of reagents 2, the selection of coagulant from electrolysis units 3 and running electrical load on the cell. Organization optimization process is carried out according to two main criteria: regulated high quality water and low feasibility costs.

The problem is solved by the proposed method and station cleaning and disinfection of water, which includes: an automated control system of technological process control system (APCS) 1; the system of preparation of reagents 2, feed them on electrolysis installation 3 to obtain chlorine and highly basic coagulant with high coagulating and disinfectant properties containing active chlorine; chlorine cylinder device and receiving chlorinated water 6; a sump for coagulation and flocculation of suspended sediment and solids 4; a device for removing flakes 5 after flotation; mechanical filter 8 (see figure 1).

For water purification and disinfection are chlorine and coagulant low basicity and reagents that prevent passivation of the electrodes of the electrolysis units 3, which are served in the ICU is his preparation and supply of reagents 2, where regulated and their optimal ratio of the automated control system of technological process control system (APCS) 1. Then the prepared solution into the electrolysis installation 3, which is obtained coagulant containing active chlorine and separately chlorine gas, from which the dispensing device of chlorine and receiving chlorinated water 6 turns of chlorine water. The coagulant containing active chlorine is withdrawn from the electrolysis units two threads and mixed in optimal proportions, then mixed with a stream of water which, in turn, emptied into the sump 4 through coagulation and flocculation of suspended sediment and solids. At the same time in the settling tank 4 are pre-chlorination, where heavy precipitation are removed by the device for removing sludge 7, and a light mist is a device for removing flakes 5. For water disinfection chlorine or chlorine water is fed into the stream of treated water between basins for coagulation and flocculation of suspended sediment and solids 4 and a mechanical filter 8. The residual quantity of coagulated mechanical impurities is purified mechanical filter 8. Automated control system of technological process control system (APCS) 1 performs control and management of all of the above is arecoline stages of the process.

The cathode and anode space electrolysis units 3 separated (unlike the above analogs and prototypes) special diaphragm or membrane permeable to the resulting solution within the electrolysis units 3, but prevents the passage through it of bubbles of hydrogen and chlorine, which excludes the formation of explosive gas mixtures. Electrolysis installation 3 remove chlorine from a solution of the coagulant in the anode space of the cell and directs it to the final chlorination of treated water with chlorine or in the form of an aqueous solution of chlorine water. Automated control system of technological process control system (APCS) 1 allows you to control all the process indicators: concentration of the source and the main forming substances, the levels of filling solutions technological equipment, the values of voltage and current on the electrodes, the electrolysis process, the cost of the main streams of dosing and forming substances, the basic parameters of treated and disinfected water transparency and the concentration of residual chlorine or formed coagulant with active chlorine)levels resulting in the precipitation clarifier. It allows you to manage the process using actuators, attuning to the optimum basicity of the coagulant is generated in the electrolysis process b is more highly basic (compared to the original, with a higher coagulating and disinfectant indicators) coagulant and the necessary amount of chlorine by changing the voltage and current on the electrodes of the electrolysis units 3 and cost control flows of substances at all stages of water treatment systems in automatic, manual or mixed modes, combining automatic and manual at the same time. In the result, the work station is optimized according to the established quality criteria water treatment and the criteria of minimizing the cost of achieving these objectives, taking into account the individual composition and properties of the purified water and conducting process safety.

The main difference of way and station from analogues and prototypes is that at the station cleaning and disinfection of water can be used chlorine-containing coagulant any of basicity, namely Me(OH)mCln-mwhere Me is a metal, n is the valence of the metal, a m - the number of hydroxyl groups in hydrochloride metal, where Me is a metal, n is the valence of the metal, a m - the number of hydroxyl groups in hydrochloride metal, and is in the range of 0<m<n.

At the same time are more effective coagulant higher basicity and separately chlorine or chlorine water. Moreover, this process is easily adjustable by simply changing the electrical load on e is ectrode electrolysis units 3 and optimized using APCS 1.

In a number of coagulants slightly basic coagulants get easier and cheaper, but the coagulating properties of their significantly lower compared to the highly basic coagulants.

Here is an example on the coagulants from hydrooxychloride aluminum (AHOC). In a number of coagulants 1/3 - GOCH (Al(OH)Cl2), 2/3 - GOCH (Al(OH)2CL) and 5/6 - GOCH (Al2(OH)5Cl) first get out of the hydrate of aluminum and hydrochloric acid, the second gain at higher values of temperature and pressure using solutions containing alkali and alkaline earth elements or using aluminum metal. The last strong basic coagulant get, usually of aluminum metal or with the addition of aluminum metal. The cost of the latter depending on the quality increases several times. The presented solution allows you to use as a coagulant even aqueous solutions hydrooxychloride in hydrochloric acid, which can be obtained the cheapest way - leaching of clays containing aluminum oxide, hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the lower the basicity (more chlorine in the compound), the easier is extracted chlorine. The cost of obtaining chlorine by electrolysis in an acidic environment is always lower than that associated with a decrease in voltage on the implementation of this process. Thus from the very cheap and IU is effective coagulant is obtained after removing the chlorine more effective coagulant higher basicity. And it excludes the purchase and storage of chlorine, reduced purchases of other substances for the production of chlorine and chlorinated water, and costs directly to the production of the coagulant (AHOC or solution aluminium chloride) is also significantly reduced, and chlorine danger due to lack of storage chlorine is absent.

Another fundamental difference is that the method and the device allow you to easily configure the properties of the resulting coagulant due to a change in its basicity in the right direction, taking into account characteristics of the treated water. It will never be able to make the industrial production of coagulants due to the inability of the production of a wide range of different coagulants basicity for each water source separately (item will reach hundreds, if not thousands of different coagulants basicity).

There is a well-known fact that in various localities of the existing sources of water have their own individual properties and compounds (alkaline, neutral and acidic with different compositions of dissolved salts in them, with different content of insoluble solids and suspensions etc).

That is why we need an individual approach in the selection of chemicals for water treatment, i.e. for water treatment should be applied not just vysokosov the second coagulant and a special coagulant with special basicity, are specific to a particular water.

This is confirmed by the numerous pumping and filtration stations and canals where you have to find and use their different types and doses of coagulant and chlorine, and these doses vary depending on the time of year.

In fact, for these purposes at the stations due to the lack of the best we have to use only the coagulant, which can release the chemical industry.

The proposed solution makes it easy to optimize the properties of the coagulant regulation load and control the flow of the original slightly basic coagulant with getting coagulant almost any basicity and specific (optimal) basicity is required, in particular, for a particular water source.

This is achieved comprehensive regulation of the composition of the solution in the system of preparation of reagents 2; flow regulation of the supply of coagulant to the input of electrolysis units 3; mode electrolysis units 3; selection of a coagulant containing active chlorine from electrolysis units 3 (in optimal proportions of anodic and cathodic areas).

The third fundamental difference is that along with obtaining separately chlorine or chlorine water solution on ochomogo coagulant acquires another fundamental new property: during electrolysis together with improved coagulating ability are formed of dissolved compounds hypochlorite, chlorate groups with active oxygen and directly dissolved chlorine, with a higher bactericidal activity, through the use of advanced oxidation ability of active oxygen atoms.

This effect allows you to pre-chlorination (disinfection) together with the coagulation of impurities and sediment no feed of chlorine or chlorinated water for these purposes.

Almost all types of chloride cells have at least the entrance is a hole for supplying the liquid raw materials are inputs to recharge water (in case of application of the ion-selective membranes) and not more than one output for selection of the final liquid product (for example, sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite or oxychloride or suspension oxychloride with chlorine, as specified in the prototype), there are also vents the gaseous products (hydrogen and chlorine). In all cases seek to obtain the maximum concentration of the final liquid products (sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sodium oxychloride, hydrooxychloride aluminum (high basicity with a maximum concentration in the very rare on Al2O3).

In this case, the cell has two holes for the selection of coagulant from the different areas of the electrolysis space - cathode and anode is O. The end product of the work of the cell is the product of mixing of these flows coagulant, and proportion mixing of these flows are determined by APCS according to the results of the indicators of treated water leaving the water treatment plant and water disinfection.

The efficiency of cleaning and disinfection depends not only on the quantity supplied (dosed into the cell) reagent and coming out in two streams, but also from optimum basicity of coagulant after mixing them with each other and the content of active disinfectant compounds providing effective pre-disinfection.

Limits and extreme values of mixing are two extreme cases: that is, when the entire flow of the coagulant passes either through the anode hole, or through the cathode aperture. In this case, all intermediate variants of mixing between them also are equiprobable are equal and depend on the quality of treated water.

The second product of the cell is not just chlorine and optimum dosage (flow rate) of chlorine (or chlorine water) with APCS at the final stage - the stage of disinfection of water by selecting optimal mode (energetically favorable) conducting electrolysis of a solution.

And generally the end product of the whole process is treated and disinfected water with minim is Linyi cost of consumable materials and energy for these purposes, not the totality of the obtained substances with high quality indicators (as usually work all industrial electrolyzers).

The design of the electrolysis cell has its own characteristics. In the cell there is not one hole with a pipe for the selection of products, as is typical for all cells that tend not to mix with each other of the anode and cathode solutions, but rather to isolate them from each other, which allows to achieve high quality products with minimal energy costs. These nozzles attached two managed APCS valve, through which pipelines are further joined together in one thread. The result is a mixing of these flows. The holes in the cell (one in the anode space of the cell, and the other in the cathode space of the cell) can be located anywhere, but preferably, they were as far as possible from the input of coagulant solution and on the opposite side of the separation membrane (diaphragm). The management of these two adjustable valves by using APCS controlled quality cleaning and disinfection of water (turbidity, chlorine concentration, pH etc). The cleaning efficiency depends not only on the quantity supplied (dosed in the electrolysis is) reagent and coming out in two streams, and from receiving the basicity of the coagulant (quality) and the content of active disinfectant compounds providing effective pre-disinfection.

The basicity and the content of chlorine in the feed water treatment the coagulant does not depend on the load on the cell, but also on the degree of opening and closing the adjustable valve. Thus, in the anode zone of the cell concentration of dissolved chlorine is much higher than in the cathode space and the cathode space basicity of the dissolved coagulant higher than in the anode. Using these features and adjusting the ratio of these flows can be chosen with consideration of the peculiarities of water optimal parameters coagulant for purification and disinfection. Limits and extreme values of such control are two extreme cases: when the whole stream of coagulant passes either through the anode hole, or through the cathode aperture. In the first case, the coagulant solution contains the maximum amount of dissolved chlorine in the second case - the minimum amount of dissolved chlorine. In this case, all intermediate variants of mixing between them also are equiprobable and the choice depends on the quality of the treated water. When choosing the optimal variant is better to do it with the use of APCS, for a man it can be very burdensome.

The second Avenue is the product of the cell is not just chlorine, and optimum dosage (flow rate) of chlorine (or chlorine water) with APCS at the final stage - the stage of the decontamination of water by selecting optimal mode of carrying out electrolysis.

And generally the end product of the whole process is treated and disinfected water with minimal cost of consumable materials and energy for these purposes, and not the totality of the obtained substances with high quantitative indicators on the content of the main active substance.

The coagulant coming out of the cell, contains various disinfecting agents, including active chlorine. To estimate the concentration of chlorine in the coagulant obtained in the electrolysis installation 3 after mixing of the anode and cathode flows are controlled by chlorine sensor, which is installed in the pipeline at a distance of not less than 20 diameters of the pipeline (common recommendations, ensuring homogeneous mixing) from the place of mixing flows. Further, the coagulant is mixed with the flow of contaminated water in the sump for coagulation and flocculation of the insoluble solids and solids 4, in which there are cleaning and pre-disinfection and bleaching water. The concentration of chlorine in the water treatment process falls sharply. Due to the fact that water has a different composition, and moreover, this is t composition is strongly influenced by time of year (the most dirty water in the spring and fall periods of the year), it is not possible to predict the degree of absorption of chlorine and its residual contents in the treated water. For this it is advisable to monitor chlorine residual chlorine sensor, which is installed in the pipeline after the settling tank 4, but not reaching the designated input of chlorine or chlorinated water supplied to the final chlorination of treated water. The content of chlorine in the treated water is controlled by another sensor, the location of the chlorine sensor is in the pipeline at the outlet of the mechanical filter 8. In principle, the work station is enough to have only the last two chlorine sensor (after the settling tank 4 and after the mechanical filter 8). The analysis of these two sensors allows you to properly control the mode of operation of the electrolyzer (including cathodic and anodic charges coagulants).

As an example, can be tested using a coagulant having the following characteristics: density, initial solution ρ=1.29 g/cm3; the ratio of Al/Cl=0,68; stoichiometric formula hydrooxychloride aluminum (AHOC) - Al(OH)1,54Cl1,46or Al2(OH)is 3.08Cl2,92), the content on Al2O316.3%, and Cl - 16,62%.

Table 1
Change of basicity with the extraction of chlorine by electrolysis
The initial view of the AHOC Al2(OH)3,07Cl2,93Concentration in solution
WeightAl2O3ClH2OAHOC
g16,6316,6266,0833,92
%16,6316,6266,0833,92
Al2(OH)of 4.38Cl1,62
WeightAl2O3ClH2OAHOC
g16,309,1962,3129,72
%17,719,9867,71 32,29
Al2(OH)4,76Cl1,24
WeightAl2O3ClH2OAHOC
g16,30the remaining 9.0861,7230,16
%17,749,8867,1732,83

Obtaining chlorine for water treatment was carried out on the cell with the anode of titanium coated with ORT and separation of anodic and cathodic areas of special membrane.

The electrolysis was carried out at various cost solution AHOC. The filing of the original coagulant was carried out both in the anode and in the cathode space. The concentration of active chlorine in the coagulant selected from the anode space, reached up to 3125 mg/L. Concentration of active chlorine in the electrolyte is taken from the cathode space, ranged from 57 to 170 mg/L.

The minimum value of active chlorine in the cathode space was observed at the input AHOC in the cathode space and the discharge generated in scoonover AHOC after electrolysis from the anode space. One sample AHOC - the anolyte has a density of 1.28 g/cm3.

The product formula: Al2(OH)4,76Cl1,24the content of active chlorine to 3125 g in the coagulant solution leaving the anode zone 3125 mg/L. Additionally was obtained pure chlorine, which made chlorine water.

The composition of the chlorinated water was obtained similar to that of chlorinated water, as used for dosing of pure chlorine from cylinders into the water.

Another part of AHOC after electrolysis: the density of the solution was 1.19 g/cm3that corresponds to the formula AHOC - Al(OH)2,19Cl0,81(Al2(OH)of 4.38Cl1,62). The content of Al2O3the solution was 19,19%, Cl is 9.15% (calculated from the material balance formula AHOC has the following form Al(OH)2,32Cl0,68or Al2(OH)with 4.64Cl1,36).

From different samples AHOC produced in this way were prepared with 1%solutions in terms of solutions on Al2O3and laboratory studies trial coagulation in the volume of river water on the flocculator in comparison with coagulant aluminium sulphate (SA), traditionally used for pumping and filtration stations. Tests were conducted on river water in the most adverse temperature conditions.

Speed of 20 Rev/min

Mixing time is 20 minutes

Time settling - 30 min

The water temperature of 1-3°C.

Analysis of product quality:

1. Sample # 1: the product Formula Al2(OH)5Cl

2. Sample # 2: the product Formula Al2(OH)3,07Cl2,93

3. Sample # 3: the product Formula Al2(OH)3,75Cl2,25

Table 2
Trial coagulation using polyacrylamide
Type of coagulantEd. MEAs.Ex.AHOC to El. No. 2AHOC after El. No. 3CACA
DoseMg/DM3-13131314
Dose PAAMg/DM3-0,10,10,10,1
Turbidity otst.Mg/DM32,821,171,08 3,922,85
pH otst. water7,176,96,946,776,69
Oxidation of distilled waterMg/DM317,49.28 are9,9210,410,4
Mod. aluminum distilled waterMg/DM3-0,370,331,170,97
Color otst. waterDeg5018183025

Table 3
Trial coagulation using polyacrylamide
Type of coagulantDose Turbiditythe pH of the waterThe oxidation of waterThe residual aluminum waterThe color of water
Mg/DM3Mg/DM3Mg/DM3Mg/DM3Mg/DM3Deg
Source water-5,167,1220,1-50
CA141,57-1,7230
AHOC No. 1 of the dispenser Al2(OH)5Cl131,177,1710,860,1719
AHOC No. 1 Al2(OH)5Cl21,57,02- 0,620
AHOC # 2 after the elect. Al2(OH)3,75Cl2,25131,03of 7.2311,480,3719
AHOC No. 3 after electrolysis, the anolyte Al2(OH)of 4.38Cl1,62130,87,179,620,3518

Conclusions:

1. Water purification by hydrochloride different osnovnoe in winter is quite effective.

2. All samples hydrochloridw work in this period is much more effective than aluminium sulphate.

3. The residual aluminum is much better removed highly basic hydrochloridum, and in General highly basic AHOC more effective for the river water.

4. Chlorine water obtained by electrolysis, has the same properties as chlorine containers, dissolved in water.

1. The method of purification and disinfection of water, including preliminary electrochemical processing solution of chlorine-containing coagulant in electrolysis installation with insoluble electrodes, obtaining vysokosov the first coagulant and chlorine gas, characterized in that the highly basic coagulant get in the membrane or diaphragm electrolysis installation and mixed with the flow of the treated water, which is served in the sump for coagulation and flocculation of suspended sediment and solids; extracted from the anode space of an electrolysis installation of chlorine gas is sent to the device dosing of chlorine and receiving chlorinated water, chlorine obtained water are available for disinfection in the flow of purified water between basins for coagulation and flocculation of suspended solids and impurities and mechanical filter.

2. Station water purification and disinfection, including the preparation of reagents, electrolysis installation with insoluble electrodes, a tank for coagulation and flocculation of suspended sediment and solids, a device for removing sediment, mechanical filter, characterized in that it further includes an automated control system and process control (DCS), the unit dosage of chlorine and receiving chlorinated water, air trapping chlorine and buffer capacity for storing chlorine water, pumps, sensors, flow meters and valves to control the costs of chlorine and chlorinated water, while electrolysis unit has a diaphragm or is embrane, which separates the cathode and anode space.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to water treatment. Water to be treated is fed into bottom pool 15 of contact clarifier 14. Water flows via distribution system of perforated tubes 17, first, into supporting bed 16 and, then, in filtration bed 18. In motion of treated water from bottom to top, suspension flakes are formed and trapped in filtration bed pores Purified water flows into overflow chute 21 and, therefrom, into top pool 23 and, further, into purified water pipeline 24. Coagulation process in constrained conditions of filtration bed is controlled by adjustment of filtration rate on the basis of proximate analysis in real time of residual coagulant in water and in volume of filtration bed. Switching from filtration to flushing is performed proceeding from proximate analysis of initial water colour, turbidity and alkalinity as well as colour and turbidity at contact clarifier outlet. Time and intensity of flushing are adjusted by sedimentation proximate analysis of suspension at clarifier outlet.

EFFECT: flexible automatic control, reduced amount of residual coagulants in purified water.

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SUBSTANCE: method of controlling drying of cyclohexanone oxime from an oximation step, involving further use of a separator with a phase separating device, having pipes for collecting ammonium sulphate and cyclohexanone oxime with collectors, wherein the outlet of the ammonium sulphate collector is connected to the first inlet of the ammonium sulphate collector of the first drying step, and the outlet of the cyclohexanone oxime collector is connected to the inlet of the separator of the first step with a flow sensor and a valve, the first outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of the ammonium sulphate collector of the first step, and the second outlet is connected to the cyclohexanone oxime collector of the first step, which is connected by a pipe to a pump and a vortex mixer to which ammonium sulphate is also fed, with a flow sensor and a valve, hydroxylamine sulphate with a valve and ammonia with a flow sensor and a valve, installed in front of a heat exchanger, after which medium pH and temperature sensors are installed, and the outlet of the vortex mixer is connected to the inlet of the separator of the second drying step with a phase separating device, having pipes for collecting ammonium sulphate and cyclohexanone oxime with collectors; the outlet of the ammonium sulphate collector is connected to the inlet of the ammonium sulphate collector of the second step with a pump, and the outlet of the cyclohexanone oxime collector is connected to the inlet of the cyclohexanone oxime collector of the second step with pressure and temperature sensors, connected to a filter and a pump for feeding cyclohexanone oxime for regrouping; control is carried out by setting flow rate of cyclohexanone oxime for drying, ammonium sulphate into the first and second drying steps, pH of the medium, concentration of residual cyclohexanone in cyclohexanone oxime and valves for feeding cyclohexanone oxime, ammonium sulphate to the first and second drying steps, ammonia and hydroxylaminesulphate are actuated, respectively.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of oleum and ammonia.

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SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of extracting and purifying caprolactam from a mixture with water and impurities with trichloroethylene from lactam oil with subsequent re-extraction of caprolactam with water. Extraction is controlled in two stages connected to each other while feeding lactam oil, trichloroethylene and condensate to extractors of the first stage and re-extraction of caprolactam from trichloroethylene with water at the second stage with removal of caprolactam to the next stages, further comprising a pump for feeding lactam oil with a flow sensor and a valve, a pump for feeding regenerated trichloroethylene with a flow sensor and a valve, a pump for feeding circulation trichloroethylene with a flow sensor and a valve; a device for feeding a weak trichloroethylene solution into the middle part of the oscillating extractor of the first stage with a temperature sensor whose first output is connected to a pipe for feeding the raffinate into the rotory extractor of the first stage with a temperature sensor, and the second output is connected to the phase separation device of the oscillating extractor of the first stage, connected to the separator of the first stage, the first output of which is connected to the top part of the oscillating and rotary extractor of the second stage with temperature sensors, and the second output is connected to the middle part of the rotary extractor of the second stage, wherein regenerated trichloroethylene is fed into the top part of the rotary extractor of the second stage; a pump for feeding condensate with a flow sensor and a valve to the output of the caprolactam solution in trichloroethylene from the oscillating extractor of the first stage, the output of the rotary extractor of the first stage and through a pipe with a sensor and a valve to the middle part of the oscillating extractor of the second stage, into the bottom part of which condensate is fed from the collector with a sensor and a valve; wherein the output of the rotary extractor of the first stage is connected to the phase separation device of the rotary extractor of the first stage, connected to the separator of the second stage, the first output of which is connected to the top part of the oscillating extractor of the second stage, and the second output is connected to the collector; outputs of the bottom part of the oscillating and rotary extractors of the second stage are connected to the phase separation device of oscillating and rotary extractor, connected to the collector for distilling off trichloroethylene from water; the output of the top part of the oscillating extractor of the second stage is connected through the collector to the pump for distilling of trichloroethylene; wherein a pump with a flow sensor and a valve feed into the bottom part of the oscillating extractor a temperature sensor for distilling off ammonium sulphate, ammonium sulphate solution from the regrouping and neutralisation stage, wherein from the bottom part the stream is fed through the device for feeding weak trichloroethylene solution into the middle part of the oscillating extractor of the first stage, and ammonium sulphate solution from the top part of the oscillating extractor is fed into the ammonium sulphate collector, wherein the flow rate of lactam oil to extractors of the first stage is set and the flow rate of the regenerated and circulation trichloroethylene and condensate into extractors of the first and second stages is respectively corrected by adjusting the valve; flow rate of ammonium sulphate from the regrouping and neutralisation stage is set and corrected depending the flow rate to the extractor.

EFFECT: high efficiency, improved quality and reduced loss of caprolactam is achieved by introducing a distribution device which enables to feed streams to different points of extractors.

1 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel method of controlling the caprolactam distillation process, involving controlling the process of three-step distillation of caprolactam in the presence of an alkali, comprising collectors, evaporators, steam ejectors, condensers, while feeding crude caprolactam and steam and removing purified caprolactam, condensate, connected by pipes, further comprising pumps for feeding crude caprolactam and alkali with flow sensors, a valve and a filter; a packed column of dehydrated caprolactam for the first evaporator; condensers for the second evaporator; a high-boiling impurity evaporator connected to the third evaporator; a pump for feeding dehydrated caprolactam with a flow sensor and a valve to the second evaporator; a pump for feeding crude caprolactam with a flow sensor and a calve to the third step; a pump for feeding purified caprolactam with a flow sensor, a valve and filters; a pump for feeding wastes to the next steps; vacuum metres; a temperature sensor and a pressure sensor with valves for feeding steam into the evaporator, mounted on pipes; flow of crude caprolactam and alkali into the evaporators is set, as well as limiting values of temperature, residual pressure, pressure of heating steam in the evaporators and steam ejectors; current deviation of said parameters is determined and the valves for feeding steam into the evaporators and steam ejectors are adjusted accordingly, and purified caprolactam is directed further and wastes are taken for neutralisation.

EFFECT: method increases efficiency of distilling crude caprolactam and quality of the output caprolactam.

5 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: temperature parameter is measured. The temperature parameter is a profile of reactor sections wall temperatures on duration of a heating or a cooling stage for each section of the reactor. The actual temperature parameter is compared with the specified one. The specified profile of temperatures for each section of the reactor is calculated. Depending on the value of mismatch, the flow of a heat carrier or a cooling agent into the reactor is modified.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve quality of delayed coking reactor heating or cooling process control, and to double delayed coking reactor service life.

1 dwg, 9 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: rubber is extracted from latex continuously by mixing latex with a coagulant. Consumption of coagulant is varied depending on the given turbidity value of serum (primary serum), which is maintained by the amount of coagulant fed. The given turbidity value of primary serum is adjusted depending on the turbidity of the serum released (secondary serum) towards the minimum consumption of coagulant to obtain minimum turbidity of the released serum.

EFFECT: method of controlling the coagulation process enables to reduce contamination of waste water through loss of partially coagulated latex with minimum consumption of coagulants.

2 dwg, 6 ex

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: control method includes units and devices with functional division of a subsystem of information collection and input from a process object and distribution of material flows among production capabilities. The method may be recommended for usage of natural gas, atmospheric air, process gases in production of ammonia, caprolactam, ammonia nitrate, ammonia sulfate, polyamide and its derivatives, technical fabric, cord thread, engineering plastics and polyamide granulate.

EFFECT: expansion of method functional capabilities and higher efficiency of produced goods control.

7 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: instrument making.

SUBSTANCE: fuel flow and calorific power, as well as steam line pressure are measured and calculated, at the same time additionally water flow and temperature in a pipeline to a deaerator are measured, as well as water flow and temperature in a pipeline from a deaerator to a steam generator.

EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities.

1 dwg

FIELD: instrument making.

SUBSTANCE: adjustment of working potential parametres includes serial triple changes of voltage, current frequency and intervals of current interruption. At that values of energy consumption by object or its efficiency are recorded during each change of current parametres. Then current parametres are optimised.

EFFECT: reduced energy expenditures and improved efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in halurgic production. The method of controlling the process of producing potassium chloride involves control of input streams, distribution of a weak salt solution, determination of temperature of a hot saturated solution and concentration of salts in said solution. Further, density of the hot saturated alkali is measured. The density value is used to calculate content of magnesium chloride in the alkali. The amount of water required for setting the content of magnesium chloride to the control value and compensating for excess mother alkali is determined. The calculated value is used as a setting in the system for controlling consumption of water and excess mother alkali is taken out of the process:

where is content of magnesium chloride in the hot saturated alkali, %; ρ is density of alkali, t/m3; A=-a0t2+a1t-a2; B=-b0t2+ b1t-b2; C=-c0t2+c1t-c2; where A, B, C, a0, a1, a2, b0, b1, b2, c0, c1, c2 are coefficients; t is temperature of the alkali, °C; where is water consumption, t; GA is the control value of alkali consumption, t; is the control value of content of magnesium chloride in the hot saturated alkali, %.

EFFECT: invention increases accuracy of controlling the process of dissolving an electrolyte used to produce potassium chloride and synthetic carnallite produced during electrolysis in the production of magnesium metal.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining pure lanthanum hexaboride is implemented by combined electrodeposition of lanthanum and boron from chloride molten metal on the cathode and their further interaction at atomic level. The process is performed in three-electrode quartz cell, where a tungsten bar serves as a cathode; a glassy carbon bar sealed in pyrex glass serves as a comparison electrode; a glassy carbon melting pot serves as anode and at the same time as a container. Synthesis of ultradisperse powder of lanthanum hexaboride is performed by means of controlled potential electrolysis from equimole KCl-NaCl melt containing lanthanum trichloride and potassium fluoroborate in the environment of cleaned and dried argon at potentials of -2.0 to -2.6 V relative to glassy carbon comparison electrode at the temperature of 700±10°C.

EFFECT: obtaining pure target product owing to good solubility of background electrolyte in water; reduction of electric power costs.

2 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of titanium electrode (cathode) used for electrolysis of liquid involves pre-treatment of titanium electrode surface in water solution containing 300-350 g/l of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, 40-50 g/l of acid ammonium fluoride during 1-2 minutes at the temperature of 80-90°C, cleaning with hot water and further treatment in water solution of ammonium fluoride 20-25 g/l and 1-1.5 g/l of urotropine during 0.5-1 minute at the temperature of 18-25°C. The above method involves treatment of electrode surface of any shape, including flat, cylindrical, meshed, coaxial and bar ones, etc.

EFFECT: improvement of catalytic activity of electrode surface, which provides low overpressure at the specified current density, is the technical result of the proposed invention.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: bipolar electrolysis unit includes a block of electrodes equally spaced from each other and provided with holes for passage of hydrogen-oxygen mixture and electrolyte. Block of electrodes is placed in a shell from dielectric material. Shell encloses the electrodes without any gaps. The shell is submerged into the housing of electrolysis unit with electrolyte. At the same time, the housing with electrolyte can contain at least one additional block of electrodes in shells. Blocks of electrodes are electrically connected to each other in parallel or in series.

EFFECT: improvement of an electrolysis unit.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. In order to remove silicon compounds from water NaCl brines, first, pH lower than 3 is created with hydrochloric acid in weak brine. Iron (III) chloride or other trivalent iron compounds are added to acidified brine. Prepared brine is continuously introduced into mixing dissolution reactor, in which in addition to brine undissolved salt is placed. Fresh salt is added into reactor periodically in portions. Formed concentrated brine is introduced into mixing buffer tank. PH from 5 to 8 is supported in buffer tank. From buffer tank flow of concentrated brine is continuously withdrawn and filtered, filtrate is discharged. Device for removal of silicon compounds from solution contains reactor of salt dissolution, mixing device in it, charging device for supply of salt into reactor, feeding point for supply of weak brine into reactor, feeding points for supply of hydrochloric acid and iron (III) chloride into line of weak brine supply, buffer tank for concentrated brine, mixing device in buffer tank, hydrodynamic connection between dissolution reactor and buffer tank and discharging device for filter cake, discharge channel and transport mechanism for delivery of concentrated brine from buffer tank into filter.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase rate and simplify process of purification of brine, intended for electrolysis.

15 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of conducting electrolysis employs at least two groups of electrodes which are electrically connected to a power supply, each having at least one pair of oppositely charged electrodes, wherein during electrolysis, an electrical circuit is switched, which enables alternate connection of groups of electrodes to the power supply, wherein during operation of the first group of electrodes, the second group and other groups are disconnected, after which the second group is connected to the power supply and the first and other groups are disconnected. The periodicity of alternate connection of groups of electrodes to the power supply is equal to 0.05-1.0 s. Also disclosed is an apparatus for conducting electrolysis, having an electrolysis cell and switching means, which enables alternate connection of the same groups of electrodes to the power supply while simultaneously disconnecting others.

EFFECT: high efficiency of using electric power owing to low heat loss caused by time lag of a specific electrochemical process.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas-flame processing of materials with hydrogen-oxygen mix, particularly, to electrolytic cells to this end. Electrolytic cell may be filter-press or box-type device. Note here that some electrodes of the cell are unipolar while some of them are bipolar electrodes. It consists of flat or shaped parallel electrodes with holes of slots making gas and electrolyte passages. Space between electrodes is filled with electrolyte while electric current is supplied to extreme electrodes. Said electrodes are interconnected by current conducting buses to make sets, two extreme of which comprise n+1 electrodes while other include 2n+1 electrodes, where n is natural number. Note here that central electrodes of every said set with 2n+1 electrodes are located between two adjacent sets while other 2n electrodes of this set are arranged at the center of gap between electrodes of adjacent sets with contact with said buses.

EFFECT: multifold reduction in area (diameter) of electrodes rated at 100 A and higher.

1 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device is composed of vertical cylinder divided by two vertical baffles into three chambers. Branch pipes arranged concentrically one in another are attached from below to centre of both baffles. Lower chamber is partially filled with fluid. Note here that end of the branch pipe attached to lower baffle is immersed in lower chamber fluid while branch pipe attached to upper baffle extends through medium chamber and into the branch pipe attached to lower baffle and either does not reach fluid surface in outer branch pipe or terminates several centimetres below fluid surface. Lower and medium chambers are communicated via long tube.

EFFECT: compact design, higher reliability, ease of maintenance.

3 cl, 2 dwg

Hydrogen generator // 2473716

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydrogen generator comprises casing accommodating runs of plates separated by gaps to form impermeable cells. Note here the plate making the first wall of every cell is made from more noble material than plate making second wall of this cell. Note also that fist plate in runs makes anode to be connected to power supply. Note also that last plate in runs makes cathode to be connected to power supply. Inlet of every cell allows electrolyte inflow into cell while outlet of every cell allows electrolyte and hydrogen gas efflux from cell.

EFFECT: galvanising reaction, companion to electrolysis, facilitates power of hydrogen gas escape.

15 cl, 4 dwg

Hydrogen generator // 2473716

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydrogen generator comprises casing accommodating runs of plates separated by gaps to form impermeable cells. Note here the plate making the first wall of every cell is made from more noble material than plate making second wall of this cell. Note also that fist plate in runs makes anode to be connected to power supply. Note also that last plate in runs makes cathode to be connected to power supply. Inlet of every cell allows electrolyte inflow into cell while outlet of every cell allows electrolyte and hydrogen gas efflux from cell.

EFFECT: galvanising reaction, companion to electrolysis, facilitates power of hydrogen gas escape.

15 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to disinfectant compositions and specifically to a highly stable acidic aqueous solution, a method and apparatus for production thereof. The solution is prepared using a fluid medium treatment apparatus having at least one chamber (7), at least one anode (4) and at least one cathode (3) inside the chamber (7). The anode (4) and the cathode (3) are at least in part made from a first metallic material. At least one of said at least one cathode (3) and anode (4) have a coating with nanoparticles (5) of one or more metals.

EFFECT: obtained electrolytic acid water has high stability of its disinfecting action for a relatively long period of time, has low cost of production and is easy to produce.

16 cl, 5 dwg, 10 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to waste water treatment techniques. The method involves treating water with sodium phosphate in the presence of fibrillated cellulose fibres in amount of 100 pts.wt per 100-900 pts.wt of the formed aluminium phosphate. Water can be pre-treated with sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of said fibres. The treatment product is separated by pressure flotation.

EFFECT: invention provides high treatment efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex

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