Method purifying waste water from aluminium ions


FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to waste water treatment techniques. The method involves treating water with sodium phosphate in the presence of fibrillated cellulose fibres in amount of 100 pts.wt per 100-900 pts.wt of the formed aluminium phosphate. Water can be pre-treated with sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of said fibres. The treatment product is separated by pressure flotation.

EFFECT: invention provides high treatment efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to techniques for wastewater from dissolved aluminum compounds and can be used in various industries.

There is a method of deposition of aluminum from aqueous solutions by treatment with a solution of sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose in equimolar amounts relative to the concentration of aluminum ions (A.S. 808377, IPC C02F 1/58, publ. 28.02.1981 year). As a result of processing falls precipitate, which is filtered off, temper and get aluminum oxide.

The disadvantages of the method are its complexity and the necessity of using an expensive reagent.

A known method of purification of wastewater from aluminum, in which the water initially apply liquid glass, then alkalinized with the milk of lime to pH 10-11 and blown with carbon dioxide (A.S. 789416, IPC C02F 1/58, publ. 23.12.1980 year). The residue contains Al(OH)3, CaCO3, Al2(SiO3)3, CaSiO3. The precipitate is dried, calcined and receive technical aluminate calcium.

The disadvantage of this method is its high complexity.

Closest to the technical essence and the purpose of the present invention is a method of purification of wastewater from aluminum compounds by treatment with salts of phosphoric acid, followed by separation of the resulting precipitate by filtration or sedimentation tanks be the filter (EN 2164895, IPC C02F 1/58, C02F 101/10, publ. 10.04.2001,).

The disadvantage of this method is the possibility of its use only at low concentrations of aluminum in the waste water. When processing water with a higher concentration of aluminum, for example, 100 mg/l, and, consequently, proportionally larger number allocated by the precipitation of aluminum phosphate precipitate forms poorly otfiltrovana or not amenable to processing Hydrosol.

New positive result from the use of the present invention is the ability to purify water from any occurring in practice, the concentration of soluble aluminum compounds, as well as obtaining containing the insoluble aluminum cleaning products with specified characteristics.

The above results are achieved by the fact that in the method of purification of waste water from ions of aluminum, including the stage of water treatment phosphate and phase separating the resulting precipitate containing aluminum phosphate, according to the invention, the water treatment phosphate is carried out in the presence of fibrillated cellulose fibers, taken in an amount of 100 parts by weight of at between 100 and 900 parts by weight of aluminum phosphate and at least 94 wt.% used fibers have a length of not more than 1,23 mm and not less than 54 wt.% fibers have a length of not more than 0.6 mm, and the water retention of the mentioned fibers pillar is t not more than 4 ml/g, and separating the resulting precipitate exercise pressure flotation. You can also perform pre-processing wastewater by partial deposition of aluminium ions by the sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of fibrillated cellulose fibers separating the formed precipitate pressure flotation, and mentioned pre-processing to be implemented in one or two sequential receive.

When increasing the length of FCV their sorption capacity decreases with decreasing size of the fibers and the corresponding increase of water retention complications in processing flotilla. Similar complications arise when the quantity of sorbed on VZW particles more than 900 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of fibers. In water treatment in two or more stages on the last step, it is preferable to use as the reagent sodium phosphate, because of the occasional slight excess of this salt will not increase the alkalinity of water.

For complete method, for example, with two purification steps, use the installation block diagram of which is depicted in figure 1, where 1 and 5 - mixers, 2 and 6 reactors, 3 and 7 - the fountain offering, 4 and 8 machines.

Preparing a dispersion FCV, which contains, based on the weight of the fibers, at least 94% of fibers with a maximum length of 1.23 mm and not less than 54% of fibres with a length of not more than 0.6 mm are also dissolve the s sodium hydroxide and sodium phosphate (Na 3PO4). In the mixer 1 in predetermined quantities served to be the treatment of water with a known content of ions of aluminum and variance FCV. The flow from the mixer 1 is directed into the reactor 1, which also serves sodium hydroxide in amounts of, for example, is equivalent to equal 70% of the water content of aluminum. In the reactor the reaction occurs between ions Al3+and OH-in result of which the formation of nanoscale water-insoluble particles of Al(OH)3. These particles in the dispersion under the action of forces shrinkage firmly fixed on the cellulose fibrils, which have a high activity to interact with the newly formed particles and with each other. Due to the high activity of fibrils attached to them particles capable of 15-20 seconds to form flocculi, in 20-40 seconds - well floatated flakes.

The dispersion is then fed into the saturator 3, where it is under pressure, for example, 2 ATM, saturate the air and saturated dispersion is directed to a dispenser (not shown)installed in the flotation cell. Its design provides pressure relief to the normal and uniform distribution of water throughout the volume of the flotation chamber. Released from the water at normal pressure, air bubbles platinuum to the surface of the water flocculi and rapidly forming flakes. Accumulating layer f is otoshiana selected and sent for recycling.

Used in the way fibrillated cellulose fibers and formed during flotsam have unique flotation technology properties. Formed in reagent water treatment in interfiber gaps and pores bundles of fibrils insoluble particles of metal compounds exert a wedging effect on the beams. Therefore, the number of fibrils that can quickly generate flocculi and then the flakes, the dispersion increases, the rate of formation of floc, the size of the flakes, as well as the total capacity of the sorbent is also greatly increased.

Flocculi, cereals, flotsam with your education and movement to surface water capture ultramercial particles of different origin as formed during water treatment, and initially present therein, for example, particles solubilizing silicon dioxide, that is, act as collectors of solid components.

Structure and physical properties of the above-mentioned formation of the fibers helps keep them in air bubbles, that is fibrillated cellulose fibers in the system work as photoagent.

When you remove FotoSlate with the surface of the water scoops portion of the flakes is destroyed. In conventional technologies, using as a coagulant, for example, polyacrylamide or Sul the ATA aluminum, particles destroyed flakes again they are not able to form and are carried with the water flow. Flotsam received on the proposed technology, diluted and mixed at high speed, turns into a homogeneous dispersion without any signs of floc. However, for 15-40 seconds in the newly formed well floatated flocculi and cereals.

Another important factor. Solid flotilla is a composite material consisting of cellulose fibrillating fibers and strongly associated nanosized particles of Al(OH)3or AlPO4. Small fibers and particles separately - hardening components in many composite materials, including on the basis of various polymers. Together, they mostly give a synergistic effect, for example, cellulose fibers, modified mineral particles is an effective additive in paper weight when receiving ash paper types.

Taking into account this factor on the stages of water purification can be obtained composite material with Al(OH)3or AlPO4or with different ratios of quantities of fiber/mineral component for various applications.

Compulsory stage of processing flotilla is his thickening and washing from formed during water treatment salts of sodium sulfate or chloride. Shush the tion can be performed by spinning in a centrifuge or a filter press. Rinse the thickened sludge is advisable to carry out by dilution and excretion of a dilute dispersion by flotation. The newly obtained flotsam possible without additional processing to use in the manufacture of fly paper. This flotsam can also be dried, crushed and receive a reinforcing filler. As a result of burning of composite material with Al(OH)3get Al2O3. Processing a composite material with AlPO4acetic acid gives the acetate of aluminum, is used as mordant agent in dyeing or in medicine as a treatment.

The following examples illustrate the possibilities of the proposed method of water purification from ions of aluminum.

To run the examples is prepared model solutions of sulfate and aluminum chloride, potassium alum, hydroxide and phosphate, the variance FCV. Determine the maximum capacity with the sorption of Al(OH)3and AlPO4and "technical" capacity, the excess of which leads to complications when dehydration flotilla. Maximum capacity in respect to Al(OH)3- not less than 1500 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of FCV in respect of AlPO4- not less than 1200 parts by weight Acceptable for flotation and dewatering FotoSlate the capacity of these substances to 1000 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of FCV.

In water treatment, low is by cutting down Al sufficient one stage of processing using the mixer 1, reactor 2, one 3, and the flotation cell 4.

Example 1. The water treatment machine with Al2(SO4)3when the Al content of 5 mg/l In the mixer 1, water is supplied and the variance FCV in the amount of 50 mg/l based on dry fiber. The dispersion from the mixer is sent to the reactor 2, which serves as a reagent Na3PO4in a quantity equal to the stoichiometric content in water Al. Then the water enters the saturator 3, where it is saturated with air at a pressure of 2 ATM. Water from the saturator is served in the flotation cell 4. Formed therein flotsam accumulates on the surface of the water in the form of Fotolia. When a certain mass of this layer from the camera output overflow or select the scoops. In the beginning of the process the whole flotsam fed into the mixer 1 (Fig. this is shown in phantom line), with fresh FCV stop. When reaching (by calculation) pre-selected ratio FCV/AlPO4equal to, for example, 100:100-150 (in parts by weight), part of flotsam begin to take on the processing in the mixer 1 start feeding the same amount of fresh FCV. This is the working mode of the system. In the output from the flotation cell from the beginning of purified water Al no. Flotsam dehydrated, washed from sodium sulfate, again dewatered, dried, crushed and receive a filler for polymer composites.

<> Example 2. Purified water containing 250 mg/l of aluminium in the form of AlCl3. In the mixer 1 serves the water and variance FCV in the amount of 80 mg/l, calculated on dry fiber. In the reactor 2 in the variance add NaOH in the amount stoichiometrically equal to 150 mg Al. In the saturator water is saturated with air and is served in the flotation cell. Flotsam deduce from the flotation cell and serves for processing. Its solids contain per 100 parts by weight of FCV, 540 parts by weight of Al(OH)3. The clarified water is fed to the mixer 5 and add FCV in the amount, calculated on dry fiber, 50 mg/l In the reactor 6 in water type Na3PO4in the amount stoichiometrically equal to 100 mg Al. Flotsam from the flotation cell 8 contains, per 100 mg FCV, 900 mg AlPO4. The two portions of flotsam dehydrated, washed from sodium chloride dehydrate again. The first portion of flotsam temper and get Al2O3from the second portion by treatment with acetic acid is obtained the acetate of aluminum.

In the treated water aluminum is missing.

Example 3. Purify water containing 400 mg/l of aluminium in the form of KAl(SO4)2while using three stages of purification, and setting, respectively, further comprises a mixer, a reactor, the saturator and the flotation cell. In the mixer 1, water is supplied and the variance FCV in the amount of 80 mg per 1 l of water. In the reactor 2 in water is added to NaOH in the Alceste, stoichiometric equal to 150 mg Al. In the saturator 3 water saturated with air and is served in the flotation cell 4. Flotsam deduce from it and sent for recycling. Its solids contain, per 100 parts by weight of FCV, 540 parts by weight of Al(OH)3. The clarified water is fed to the mixer 5 and add FCV in the amount of 80 mg/l In the reactor water is added to NaOH in the amount stoichiometrically equal to 150 mg Al. The mixture is sent to the saturator 7 and then in the flotation machine 8. Flotsam at this stage contains, per 100 parts by weight of FCV, 540 parts by weight of Al(OH)3. Clarified in the flotation machine, the water is sent to the mixer of the next section (Fig. not shown), in which water is added to 50 mg/l PCV. In the next reactor in water type Na3PO4in the amount stoichiometrically equal to 100 mg Al. The mixture is sent to the saturator, then in the flotation cell. Flotsam at this stage contains, per 100 mg FCV, 900 mg AlPO4. In treated water aluminum is missing.

1. The method of purification of waste water from ions of aluminum, including the stage of water treatment phosphate and the stage of the precipitate containing aluminum phosphate, characterized in that the water treatment phosphate is carried out in the presence of fibrillated cellulose fibers, taken as the number of on 100 parts by weight of between 100 and 900 parts by weight of aluminum phosphate and at least 94 wt.% used fibers have a length of not more than 1,23 mm and the e less than 54 wt.% fibers have a length of not more than 0.6 mm, when this water retention mentioned fibers is not more than 4 ml/g, and separating the resulting precipitate exercise pressure flotation.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that produce pre-processing wastewater by partial deposition of aluminium ions by the sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of fibrillated cellulose fibers separating the formed precipitate pressure flotation, and mentioned pre-processing is carried out in one or two sequential receive.



 

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