Combined method of treating waste water containing organic contaminants


FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of waste water containing organic contaminants in industry, agriculture and household conditions. The waste water treatment method involves treatment of the initial waste water with a coagulant and flocculant, separation thereof into sludge and clarified waste water. Further, the clarified waste water is treated with nanostructured boehmite until achieving a given degree of purity of the clarified waste water and then separated into purified waste water and a solid residue. The solid residue, which contains contaminated nanostructured boehmite, is collected and regenerated, while undergoing supercritical aqueous oxidation. The regenerated nanostructured boehmite is collected for subsequent recycling.

EFFECT: method enables recycling of treated waste water and nanostructured boehmite.

12 cl

 

The technical field

The invention relates to chemical and agricultural industries and can be used in the development of technology of purification of liquid effluents industrial, agricultural and domestic enterprises, including organic pollution of any type.

The level of technology

The problem of wastewater with organic contaminants produced at industrial and agricultural enterprises, and similar domestic wastewater is becoming increasingly relevant due to the increased environmental requirements to protect the environment from chemical pollution. This problem is particularly relevant in regions with high population density and in areas with intensive livestock production, where necessary to prevent organic pollution of wastewater into water bodies and rivers.

A known method of purification of wastewater, including wastewater treatment reagent (coagulant or flocculant) with subsequent separation of sewage sludge and clarified waste water (see application for a patent of the Russian Federation for invention №95112826 on CL C02F 1/52, from 27.07.1997). Different variants of this solution is most commonly used in wastewater treatment. But the use of the wastewater treatment reagents requires the development of tools for the protection of nature from unreacted reactants and prod the mswb reaction reagent waste.

A known method of purification of waste water containing organic impurities, comprising mixing the waste water with a sorbent-based zeolite, homogenization of the mixture with a change in pH from 3 to 10, re-mixing with a sorbent-based zeolite and subsequent separation of the treated wastewater in the settling tank for sludge and clarified waste water, and at the same time in the sump serves the chemicals (coagulants and flocculants). Solid sludge can be processed further by known methods. The clarified wastewater is subjected to additional treatment (ozone, ultraviolet radiation and the like) to reduce the microflora. For example, patent RF №2116264 on CL C02F 9/00, C02F 1/28, C02F 1/52, from 27.07.1997. In this case, fewer reagents noted above but the problem remains.

There is a method of treatment of industrial wastes containing organic pollutants, based on the direct oxidation of such wastes to carbon dioxide and water using supercritical water oxidation, in accordance with which these wastes containing organic impurities are mixed in the reactor with water and a liquid containing oxygen, at a pressure of 220 atmospheres and at a temperature of 400-600°C, while water is in a supercritical state, and maintained at these conditions until the destruction of the organic is ratnani not less than 99.9-99.99% of (U.S. patent No. 4543190 on CL C02F 1/00, C02F 1/16 from 14.09.1985). This method can provide almost complete decomposition of all organic contaminants that satisfies the requirements of environmental protection of nature, but at the wastewater treatment of industrial enterprises and especially for wastewater agricultural enterprises and domestic wastewater heat released by the oxidation of organic pollutants, may not be sufficient to maintain the oxidation reaction, and will need to bring the heat in the zone of oxidation (in the reactor).

The known method of water purification from impurities, including water treatment sorbent containing boehmite, providing complete cleaning of the water from contamination (published international application WO 03/068385 on CL B01J 20/08 from 21.08.2003). Boehmite is used in the form of granules with a size of 0.001 mm At such sizes of granules absorption properties of boehmite are not being fully utilized. It should also be noted that the high content in the purified water pollution, as is the case in the wastewater, boehmite will quickly exhaust its absorption properties, and will require frequent replacement of boehmite, which makes use of boehmite economically disadvantageous.

The invention

The aim of the invention is to develop a cost-effective method of wastewater treatment that meets modern ecologists the definition of the requirements to protect the environment from chemical pollution, ensuring the reduction of organic pollutants in the effluents to be reused safely used in agriculture or in production processes or to treated waste water can be returned to the natural water cycle without increasing pollution of natural waters by organic pollution and interaction products cleansing reagents with sewage.

To solve this problem is proposed combined method of treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants, including:

primary processing of raw wastewater coagulant and flocculant,

the separation of treated sewage sludge and clarified waste water,

the selection of the sludge prior to disposal,

processing the clarified wastewater nanostructured boehmite with the absorption of organic contaminants particles of nanostructured boehmite until the desired degree of purification of the clarified waste water,

the separation of the treated, clarified wastewater treated wastewater and solid residue containing contaminated nanostructured boehmite,

collection of solid precipitate containing contaminated nanostructured boehmite,

regenerative nanostructured boehmite, which collected solid residue is subjected to light kriticheskomu water oxidation to the complete oxidation of organic compounds, absorbed nanostructured boehmite,

and collecting the regenerated nanostructured boehmite for subsequent reuse.

When this regenerated boehmite return to the processing of clarified wastewater.

Preferably as coagulants use aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, or aluminum trihydrate Al(OH)3or their mixture.

The original wastewater is treated with a coagulant and a flocculant to achieve COD no higher than 2000 MgO2/HP

In addition, the processing of the clarified wastewater is carried out to achieve the specified thresholds COD.

While processing the clarified wastewater is carried out to obtain COD no higher than 285 MgO2/HP

While processing the clarified wastewater is carried out to obtain COD no higher than 30 MgO2/HP

It is preferable that the supercritical water oxidation of contaminated boehmite are a mixture of water with a gas containing oxygen, at a temperature amounts to 400-650°C and the pressure 22-27 MPa.

In addition, supercritical water oxidation of contaminated add the hydrogen peroxide.

In addition, the sludge is subjected to supercritical water oxidation with a mixture of water with a gas containing oxygen, at a temperature amounts to 400-650°C and the pressure 22-27 MPa.

When zweckrational water ocil the Institute of silt add the hydrogen peroxide.

It is preferable that the supercritical water oxidation of sludge are together with the supercritical water oxidation of contaminated boehmite.

The present invention is at least three-stage wastewater treatment.

Wastewater treatment starts with processing the original wastewater with high COD coagulants and flocculants to reduce COD five to ten times until the level at which it is possible to effectively absorb remaining in the clarified wastewater organic particulate nanostructured boehmite to reduce the consumption of boehmite, compared to direct the wastewater treatment boehmite. An additional advantage of the proposed method of water purification is the regeneration of contaminated boehmite using supercritical water oxidation, which gives the possibility to reuse the same boehmite without disrupting its structure and due to this many times to reduce the consumption of boehmite for wastewater treatment and lead it to achieve any minimum contamination of treated water for a minimum amount of boehmite used in the wastewater treatment process that makes it economically advantageous to use the boehmite to clean any wastewater, including for treatment of large volumes of sewage farms and ptice the BRIC and domestic sewage.

An additional advantage of the proposed approach lies in the fact that in the process of supercritical water oxidation oxidation are not clarified waste water, by weight exceed the contained organic pollutants, and the collected solid residue, which contains the minimum amount of water. This reduces energy costs for maintaining the process of supercritical water oxidation, because there is no need to heat large amounts of water to supercritical temperature, and can support the process due to the heat released during the oxidation of the absorbed boehmite organic contaminants.

At these temperatures and pressures by intensive oxidation of organic pollutants of all types. The intensity of the process of supercritical water oxidation of organic pollutants can be intensified by adding a potent oxidant, for example hydrogen peroxide.

Thus, it is possible to guarantee any degree of purification of wastewater containing organic pollution of any type.

The implementation of the invention

The above objectives of the present invention will be more apparent from this detailed here. However, it should be understood that the detailed description and specific examples, the poison indicating preferred embodiments of the present invention, presented for illustration only, as for specialists in the art will be apparent from this description that the possible changes and modifications within the essence and scope of the present invention.

The original wastewater have the COD above 40,000 MgO2/HP

Wastewater treatment are in several stages.

The source of waste water is treated with a coagulant, for example, aluminum sulfate Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, aluminum trihydrate Al(OH)3or their mixture and a flocculant, for example, drug Besfloc company Kolon life science (South Korea), for example C. In-process control of COD treated wastewater and the treatment is carried out to achieve COD no higher than 2000 MgO2/L. depending on the requirements for the degree of wastewater treatment with coagulants and flocculants can lead to the achievement of COD 500-800 MgO2/L. the dosing of coagulants and flocculants in accordance with the conventional technology. Next, the treated wastewater is separated into solid sludge and clarified waste water. The separation can be conducted by any known means: filtering using any suitable filters, holding tanks, etc.

The sludge and clarified waste water is further processed separately from each other.

Depending on to skretny requirements for cleaning the sludge can be sent for recycling, to produce organic fertilizer/compost, or to obtain biogas, or used for any other purpose.

At high environmental requirements environmental protection sludge can be subjected to supercritical water oxidation.

Clarified waste water with reduced COD treated nanostructured boehmite, which mix the clarified waste water with nanoparticles of boehmite or miss clarified waste water through a layer of boehmite nanoparticles. Processing the clarified wastewater nanostructured boehmite are to achieve the required degree of wastewater treatment.

The degree of wastewater treatment is determined by the residual COD.

For example, if it is assumed hereinafter to produce a clarified waste water for field irrigation, wastewater treatment lead to the COD effluent did not exceed 285 MgO2/L. If you want to produce a treated waste water into water bodies, the COD should be reduced to 30 MgO2/l and below.

At the end of processing the clarified wastewater nanostructured boehmite separate contaminated boehmite and send it to regeneration.

Regeneration of boehmite are using supercritical water oxidation reactor containing a mixture of water and oxygen-containing gas, in the example of the air, at supercritical condition of water. For example, the oxidation process is conducted at temperatures amounts to 400-650°C and the pressure 22-27 MPa (220-270 ATM). At these temperatures all organic compounds contained in wastewater, turn into an ecologically safe water and carbon dioxide. Nitrogen-containing organic compounds and ammonium substances decompose to gaseous nitrogen. Nitrogen oxides are not formed as the temperature is insufficient for their education. Chlorine, fluorine, phosphorus and sulfur from organic substances form acid residues and is easily excreted in the form of salts, usually by deposition on the boehmite nanoparticles. If necessary they can be removed by adding to the solution after the oxidation process of the respective cations. The metals are in the form of inorganic salts.

The completeness of chemical transformations and their high speed (one-two minutes) in the processes Squaw associated with the unique properties of supercritical water and the fact that the reactions take place in the conditions of a molecular dispersion of the reactants in a homogeneous high-temperature fluid of low density. Oxidation reactions of organic ectothermic, which allows efficient use of the heat of reaction as to maintain the temperature of the process and to compensate for the energy consumption for heating of the reactants.

Recovered boehmite saves nanostructure as supercritical water oxidation is one of the ways to obtain nanostructured boehmite. In addition, when used as a coagulant of three-hydrate of aluminum Al(OH)3in the process of supercritical water oxidation of the aluminum trihydrate Al(OH)3is oxidized to obtain nanostructured boehmite, resulting in a number of boehmite when regeneration is increased.

Recovered boehmite can be used to process the clarified wastewater in this method of wastewater treatment, reducing the consumption of boehmite.

If you need to intensify the process of oxidation in the reactor add a potent oxidant, preferably hydrogen peroxide.

As already noted, the sludge may also be subjected to a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing a mixture of water and oxygen-containing gas, for example air, at supercritical condition of water. For example, the oxidation process is conducted at temperatures amounts to 400-650°C and the pressure 22-27 MPa (220-270 ATM). At these temperatures, as described above, all organic compounds contained in the sludge will turn into an ecologically safe water and carbon dioxide. Nitrogen-containing organic compounds and ammonium substances decompose emitting gaseous of nitrogen. Nitrogen oxides are not formed as the temperature is insufficient for their education. Chlorine, fluorine, phosphorus and sulfur from organic substances form acid residues and is easily excreted in the form of salts. If necessary they can be removed by adding to the solution after the oxidation process of the respective cations. The metals are in the form of inorganic salts.

Preferably supercritical water oxidation of sludge is carried out in cooperation with supercritical water oxidation of contaminated boehmite in a single reactor, as in this case, it is easier to achieve a self-sustaining reaction of supercritical water oxidation.

Regenerated nanostructured boehmite return to the processing of clarified wastewater. Thus you can get any size clarified wastewater boehmite at a constant number of nanostructured boehmite in a cycle of purification that provides any degree of wastewater purification from organic pollutants.

Examples of implementation of the invention

In the following examples of carrying out the invention is a powder of aluminum hydroxide obtained by the combustion of aluminum in supercritical water environment (boehmite production of technological research Institute, "the aluminum Hydroxide - boehmite" THE 2133-001-76634032-2006). The content of the main component at least 99.8% of the mass. The size of the crystallite is not more than 100 Nm. Specific surface area of 70 m2/, in Addition used the boehmite of the Angarsk plant of catalysts (specific surface area 250 m2/g).

As the coagulant used aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3·18H2O and aluminum trihydrate Al(OH)3. Before the introduction of wastewater coagulant is dissolved in the selected volume of treated sewage (in laboratory experiments in 20-30 ml of wastewater) and only then add the resulting solution to the main volume of treated wastewater. Then the whole mixture was thoroughly stirred to obtain a homogeneous mass (in laboratory experiments stirred manually, at least for 5 minutes).

As flocculants used drugs Besfloc company Kolon life science (South Korea), in particular flocculant C. Pre-flocculant dissolved in minimum amount of distilled water and then injected into the bulk of the treated wastewater. Then the whole mixture was thoroughly stirred (under laboratory conditions for 5 minutes). After sedimentation the main mass of the precipitate, the suspension is decanted and filtered clarified waste water and separate sludge.

The content of organic substances was evaluated by the value of chemical oxygen demand (COD). They used standard method of determination of COD based on RD 52.24.21-2007 "GUIDANCE DOCUMENT. CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND IN WATERS. THE METHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF THE TITRIMETRIC METHOD.

Chemical oxygen demand - the amount of oxygen consumed in the oxidation of water contained in the organic and inorganic substances strong oxidizing agents. If you eliminate the influence of inorganic substances or to amend on their content, the amount of COD characterizes the total concentration in water of organic substances that are oxidizable in the conditions of the titration data oxidant. The highest degree of oxidation is achieved in boiling acidic solution of bichromate of potash, which is used to monitor the effectiveness of the present invention. However, there may be used, and other strong oxidants. The amount of oxygen in milligrams per cubic decimeter, equivalent to the consumption of bichromate oxidation of organic substances, called bichromate oxidation. Because the degree of oxidation of most organic substances with bichromate of potash in these conditions close to 100%, the value of bichromate oxidation correlates well with the mass concentration of organic carbon (the latter value is approximately 2.5 times smaller than COD). Measurements based on the oxidation of organic substances with bichromate of potash in solution of sulfuric acid when heated in the presence of catalyst is of Ulfat silver. An excess of potassium bichromate is titrated with a solution of salt Mora and find the number of bichromate of potash consumed in the oxidation of organic substances.

The value of COD (bichromate oxidation) X (mg O2/DM3) is found by the formula

where V1- the volume of salt solution Mora, used for titration of the blank experience, cm3;

V2- the volume of salt solution Mora, used for titration of the water sample, cm3;

M is the molar concentration of the salt solution Mora, mol/DM3The CDE;

V - volume aliquots of the water samples taken for execution, cm3;

8,0 - weight millimole the CDE oxygen, mg/mmol.

The amount of salts in the effluent was evaluated by the value of the specific electrical conductivity (SEC), which for dilute solutions and electrolytes linearly dependent on the concentration of salts in solution.

The effectiveness of the invention was tested on sewage farms and pharmaceutical companies.

When investigating the performance of the proposed method was subjected to purification of waste water of several companies.

Wastewater pig-breeding complex "Canifarma" Zaraysk district of the Moscow region Wastewater was homogeneous liquid with a pungent odor of hydrogen sulfide. Over time she defended and was stratified. The index X Is To defend the upper part of the wastewater amounted to approximately 55,000 MgO 2/l, indicating a high content of organic compounds.

Waste water from the sedimentation tank agro Przemysl district of Kaluga region. This waste water is already partially oxidized during storage in the tank and had a COD of about 48000 MgO2/HP wastewaters contained inclusions that are visible to the naked eye.

Wastewater cattle farm JSC "Banowsky" Kolomna district, Moscow oblast

Wastewater pharmaceutical company CJSC "NITO-PHARM" (, Saratov). Flows are volatile composition and represent the washing water equipment and scrap production.

Selected sample of wastewater was treated with coagulants aluminum sulfate Al2(SO4)3·18H2O (aluminum sulfate) and aluminum trihydrate Al(OH)3with concentration up to 30 mg per liter. Greater efficiency showed the aluminum trihydrate Al(OH)3.

Using coagulants, managed a few times to reduce the COD of the feed wastewater and get clarified waste water with a COD of up to 12,000 MgO2/L. When the joint use of coagulants and flocculants (flocculant brand C) COD clarified wastewater decreased to 6000-5500 MgO2/l, which is already effectively used for further purification of the clarified waste water of nanostrukturirovannye is boehmite.

In addition, in laboratory conditions, under the influence of coagulants and flocculants obtained reduction of COD up to 2000 MgO2/HP

Further processing of the clarified waste water was carried out using nanostructured boehmite. The degree of purification of the clarified waste water was periodically monitored by the change of COD and the change in the specific electrical conductivity (SEC).

A sample of the clarified wastewater is mixed with nanostructured boehmite, and cleaning the clarified wastewater from organic impurities was carried out with constant stirring of the suspension. Alternatively, you can use the filter layer of nanostructured boehmite or other similar technical means providing a sufficiently long contact nanostrukturirovannogo boehmite with the clarified wastewater.

The experiments were carried out changing the content of nanostructured boehmite suspension from 5 to 25 grams of boehmite in 100 ml of treated wastewater at the source COD treated wastewater from 900 MgO2/l to 12,000 MgO2/HP

As the experiments showed, the number of carbon nanostructured boehmite organic substances depends on the time of mixing (processing clarified wastewater boehmite), species b is Mita and its contents in suspension.

As in conventional wastewater treatment technologies, increasing the duration of processing the clarified wastewater nanostructured boehmite contributed to the reduction in the content of organic pollutants in the effluents, and during the first 20 min is observed rapid decline of COD, and after 30-40 min of processing the COD remains almost constant. Similar results were obtained when controlling UEP treated, clarified wastewater.

In laboratory studies obtained reduction of COD to acceptable sanitary standards. In particular, when cleaning nanostructured boehmite for effluent COD were obtained 285-290 MgO2/l, which meets the sanitary requirements for wastewater treatment, allow the discharge into the sewer system. In laboratory conditions was also achieved cleanup clarified wastewater nanostructured boehmite to COD 30-40 MgO2/HP

Regenerative contaminated boehmite was carried out on the installation of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with loading in the installation of 400 ml of water and 50 g of contaminated boehmite. Process parameters Squaw correspond to the previously mentioned parameters (temperature amounts to 400-650°C and pressure 22-27 MPa). The process was carried out with the addition of air in a quantity sufficient to oxidize organicskincarepro to water and carbon dioxide. Direct supercritical water oxidation of contaminated boehmite with operating parameters was carried out for 5-10 minutes At the end of supercritical water oxidation was determined by the COD in the condensate in the reactor and the absorption properties of the regenerated boehmite.

The experiments showed that during the specified time processing at specified parameters of the process Squaw is possible to reduce the COD of the condensate to 150 MgO2/l Obtained in these conditions regenerated nanostructured boehmite showed good absorption properties, are not inferior to original the nanostructured boehmite, giving the opportunity to use it for cleaning the clarified wastewater and source of wastewater.

With the increased content of the air and adding to the reactor Squaw highly active oxidizing agent, particularly hydrogen peroxide, the COD condensate decreased to 20-30 MgO2/l, which confirms that using supercritical water oxidation, can be almost completely clean the water from organic pollutants. Obtained under these conditions regenerated nanostructured boehmite showed good absorption properties, which practically coincide with the absorption properties of the original nanostructured boehmite, giving the opportunity to use it for cleaning is all clarified wastewater.

The experiments fully confirm the industrial applicability of the proposed method of wastewater containing organic pollutants, and the use of recycled nanostructured boehmite to clean any waste water.

Obviously, you can use other coagulants, polyoxychloride, hydroxochloride aluminum, Penta-hydroxychloride aluminum and the like, coagulants based polymers, as well as various non-ionic, anyonee and cationic flocculants.

1. Combined method of treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants, including: primary processing of raw wastewater coagulant and flocculant, the division processed sewage sludge and clarified waste water, the selection of sludge for further processing, the processing of the clarified wastewater nanostructured boehmite with the absorption of organic contaminants particles of nanostructured boehmite until the desired degree of purification of the clarified waste water, separation of the treated, clarified wastewater treated wastewater and solid residue containing contaminated nanostructured boehmite, collection of solid precipitate containing contaminated nanostructured boehmite, regenerative nanostructured boehmite, which collected solid sieges is subjected to supercritical water oxidation to the complete oxidation of organic compounds, absorbed nanostructured boehmite, and collecting the regenerated nanostructured boehmite for subsequent reuse.

2. The method of claim 1, characterized in that the regenerated boehmite return to the processing of clarified wastewater.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as coagulants use aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, or aluminum trihydrate Al(OH)3or their mixture.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the source of waste water is treated with a coagulant and a flocculant to achieve COD no higher than 2000 MgO2/HP

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the processing of the clarified wastewater is carried out to achieve the specified thresholds COD.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the processing of the clarified waters of Staten lead to get COD no higher than 285 MgO2/HP

7. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the processing of the clarified wastewater is carried out to obtain COD no higher than 30 MgO2/HP

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the supercritical water oxidation of contaminated boehmite are a mixture of water with a gas containing oxygen, at a temperature amounts to 400-650°C and the pressure 22-27 MPa.

9. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that at supercritical water oxidation of contaminated boehmite add the peroxide odor is Yes.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the sludge is subjected to supercritical water oxidation with a mixture of water with a gas containing oxygen, at a temperature amounts to 400-650°C and the pressure 22-27 MPa.

11. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that when zweckrational water oxidation sludge add the hydrogen peroxide.

12. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the supercritical water oxidation of sludge are together with the supercritical water oxidation of contaminated boehmite.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for water treatment. Proposed method comprises interaction of water, ballast and flocculating agent in flocculation zone 1; introduction of mix in precipitation zone 11; removal of precipitate and ballast from precipitation zone bottom and directing it into mixing zone 19, mixing; withdrawing the mix of precipitate and ballast from zone 19 and feeding into hydraulic cyclone 26; feeding product from hydraulic cyclone bottom into flocculation zone 1; extracting portion of precipitate from hydraulic cyclone top section; circulating remaining portion of precipitate into intermediate zone 19; continuous measurement of concentration of contaminants in water and defining the amount of ballast required to get water of required quality. Proposed device comprises flocculation tank 1 with mixer 2; water feed pipeline 5 to feed water into said tank 1; settler 11 provided with top outlet channel 15; pipeline 21 to communicate settler bottom with intermediate tank 16 with mixer 20; pipeline 25 to communicated tank 19 with hydraulic cyclone 26; pipeline 30 to circulate portion of product from cyclone 26 into intermediate tank 19; pickups 40, 40a, 41, computer 41 for continuous determination and adjustment of ballast amount.

EFFECT: optimised process.

48 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment. Initial water is forced through coarse filter 1 into precleaner 2. Therefrom, water flows into inlet tank 3 provided with level pickups 4. Therefrom, water is forced by electrically driven pump 5 into fine diaphragm filters 6. Filtered water is fed into mixing and cavitation unit comprising cavitation mixer 7 with mix ozone with water and hydrodynamic cavitation unit 8. Besides ozone-air mix is fed therein from ozonator 9. Then, treated water is fed into UV treatment unit 12 to be forced therefrom by pump 11 into intermediate tank 10. Then, water is cleaned at UV diaphragm filters 13. Prior to feeding water to consuming equipment, it is kept in accumulation tanks 16.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, reduced costs.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding water for pretreatment from organic substances and active chlorine on a packed carbon filter and from suspended matter on a microfilter, further desalination of the water on two successive reverse-osmosis filters and post-treatment on an ion-exchange filter. The filtrate from the first reverse-osmosis filter with hardness of more than 0.5 mg-eq/l is returned through an intermediate vessel into the vessel for the starting water for re-treatment at the first reverse-osmosis filter, and at hardness of less than 0.5 mg-eq/l the filtrate from the first reverse-osmosis filter, before feeding into the input of the second reverse-osmosis filter, is corrected by alkanisation in an intermediate vessel to pH=8.3-9.0. The filtrate from the second reverse-osmosis filter is fed for post-treatment on the ion-exchange filter if said filtrate does not contain radioactive or chemically toxic contaminants, otherwise the filtrate is taken for decontamination.

EFFECT: longer life of the ion-exchange filter without reducing the service life of reverse-osmosis filters.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: system for biological filtration of man-made and natural water bodies has a regeneration zone in form of an artificially made natural filter for removing dirt and biological contaminants. Depending on the configuration of the regeneration zone, the filter has a wall or a shaft made from large rocks and/or blocks of insoluble rocks which form a reservoir filled with layers of granite gravel, crushed rock and screenings of fractions ranging from coarse to fine, as well as fine fractions of sand and schungite screenings. The layers are interlaid with geotextile. Mats on which Microzim bacteria are grown are laid. Pond water and coastal plants capable of cleaning water are grown on the surface of the regeneration zone. A plate-like water inlet is installed in the lower part of the system, said inlet being connected to a pump such that as water from the water body falls in the regeneration zone, is passes through all layers from top to bottom. The regeneration zone can be made in coastal places. The filtration area can be 1/3 of the water body.

EFFECT: invention facilitates self-treatment of a water body for several years while maintaining the natural balance.

3 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of treating recycled water from metallurgical production with high content of heavy metal phosphates and salts thereof, and can be used in metallurgical production. The method involves further reactant precipitation with lime milk and flocculant at pH=10.5-11.5, followed by packing the precipitate after selling in a sludge densifier and drying the precipitate on a press filter. Suspended substances are removed from the water on a filter with granular filler. The water is then demineralised on an ion-exchange filter filled with weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in Na form. The water is then purified on a fine filter and then desalinated on a two-step reverse osmosis apparatus at pH=7-7.5. Process water pressure at the first step of the reverse osmosis apparatus is equal to 20 kgf/cm2 and 55 kgf/cm2 at the second step. The purified water used is filtrate from the first step. The filtrate from the second step is returned for re-purification at the first step.

EFFECT: method increases quality of the purified water and efficiency of the process owing to low consumption of chemical agents.

4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to purification of industrial and tap waters and effluents of, for example, heavy metal ions, oil products and organic impurities by sorption. Proposed complex comprises contaminated water tank, clean water tank 9, chemical treatment tank 5, pump 3a and clarifying filter 7, all being intercommunicated by pipeline. Note here that chemical treatment tank 5 is communicated with galvanic coagulator 1 via pipeline whereon mounted are buffer tank 2 with scrap-trap function, second pump 3b and acoustic agitator 4. Note here that chemical treatment tank 5 is provided with additional pipeline that forms circulation circuit whereon hydraulic cyclone 6 is mounted. Said circulation circuit is communicated with pipeline section between pump 3a and clarifying filter 7. Hydraulic cyclone solid phase discharge branch pipe is communicated with chemical treatment tank 5, while hydraulic cyclone liquid phase discharge branch pipe 6 is communicated via pipeline with clarifying filter 7.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment. Proposed method comprises separating solid particles 1 from water and, at least, one filtration stage 2. Said separation is performed at rate exceeding 15 m/h by either precipitation or flotation. Note here that filtration 2 is performed directly on, at least, one micro- or ultra-filtration membrane. Proposed device comprises, at least, one settler, or, at least, one flotation tank 1 communicated with, at least, one micro bubble generator. Note here that filtration device 2 comprises first filtration device wherein first filtration stage occurs after separation of solid particles from water with the use of, at least, one micro- or ultra-filtration membrane. Besides, proposed device comprises coagulant injector 3 and, at least, one flocculation tank 4 communicated therewith to inject fine sand into flocculation tank, or before it. Settler 1 is communicated with clarified water discharge device 1b1 and clarifying sediment separator 1b2.

EFFECT: reduced filter soiling index and amount of involved equipment.

20 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reagent methods of treating dairy industry waste water containing organic compounds in high concentrations besides inorganic compounds. The method is realised by neutralising water with lime milk to pH 6.0-8.5 and an anionic flocculant based on polyacrylamide with molecular weight of not less than 15·106 and in amount of not less than 0.01 mg/l is added. The precipitate is separated.

EFFECT: method increases degree of purity of waste water with high concentration of fat and protein to up to 99%.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: system for combined treatment of liquid includes a magnetic treatment device made in form of a centrifugal pump whose output is connected to a spraying device fitted in a tank with an ultraviolet radiation source. The centrifugal pump has a housing made from non-magnetic material and blades fitted on a shaft. Permanent magnets are fitted around the housing. At least parts of neighbouring magnets are radially oppositely magnetised. The permanent magnets are fitted on a removable ring made from non-magnetic material, for example polymer material.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of combined treatment of liquid, easier manufacturing of the magnetic treatment device.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method lies in usage of titanous coagulant containing oxides, hydroxides, sulphates, titanium oxyhydrosulphates, chlorides and titanium, aluminium and silicon oxyhydrochlorides for purification of oil-containing oilfield saltwater up to potable water quality. The purification technology includes coagulation and clarification; at first the two-stage floatation is carried out including water purification from oil products in the first stage and adding of the water solution of flocculent - calcined soda and/or lime in the amount not less than 100 g of calcined soda and not less than 100 g of lime on a dry basis per 1 m3 of the purified water on the second stage; after completing the second stage the purified water settling is carried out up to precipitation of the mechanical admixtures and hardness salts, then coagulation is implemented by adding to the clarified oilfield water of the titanous coagulant solution as in point 1 in the amount not less than 20 g on a dry basis per 1 m3 of the purified water up to decrease of oil products content in the purified water up to less than 0.05 g/m3. Then the final water purification is carried out by method of reverse osmosis up to achieving of potable water quality. The complex system for purification includes the devices needed for methods implementation with contact clarifier being connected through high-pressure pump with membrane units of reverse osmosis, settler being connected with inclined floatator having not less than 10 floatation chamber. The pipe-line connecting the contact clarifier with settler is provided with not less than 4 coupling positioned on the distance not less than 1 m of the contact clarifier inlet and intended for flocculent feed.

EFFECT: decontamination and decrease of oil products content in the purified water up to value best than 0,05 mg/l corresponding to the standards of environmental safety without excessive capital and operating costs.

8 cl, 2 dwg, 14 tbl, 11 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in small-size continuous purification plants for precipitating phosphorus from waste water, particularly household waste water. An apparatus, which is connected to the small-size purification plant, has a pumping tank (1), a discharge pump (2) for draining the pumping tank, a chemical reservoir (6) and a dosing pump (5) for the chemical coagulant which is meant for feeding the chemical coagulant from the chemical reservoir (6) into the waste water discharged from the pumping tank (1), wherein separation of the formed residue of chemical substance from water released from said purification plant takes place in the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The apparatus can entirely be placed inside the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The dosing pump (5) is configured to pump the chemical coagulant into a stream generated by the discharge pump (2) during the entire or almost entire operating cycle of the discharge pump (2).

EFFECT: invention provides complete mixing of treated water and reactant, increases the efficiency of precipitating phosphorus and enables to control the amount of chemical coagulant depending on fluctuations of the flow of waste water for efficient and simple precipitation of phosphorus.

11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in production of extra-pure quartz concentrate which is one of the main sources of contamination by fluorine, chlorine and salts containing fluorine and chlorine. The method is realised via reactant treatment in two steps. The first step involves neutralisation of acidic waste water with 23% NH4OH with separation of the SiO2 precipitate and formation of NH4F solution. At the second step, said solution is treated with 20% lime milk. The formed CaF2 precipitate and previously separated SiO2 precipitate are washed, dehydrated and removed from the process as end products. The 7-8% NH4OH solution obtained after separating the CaF2 precipitate and flush water are returned to the first step for reactant treatment of waste water to prepare the starting NH4OH solution. The 7-8% NH4OH solution formed at the second step is concentrated by evaporation to 23% and returned to the first reactant treatment step. The condensate obtained during evaporation is directed for preparation of 20% lime milk, washing the SiO2 precipitate and into recycling cycle of the main production.

EFFECT: invention enables to cut the volume of discharge of industrial wastes into the environment, prevents formation of non-recyclable sludge and also reduces consumption of fresh water during production and enables to obtain high-quality products used in different industries.

3 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to treatment of underground water from gases dissolved therein and can be used in water treatment. Source water containing hydrogen sulphide and impurities is fed through a pipe 1. The water is then fed into a floatation plant 3, having at least two chambers. At the first floatation step, a hydrogen sulphide neutraliser is fed through a nozzle 2 and at the second step, a chemical which facilitates precipitation of sulphates and sulphides is added. The treated water enters a settling tank 4, from where it is fed into a contact flocculator 6, having a gravel filling. The contact flocculator 6 is connected to the settling tank 4 through a nozzle 5, needed for feeding a flocculant.

EFFECT: group of inventions improves quality of treatment, simplifies and reduces the cost and labour input.

9 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of intention relates to water treatment and may be used in various industries. First, chlorinated coagulant is subjected to electrochemical treatment at membrane or diaphragm electrolysis unit 3 with insoluble electrodes to produce high-basic coagulant and gaseous chlorine. High-basic coagulant is mixed with water flow fed into settler 4 for coagulation and flocculation of undissolved suspensions and mechanical impurities. Gaseous chlorine withdrawn from electrolysis unit is fed into chlorine proportioner 6 to make bleaching water. Said water is fed for decontamination in cleaned water flow between said settler 4 and mechanical filter 8.

EFFECT: higher quality of purification.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to waste water treatment techniques. The method involves treating water with sodium phosphate in the presence of fibrillated cellulose fibres in amount of 100 pts.wt per 100-900 pts.wt of the formed aluminium phosphate. Water can be pre-treated with sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of said fibres. The treatment product is separated by pressure flotation.

EFFECT: invention provides high treatment efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of whatever effluents and may be used in oil production and processing industries, petrochemical industry, etc. Proposed device represents treatment system comprising intake chamber communicated with flotation assembly inlet and settling assembly as well as with unit distributing inert gas and gas-water mix communicated with flotation unit outlet and settling unit inlet. Note here that settling unit is composed of tight modules of thin-layer settlers while flotation unit is composed of a system of tight modules of flotation chamber with impeller-type dispersers. Note also that foam product collector assembly is equipped with inert gas feeder and communicates with flotation unit inlet, settling unit inlet and aforesaid distributing unit to make closed-circuit circulation system.

EFFECT: higher safety and efficiency.

17 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: methods are realised using a system comprising a mobile platform; an input pump for pumping a treatment stream through the system; a centrifugal separator operatively connected to the outlet of the input pump for treating the treatment stream under centrifugal forces; a borate filter operatively connected to the outlet of the centrifugal separator for filtering the treatment stream capable of removing at least a portion of borate when the treatment stream is at a pH of 8 or higher; and a chemical-additive subsystem capable of selectively adding one or more chemical agents to the treatment stream before the centrifugal separator, wherein the chemical agents can be selected so as to enable precipitation of dissolved ions selected from the group consisting of: sulphate, calcium, strontium or barium, magnesium, iron; and selectively adding a chemical agent to the treatment stream before the borate filter to increase the pH of the treatment stream to 8 or higher.

EFFECT: obtaining treated water with considerably low concentration of dissolved ions.

20 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for cleaning of natural (ground and surface) and technogenic waters from arsenic. The method includes oxidation on psilomelane of trivalent arsenic to pentavalent and subsequent sorption of the later on brucite. The oxidation of trivalent arsenic is performed by filtration through psilomelane layer or by addition of psilomelane sized less than 0.1 mm into treated water, mixing for 30-60 minutes with subsequent sediment separation. The sorption is performed by the way of filtration of treated water through the layer of brusite or by the way of addition of brucite sized 10:50 μm to treated water, mixing for 30 minutes and subsequent sedimentation separation.

EFFECT: high quality of water cleaning and costs reduction due to use of natural sorbent and available mineral catalyst of oxidation process.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in mining. In compliance with this method, underspoil acid sulphate-containing effluents are neutralised by 5%-lime milk to pH 9.4-9.5. Then, added are anionic flocculant in concentration of 5-8 mg/l and pyrite final tailings in concentration of 2.5-10 g/l. Produced mix is mixed and settled. After settling, water is divided into two flows. One flow is directed for tertiary treatment before discharge into water structures. Another flow is directed for irrigation of spoils for partial neutralisation of underspoil waters to form circulation flow. Degree of water circulation for spoil irrigation purposes makes 20-30%.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of lime milk and amount of formed sediments.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to neutralisation of subdump waters of mining enterprises. Proposed method comprises neutralising acid sulphate-containing effluents by line milk and precipitating suspended particles in the presence of anionic flocculant. Neutralisation is performed in several stages. Cleaned water is subjected to tertiary treatment by filtration in grain material and cleaning in biological ponds. Metal hydroxide sediments produced at different stages are placed in separate sections of slurry sites. Proposed device comprises hydraulic cyclone 1, first stage settler 2 with reagents for proportioning lime milk 9 and precipitate circulation system 19, n identical settles 3-6 with reagents for proportioning lime milk 9 and flocculant 11, where n equals the amount of selectively extracted metals, slurry sites for dehydration of gypsum 15 and for selective dehydration of metal hydroxides 17, filter with grain structure 7 and back flushing system that includes flushing pump 13 and flushing water settler 14, biological ponds 8 with settling zone and tertiary treatment sections with higher aquatic flora.

EFFECT: higher rate of gypsum precipitation, selective precipitation of metal hydroxide, increased quality of water treatment.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in small-size continuous purification plants for precipitating phosphorus from waste water, particularly household waste water. An apparatus, which is connected to the small-size purification plant, has a pumping tank (1), a discharge pump (2) for draining the pumping tank, a chemical reservoir (6) and a dosing pump (5) for the chemical coagulant which is meant for feeding the chemical coagulant from the chemical reservoir (6) into the waste water discharged from the pumping tank (1), wherein separation of the formed residue of chemical substance from water released from said purification plant takes place in the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The apparatus can entirely be placed inside the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The dosing pump (5) is configured to pump the chemical coagulant into a stream generated by the discharge pump (2) during the entire or almost entire operating cycle of the discharge pump (2).

EFFECT: invention provides complete mixing of treated water and reactant, increases the efficiency of precipitating phosphorus and enables to control the amount of chemical coagulant depending on fluctuations of the flow of waste water for efficient and simple precipitation of phosphorus.

11 cl, 1 dwg

Up!