Method of soil protection from erosion and creation of green coverage

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of environment. The method is carried out by treating the soil with an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol into which mineral or organic fertilisers are added. The seeds of perennial grasses and coniferous plants are added, and mixed with soil. It is frozen at temperature below freezing, and then thawed at positive temperatures.

EFFECT: method enables to structure and stabilise the soil, to improve the quality of the strengthening turf due to development of a stronger and more branching root system.

2 tbl, 7 ex

 

The invention relates to the construction and environmental protection, in particular, to technology engineering and biological defense ground covers from deflation, wetlands, vplyvania and other processes of wind and water erosion, as well as to methods of reclamation of disturbed landscapes - landscaping-weathered sandy soils.

It is known that after freezing of aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at negative temperatures (below 0C) and subsequent thawing at positive temperature are formed of an elastic polymeric body, the so-called cryogels [V.I. Lozinsky, Cryogels based on natural and synthetic polymers: synthesis, properties and field of applications. The USP. T. No. 6, 2002]. The melting temperature of the samples obtained above 70C, and their mechanical properties are fundamentally different from the properties of the original plastic compositions, which allows the use of elastic cryogels as a binder material.

Known way to protect soils from erosion (U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2267514 C1, publ. 10.01.2006). The disadvantage of this method is degradation of aeration and increase the hydrophobicity of the soil.

Closest to the proposed method of protection of soil from erosion is the method described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2324784, publ. 20.05.2008), in which the filler used natural soil, and the quality is TBE knitting - polyvinyl alcohol in the form of 3-5% aqueous solution in a quantity equal to the volume of filler. Formed after mixing the raw material mixture after compaction to a state of close packing is placed in a mold and heated to a temperature not above 150C, followed by extraction of the forms of the resulting material. The disadvantage of this method is the excessive expenditure of energy to create the high temperature and high consumption of polymer solution.

The present invention is to devise a way to protect soils from erosion and create green cover of perennial grasses or pine trees by stabilizing the desert, weathered soils.

The technical result consists in structuring and stabilization of soil quality improvement strengthening of turf due to the development of more robust and extensive root system.

The way to protect soils from erosion and create green cover is in the handling of the soil water solution of polyvinyl alcohol, in which pre-enter a mineral or organic fertilizer, add the seeds of perennial grasses or conifers, mixed with soil, freeze at low temperatures, then thawed at positive temperatures when the following ratio of components, wt.%:

Polyvinyl alcohol : of 0.625-1,25
Ground83-88
Mineral or organic fertilizers0,03-0,05
Waterrest

In winter, the root system of plants growing on weathered soils, tolerates low temperatures, they often die. The proposed method contributes to the reduction of the conductivity of the treated soil compared to conventional soil, therefore, protects plants from freezing. Therefore, the important characteristics are the elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal conductivity kriostrukturirovaniya soil.

Stabilizing weathered soils with ristrutturazione, you can prevent dehydration. In addition, the sowing of the plants, forming dense grass cover, securely hold the soil. This technique is popular for solving social and environmental problems. In the proposed method, the soil erosion is prevented initially by the strength of the formed reinforcing structure, and after germination of the plants formed a comprehensive prevention of soil erosion due to the combined containment castelgrande network cryogel and roots of vegetation.

An aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol used at a concentration of 5-10 wt.%. For the formation of green cover in the upper layer of soil mixed with the polymer solution in the ratio of 7:1 by weight (12.5 percent polymer solution and 87.5% of the soil, sow the seeds of perennial grasses or pine trees. For best plant growth pre contribute to the solution of a mineral or organic fertilizers.

Method of preparation: aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol was added mineral or organic fertilizers. Then the polymer solution, with the added fertilizer, mixed with soil at a ratio of 1:7-1 part of the solution (12.5%) and 7 parts soil (87.5%) and spread in cells or flowerbeds. In the top layer of soil mixed with the polymer solution, sow the seeds of perennial grasses or coniferous plants, then cover the seeds with a thin layer (2-3 cm) of soil. The cell with the composition of the freeze in the freezer, then thawed at room temperature. To apply this technique in the field, in which at certain times of the year (in the spring), when the night temperatures below zero, and the day is positive, the resulting composition for a day undergoing a cycle of freezing-thawing, resulting in the formation of a cryogel, filled with soil and seeds of plants. The increase in the number of cycles of freezing - thawing Pref is the CIO for the strengthening of cryogel, i.e. they are implemented favorable conditions for the formation of cryostructure. After a few days with positive ambient temperatures the seeds germinate, forming a green cover and movable fixing soils.

Examples of specific performance.

Example 1. Supervisory experience. Take 8000 g of soil in the upper layer makes 10 g/m2seeds of perennial grasses on top sprinkled with a thin layer of soil and a little water. Next, the soil planted with seeds frozen at -20C for 20 hours, then thawed at a temperature of +20C and determine the coefficient of thermal conductivity. The values obtained are given in table 1 (row 1).

Example 2. Take 1 part of 5%aqueous solution of PVA and 7 parts soil. Carefully mix the mixture and the result is a composition comprising of 0.625% wt. PVA, and 87.5% of the wt. soil and 11,875% wt. water. Lay out a large part of the mixture in the cell and on the top layer put the seed of perennial grasses at the rate of 10 g/m2and on top sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. Next, perform a cycle of freezing - thawing under the conditions specified in example 1, and then determine the modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal conductivity kriostrukturirovaniya soil with seeds obtained values are given in table 1 (line 2).

Example 3. Take 1 part of 5%aqueous is astora PVA and 7 parts soil. Carefully mix the mixture and the result is a composition comprising of 0.625% wt. PVA, and 87.5% of the wt. soil and 11,875% wt. water. Lay out a large part of the mixture in the cell and on the top layer put the seeds of coniferous trees at the rate of 30 g/m2, top, sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. Next, perform a cycle of freezing - thawing under the conditions specified in example 1, and then determine the modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal conductivity kriostrukturirovaniya soil with seeds obtained values are given in table 1 (row 3).

Example 4. Take 1 part of 10%aqueous solution of PVA and 7 parts soil. Carefully mix the mixture and the result is a composition comprising a 1.25% wt. PVA, and 87.5% of the wt. soil and 11.25 per cent wt. water. Lay out a large part of the mixture in the cell and on the top layer put the seed of perennial grasses at the rate of 10 g/m2and on top sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. Next, perform a cycle of freezing - thawing under the conditions specified in example 1, and then determine the modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal conductivity kriostrukturirovaniya soil with seeds obtained values are given in table 1 (line 4).

Example 5. Take 1 part of 5%aqueous solution of PVA and 5 parts soil. Carefully mix the mixture and the result is a composition containing the th 0,83% wt. PVA, and 83.5% of wt. soil and 15,67% wt. water. Lay out a large part of the mixture in the cell and on the top layer put the seed of perennial grasses at the rate of 10 g/m2and on top sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. Next, perform a cycle of freezing - thawing under the conditions specified in example 1, and then determine the modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal conductivity kriostrukturirovaniya soil with seeds obtained values are given in table 1 (line 5).

Example 6. Take 1 part of 5%aqueous solution of PVA, enter 0.25 g of mineral fertilizers "Uniflor" and 7 parts soil. Carefully mix the mixture and the result is a composition comprising of 0.625% wt. PVA, 0,03% wt. mineral fertilizers "Uniflor"and 87,25% wt. soil and 12,095% wt. water. Lay out a large part of the mixture in the cell and on the top layer put the seed of perennial grasses at the rate of 10 g/m2and on top sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. Next, perform a cycle of freezing - thawing under the conditions specified in example 1, and then determine the modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal conductivity kriostrukturirovaniya soil with seeds obtained values are given in table 1 (line 6).

Example 7. Take 1 part of 5%aqueous solution of PVA, enter 0.25 g of organic fertilizers "Biomaster" and 7 parts soil. Carefully mix mesh and the result is a composition containing of 0.625% wt. PVA, 0,03% wt. organic fertilizers "Biomaster"and 87,25% wt. soil and 12,095% wt. water. Lay out a large part of the mixture in the cell and on the top layer put the seed of perennial grasses at the rate of 10 g/m2and on top sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. Next, perform a cycle of freezing-thawing under the conditions specified in example 1, and then determine the modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal conductivity kriostrukturirovaniya soil with seeds obtained values are given in table 1 (line 7).

Increasing the concentration of PVA, as well as content of the soil in the cryogels increases their modulus of elasticity. The presence in the matrix of the cryogel put fertilizer in the salt form, even more strengthens its structure. In addition, the layer of polymer matrix between the fine particles of the soil reduces thermal conductivity of the cryogel.

Therefore, in the winter ristrutturazioni soil less freezes out, so increases the likelihood that the root system of plants better tolerate periods of low temperatures.

Observations the germination and growth of plants, as well as the dynamics of the number of native soil microflora, the results obtained are presented in table 2.

Thus, the proposed method and recommended formulations allow stable welding temperature, the SQL-weathered soils, increasing their fertility. Plants planted in kriostrukturirovaniya the soil, grow well and create a green cover, and their root system reinforces the soil. The advantage of this method is that it does not oppressed natural soil microflora and is not disturbed ecosystem of the area. Therefore, this technique can be used in agriculture. The method is simple, environmentally friendly and can be used on any terrain. Does not require any expensive drugs.

Table 2
Observations of plants
No.The composition of the samples, % wt.GerminationNumber
native soil
microflora %
1Ground 100%The seeds sprout
Seeds of perennial grasses 10 g/m2in 5 days100
(control)Germination 90%
2Ground 100%The seeds sprout
Coniferous tree seeds 30 g/m2on day 7100
(control)Germination 30%
3PVA of 0.625%The seeds sprout
The soil is 87.5%on the 8th day107-110
Water 11,875%Germination 95%
Seeds of perennial grasses 10 g/m2
4 PVA of 0.625%The seeds sprout
The soil is 87.5%for 6 days105-107
Water 11,875%Germination 50%
Coniferous tree seeds 30 g/m2
5PVA of 0.625%The seeds sprout
Mineral fertilizers 0, 05%on day 7280-300
Soil 87,25%Germination 94%
Water 12,075%
Seeds of perennial grasses 10 g/m2
6PVA of 0.625%Seeds of vsos and
Organic fertilizers 0,05%on the 8th dayHas reached 270-290
Soil 87,25%Germination 94%
Water 12,075%
Seeds of perennial grasses 10 g/m2

The way to protect soils from erosion and create green cover by treating the soil with an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol, characterized in that an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol injected mineral or organic fertilizer, add the seeds of perennial grasses or conifers, mixed with soil, freeze at low temperatures, then thawed at positive temperatures in the following ratios, wt.%:

Polyvinyl alcohol : of 0.625-1,25
Ground83-88
Mineral and/or the organic fertilizer 0,03-0,05
WaterRest



 

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