Method of decontaminating oil-contaminated soil, method of decontaminating spent drilling mud

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of decontaminating oil-contaminated soil involves preparation of a treatment area, collecting, excavating and delivering oil-contaminated soil to the treatment area, preparing the oil-contaminated soil, adding a humic-mineral complex and providing processes for biological decomposition of the oil-contaminated soil. The method of decontaminating spent drilling mud involves lime treatment, reagent coagulation, adding flocculants and a humic-mineral complex, step-by-step cutting of the drilling mud into a buffer layer while laying the mud in a layer of not more than 8-10 cm, drying the drilling mud and stacking into piles for subsequent recycling. The humic-mineral complex is obtained by low-temperature mechanochemical extraction of humic acids with by crushing brown coal in a dispersion machine while mixing the crushed brown coal with an alkali.

EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of methods in which a humic-mineral complex is used.

2 cl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the production of uglechaninov drugs, ameliorants, sorbents, fertilizers, and gumina-mineral compounds with ion exchange, chelat forming, complexing, biologically active, stimulating humus formation properties.

The invention will find application in industry and utilities for detoxification, remediation and cleanup of soil, ground, land, contaminated organic (primarily petroleum products) and inorganic pollutants, land reclamation, man-made disturbed by industrial development of mineral resources, industrial cleaning, drilling, livestock wastewater, drilling and oil sludge, as well as activators and regulators of growth of agricultural crops in agriculture and home manufacturing plant.

Available humic acid humic acid low ash produced from brown coal, a single extraction with potassium hydroxide, followed by the deposition of mineral acid, in the form of a water dispersible colloidal mass (GOST 9517-94).

Gumina-mineral complex is a mixture of acidic substances biochemical transformations dead of higher plants, extracted from brown coal with aqueous alkaline solutions; representing a group of amorphous condensed olycarbonate acids with relatively high molecular weight, in the form of free humic acids and salts (humates) calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, etc.

Humic substances acid type (humic acid) is used not only as plant growth regulators, components of organo-mineral fertilizers and means of detoxification and purification of oil-contaminated soils, but also as components of heat-resistant drilling fluids when drilling oil and gas wells. Soil contaminated with petroleum products of humic substances, allows you to accelerate the effective sorption of hydrocarbons and enhance microbiological processes, resulting in accelerated degradation of the oil and cleaning the soil and enrich the soil with humus. Restoring basic agrochemical properties of soils.

The closest analogue of the claimed method of disposal of contaminated soils is a method of sludge processing and cleaning of oil-contaminated soils, including site preparation processing, collection, excavation and delivery of oil-contaminated soils on site processing, preparation of oil-contaminated soil (see, for example, the description of the invention under the patent RU 2376083, IPC VS 1/10 (2006.01), publication date 20.12.2009).

The disadvantage of the closest analogue is the lack of efficiency of interaction with toxic substances.

<> The technical result is expressed in increase of efficiency of interaction with toxic substances due to the introduction of more efficient gumina-mineral complex.

The essence of the claimed method of disposal of contaminated soils is characterized by the fact that includes the site preparation processing, collection, excavation and delivery of oil-contaminated soils on site processing, preparation of oil-contaminated soil, and differs from the nearest similar to those that make gumina-mineral complex, obtained in the process of low mechanical extraction of humic acid by grinding of lignite in the disperser mixing powdered brown coal with alkali, provide biostructural oil-contaminated soil.

The closest analogue of the claimed method of disposal of waste drill cuttings is a method of disposal of waste drill cuttings, including liming, chemical coagulation, making flocculants (see, for example, the description of the patent RU 2379137, IPC VS 1/10 (2006.01), publication date 20.01.2010).

The disadvantage of the closest analogue is the lack of efficiency of interaction with toxic substances.

The technical result is expressed in increase of efficiency of interaction with toxic substances for the odd introduction of more efficient gumina-mineral complex.

The method of disposal of waste drill cuttings, characterized by the fact that includes liming, chemical coagulation, making flocculants, and differs from the closest analogue is the fact that bring in cuttings of gumino-mineral complex, obtained by low-temperature mechanical extraction of humic acid by grinding of lignite in the disperser mixing by grinding brown coal with alkali, to produce a staged excavation of drill cuttings on the buffer layer covering the sludge layer is not more than 8-10 cm, dried drill cuttings, dry drill cuttings are put in piles for subsequent utilization.

Used in the claimed methods gumina-mineral complex was prepared as follows.

The mechanochemical technology of low-temperature extraction includes joint grinding process brown coal and chemical extraction of humic acids. This innovative technology allows to exclude from the classical technology of the process of dry grinding of coal, thereby to avoid the formation of coal dust. Using mechanochemical extraction allows to obtain a higher yield of the target product with lower cost in comparison with existing analogues. The use of low temperature leads to the conservation of the natural structure of humic ve the EU ETS, thus improving the quality of the final product, which is a significant factor for improving the efficiency of the planned production. This technology allows to preserve the natural structure of humic acids and to make the process more productive. The average performance of the developed technology is 5 tons 7% solution of humic substances in the day.

If this does not apply hydrochloric acid for isolation of humic acid from the residue, and the use of orthophosphoric acid. This replacement allows the use of the spent solution of potassium phosphate (filtrate) as mineral fertilizers.

The main difficulty to obtain pure humic acid was filtering process residues from coal dust. The solution of the problem was the use of a centrifuge continuous action with a number of turns equal to 3500 with-1. The residue on the sieve with a small content of humic substances is proposed to use as a strukturator soil mixed with dolomitic flour.

The technological scheme of production of gumino-mineral complex includes a main stages:

- loading the device with intensive mass exchange;

- water treatment (heat, filtration);

wet grinding of lignite;

- adding alkali;

- conducting alkali extraction;

filtering in the centrifuge;

discharging ballast mass.

Brown coal is delivered to the production, and then mixed with hot water with a temperature of 70°C. and Then fed to the mixer with a speed of up to 350 with-1. After the stirrer of the required number of revolutions begin to add a measured amount of coal, making sure to not get the pieces of coal exceeding 50 mm, the Stirring is continued for 15 minutes then add the measured amount of alkali and increase the speed of the mixer until 800-1. Water temperature is controlled by thermometer and maintained at 80°C. the extraction Process ends after 40-50 minutes the Stirrer is translated into the number of revolutions of the 100-1and through the bottom drain serves the resulting mass in a centrifuge to separate the ballast mass. After this is added the required amount of water to achieve the desired commodity concentration. The residue on the filter is transferred to the holding tank for further processing, for example, phosphoric acid. The ready solution of gumino-mineral complex is poured into containers and vvozitsya to the warehouse.

Example 1

The feedstock for gumina-mineral complex - lignite Taldy-Tulunskogo field. The content of humic acids up to 64% on a limited weight at an average humidity of 40% and an ash content of 30%.

Brown coal Taldy-Tulunskogo field p is its physical-chemical parameters (humidity, ash, the quantity of volatile substances) is not inferior coals separate fields of Russia. Besides, there is a high content of vanadium from 136 to 245 mg/t, cadmium from 3.5 to 17 mg/t and thallium from 2 to 1.2 mg/I. Coal after drying ignites spontaneously, and its dust is highly explosive, Tsam = 225°C, rebellious, a measure of enrichment = 16,7%).

The original coal delivered to the production, mixed with hot water with a temperature of 70°C. Then fed to the mixer with a speed of up to 350 with-1. After reaching the mixer M-1 the required number of revolutions begin to add a measured amount of coal, making sure to not get the pieces of coal exceeding 50 mm, the Stirring is continued for 15 minutes then add the measured amount of alkali and increase the speed of the mixer until 800-1. Water temperature is controlled by thermometer and maintained at 80°C. the extraction Process ends after 40-50 minutes the Stirrer is translated into the number of revolutions 100 c-1and through the bottom drain serves the mass of gumino-mineral complex in a centrifuge to separate the ballast mass. After this is added the required amount of water to achieve the desired commodity concentration.

Example 2

The feedstock for gumina-mineral complex - lignite Orlovskogo field. Staranimolinar acid reaches up to 42% on the limited weight at an average humidity of 31-42% and ash - 4-50%.

The original coal delivered to the production, mixed with hot water with a temperature of 70°C. Then fed to the mixer with a speed of up to 350 with-1. After the stirrer of the required number of revolutions begin to add a measured amount of coal, making sure to not get the pieces of coal exceeding 50 mm, the Stirring is continued for 15 minutes then add the measured amount of alkali and increase the speed of the mixer until 800-1. Water temperature is controlled by thermometer and maintained at 80°C. the extraction Process ends after 40-50 minutes the Stirrer is translated into the number of revolutions of the 100-1and through the bottom drain serves the mass of gumino-mineral complex in a centrifuge to separate the ballast mass. After this is added the required amount of water to achieve the desired commodity concentration.

The most appropriate use of brown coal Taldy-Tulunskogo field for the production of organic humic fertilizers.

The described technology allows to obtain humic acids and their salts with highly dispersed, hydrated structure with high physical-chemical, biological and physiological activity. The resulting connections are clean and safe organic substances, they are about the have a stable ability to chemically bind the cations of heavy metals, for example, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, Nickel, as well as radionuclides and other toxic and harmful substances, with the formation of water-insoluble compounds, thereby blocking their uptake into plants and ground waters.

The method of disposal of contaminated soils is as follows.

It is known that the stability of the biosphere to intensive anthropogenic impact and its ability to recover to a great extent conditioned by the presence in soil humic substances, primarily humic acids. Humic acids and their connections form the basis of soil humus and determine soil fertility, perform a storage function, accumulating in the soil the most important elements of supply of soil biota and plants, contribute to the decomposition of natural and synthetic materials, protect the flora and plants from the effects of adverse factors and stimulate their growth and development. In particular, they can form a stable water-insoluble compounds with the ions of heavy metals and many other dangerous environmental pollutants. But in its original natural state humic acids have low activity due to the low gidratirovannoi and dispersion, blocking their active sites of the various components is AMI, including mineral waters.

Humic acids exist in nature in the form of water-insoluble substances extracted from soil, peat, brown and oxidized coal by transferring them to the humates water - soluble salts of monovalent cations (sodium, potassium, ammonium) in the processing of raw materials corresponding solution of alkali or organic bases. Humic acids are high molecular weight substances and in the form of humates exist in the form of solutions approaching true. When replacing monovalent cations in the molecules of humates for hydrogen ions, which is achieved by acidification of alkaline to pH 2-3, humic acids return to its original shape and form water-insoluble phase in the form of colloids, which are coagulated with the formation of gel-like precipitation. The pH values of about 2-3 correspond to the point of coagulation, in which there is irreversible coagulating colloids and polymerization of the molecules of humic acids. This will block their reaction centers, dramatically reduces the surface area of the interface and decreases their physical-chemical and biological activity.

Appropriate reclamation of soils for agricultural purposes and detoxification lands to make way, including an introduction to soils and land containing toxic substances, humic substances, when what is according to the invention, as humic substances use water-based preparations of gumino-mineral complex, obtained by low-temperature mechanical extraction of humic acids with the use of dispersant, mixing with alkali and allocation of humic acid by the introduction of phosphoric acid, and ensuring processes biostructural oil-contaminated soil.

When detoxification of the land, according to the invention, additionally the liming of contaminated soil and add fertilizer sources of nitrogen and phosphorus), which contributes to more rapid recovery of the indigenous microflora.

Thanks to the invention are contaminated with toxic substances, land is suitable for agricultural use. The productivity of the lands subjected to detoxification, increases significantly, and the content of toxic substances in the produced agricultural products stored within the existing sanitary and hygienic standards. Proposed remedies on the basis of gumino-mineral complex, designed to improve the environment are a complex mixture of natural organic compounds formed by the decomposition of dead plants and their humification.

In accordance with the invention, a method about which suriyani oil polluted soil were taken out of rotation due to contamination of their man-made products. The method prevents penetration into plants and groundwater of various toxic substances and provides an improved structure of the land, their water-holding capacity and increase their fertility.

When introduced into the soil and toxic land gumina-mineral complex due to its high specific surface reacts interaction with toxic substances, in particular heavy metal ions, binds them by putting them into water-insoluble form.

Related chemically and fixed in the soil and the land in the form of water-insoluble compounds, heavy metal ions do not enroll in plants and groundwater. This ensures detoxification of soils and the use of contaminated soils for economic activity.

Due to the high hydrophilicity of humic acid increases the water-holding capacity and soil structure improves. The additional application of humic acid increases the soil fertility and increase crop yields.

Gumina-mineral complex is a mixture of acidic substances biochemical transformations dead of higher plants, extracted from brown coal with aqueous alkaline solutions; representing a group of amorphous condensed polycarboxylic acids with relatively high the Oh molecular weight, in the form of free humic acids and salts (humates) calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, etc.

The claimed method of disposal of contaminated soils is recommended for use with:

- development of projects of land reclamation and restoration previously worked areas in terms of carrying out cleaning work as an independent method for biological treatment or as an additional step after mechanical, physical or other method of cleaning;

- elimination of the old (old) of the oil pollution of the environment;

- planning for mitigation of the consequences of emergency oil and oil products, mandatory developed by enterprises and organizations engaged in the extraction, transportation, processing, storage and use of gas condensate and oil, in accordance with the RF Government decree "on urgent measures for prevention and liquidation of emergency floods of oil and oil products" dated 21 August 2000, No. 613.

The technology of the method consists in the application of gumino-mineral complex contaminated surface or mixed with contaminated oil substrates. Making gumina-mineral complex on large area is produced using the spray the spray device.

Technology application gumina-mineral complex universal for purification from oil products of different soil and contributes to the restoration of natural biological processes in them due to the recovery of a single cycle of metabolism, which is achieved by activation of the indigenous microflora and microfauna disperses the harmful and toxic substances.

The method of disposal of oil contaminated soils used in the following cases:

as a means to clean from contamination after use of mechanical and physical methods;

in combination with physical methods for combined cleaning;

- when applying other methods leads to further pollution of the environment by toxic products.

Developed method of disposal of oil contaminated soils apply to all soil types, on all landscapes, excluding surface water bodies.

The method of disposal of oil contaminated soils includes site preparation processing, collection, excavation and delivery of oil-contaminated soils on site processing, preparation of oil-contaminated soil, making the necessary components (gumina-mineral complex, fertilizer, lime, and others), ensuring processes of biodegradation of oil-contaminated soils, the use of abesur the produce of the soil.

Before starting work you must perform a number of preparatory activities, namely:

- in the absence of documentation for hazardous wastes is carried out quantitative chemical analysis of contaminated soil to determine the composition of delaborated waste (percentage of hydrocarbons, pH, etc.);

- calculation of the necessary number of components required for optimal biodegradation of oil-contaminated soil, in particular adsorbents for binding of hydrocarbons and create aerobic conditions in delaborated waste, calcium salts to create a neutral pH of oil-contaminated soil (from 0.003 to 0.01 t/m3), organic sorbents (straw, waste crop and livestock 5 hazard class, straw cereal straw, peat and peat litter, sawdust, small chips and others) (from 0.2 to 0.5 t/m), gumina-mineral complex to restore and enhance the biota delaborated waste. Gumina-mineral complex is applied at the rate of 2-4 kg of gel/m3depending on the percentage of hydrocarbons;

- prepared the ground for the processing of oil-contaminated soils, in particular the preparation of the dike along the boundaries of the site to prevent the ingress to the site storm water, etc. and emergency (verse is inago) spreading of hydrocarbons outside the site; Playground neutralization sludge lined 12-15 cm layer sorbents: chopped straw, peat moss or rotted organic substances for binding of hydrocarbons in storm precipitation and other situations that arise during the execution of the work, to prevent negative impacts on the environment;

- excavation and transportation of contaminated soils on site processing and laying in piles at a height of 1.8-2 m and a width of 15 m;

- shipping to the shoulders delaborated waste estimated doses of mineral and organic components, mixing, spreading in the ranks height of not more than 0.4 m and a width of 8-9 m;

after stirring is maintained pause in 3-4 days, during which there is intense volatilization of light fractions of hydrocarbons.

Gumina-mineral complex is entered twice with an interval of 4-5 weeks, depending on weather conditions. Treatment of oil-contaminated soil is a solution of gumino-mineral complex. The recommended dose of solution for detoxification of contaminated soils is 30 kg (or 30 liters) per cubic meter of contaminated soil. Treatment of oil-contaminated soil is a water solution of gumino-mineral complex, and in the case of high soil moisture, in the form of a gel without diluting it with water from the calculations is that 3.0 kg of gel on one cubic meter of contaminated soil.

Gumina-mineral complex is highly soluble in water, it is quite simple mixing of the drug with water or water with the drug (i.e. no mixing equipment is not required). Preparation of the solution of gumino-mineral complex can be accomplished using any improvised means (barrels, tanks, etc) and technical equipment (pumps, mixers, watering machines, etc.)

After treatment of oil-contaminated soil solution of gumino-mineral complex and before laying in piles optimum moisture content of the soil must be at least 70% of the value of its field moisture.

The period of processing of oil-contaminated soils is 3.5-4.5 months. Making gumina-mineral complex is performed twice with an interval of 4-5 weeks, depending on weather conditions. Under optimal moisture and loose laying in piles provides good aeration, intensive microbiological decomposition and humification of petroleum hydrocarbons. After making gumina-mineral complex is the formation of shoulders using machinery: pushing the bulldozer T-170 and laying front end loader-18, a three-to fourfold aeration prepared mixtures by the method of relaying shoulders with intervals of 10-12 days to maintain high activity of the aerobic microflora, ensure ivalsa biodegradation of hydrocarbons.

At the end of the detoxification process are agrochemical and biological studies of the obtained soil assessment (definition) its economic value and future use and removal of soil on low-fertile agricultural lands, eroded land, applying it to the surface soil layer 12-15 cm with subsequent zapasnoy and seeding of perennial grasses.

On completion of the works is carried out biological reclamation site disposal of sludge consists in preparing the soil for planting and seeding phyto-reclamation of culture, in the grinding of green mass phyto-reclamation of culture and its zapaska, soil preparation and sowing of perennial grasses for domestic use.

Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is accompanied by the synthesis of humic substances, resulting in the soil increases the humus content. The processes of neutralization of oil-contaminated soil close to the process of composting organic waste and materials. When this occurs, the cleanup of the soil, improve its properties and restored the main characteristic of soil biogeochemical processes. Such soil can be restored to its former position, as it restored the basic properties and functions of soils.

The method of disposal of waste drilling ø amov as follows.

The drilling process is accompanied by the use of materials and chemicals of varying severity, significant volumes of water consumption and education production and technological waste, representing a danger to flora and fauna. As practice shows, the emerging waste water polluted mud and its components, drilled breed, chemicals, oil and petroleum products, including fuels and lubricants, which are in drilling wastewater in areas where technological operations with these substances and where possible their loss. Main pollutants in wastewater are suspended solids, oil and petroleum products, organic compounds, soluble mineral salts, and various impurities. The quantitative relationship between mineral and organic pollutants drilling wastewater may vary within wide limits and depends on various reasons, such as the specifics of the treatment of drilling fluids, the system of water consumption, the duration of the construction of wells and other Contaminating properties of waste drilling fluids are determined, as a rule, applied chemicals and materials, as well as the composition viborgvej rocks. These wastes are heavily polluted with oil and oil products containing St. the eating part of a significant amount of organic matter and mineral salts, including harmful and toxic to water bodies, soil, and soil and vegetation.

During the construction of oil wells are formed of drilling waste, most of which were spent drilling fluids and drill cuttings. The latter is determined, on the one hand, the composition of the components of the original mud, and on the other hand, components of drilling cuttings, salts, etc. that have fallen into the solution of the drilled rocks. Waste drilling mud and drilling sludge, waste, possess toxic properties, due to pollution in the production process of oil products and chemicals. Especially high toxicity have medium - and high-mineralized waste drilling muds. Toxic components of waste drilling fluids are petroleum hydrocarbons, chrome compounds, salts (sodium chloride and calcium chloride), heavy metals, alkalis, etc. According to relevant standards waste drilling mud and drilling sludge subject to collection, containment and storage in special earthen pits, constructed in poorly drained or impermeable soils.

Promising directions for the disposal of waste drilling fluids and drill cuttings are considered to be biochemical methods based on razlozheniyakh toxicants individual strains of microorganisms; physico-chemical methods based on the neutralization of ecotoxicants the influence of physical fields and reagents; method of hardening based on solidification of the mass of waste drilling fluids using curing compositions.

In the technology proposed for reclamation of sites after construction of boreholes to use technology disposal and recycling of medium - and high-mineralized waste drilling fluids and drill cuttings, based on the use of unique properties, functions, and achieved the positive effect of humic acids produced in the form of gumino-mineral complex.

One of the ways disposal of waste drilling fluids and drill cuttings is the possibility of using them as an additive to fertilizer composts and improver designed to reclaim drilling mud pits and areas of drilling sites. By mixing with gumina-mineral complex is a significant reduction or elimination of toxic properties of waste drilling fluids and/or drill cuttings. Basically drill cuttings and drilling mud are present together and disposed in parallel. But in some cases there is only cuttings without mud. Dust mass - soil organic, you can use the TB for remediation of contaminated soils and land especially on light soils particle size distribution, and soil organics.

Soil organic has a synergistic effect and helps to improve such important soil factors as structure, porosity, absorption capacity, pH, composition of the soil microflora, etc. are Included in it humic substances as a natural organic component of soil, mobilize internal resources, ecosystems, enhance and accelerate the processes of self-cleaning, improve the microbiological and enzymatic activity of soil. The clay component of waste drilling mud also contribute to the formation of agronomically valuable soil structure, increase its buffer and absorbing ability, and biogenic elements (potassium, phosphorus and trace elements) positively affect the growth and development of plants. The application of this technology will allow to solve problems of disposal and recycling of waste drilling fluids and drill cuttings with the restoration of properties damaged land and soil.

Before starting work, the selection of background and control samples in accordance with ISO 5667-10, ISO 5667-2, GOST 17.1.4.01-80, GOST 17.4.3.01-83. Place of sampling and their number are determined from considerations of obtaining the most reliable information at minimal cost.

P and work in sections of the barn is liming to normalize pH and destruction of organic pollutants and chemical coagulation for clarification and disposal of drilling wastewater. As coagulants you can use aluminum sulfate, aluminum potassium alum or aluminium oxychloride. As flocculants can be used high molecular weight flocculants. These reagents are not toxic and are related to IV class of hazard. The application rate of the working solution of coagulant 1 l/10 m3drilling wastewater. Selection of doses of coagulant and flocculant is made before the beginning of the cleaning liquid phase by the method of trial coagulation. On completion of the works is carried out chemical analysis of the aqueous phase. When considering injection of treated water into the reservoir or export it to a Central point gathering, analyses barn water held in accordance with the requirements of the OST 51-01-03-84.

If drilling barn oil film it is collected and sent for disposal.

Depending on the results of the selected method further wastewater:

- in accordance qualitative composition of wastewater reclamation, sanitary and veterinary requirements (SERS 2.1.7.573-96) is used for irrigation;

for injection in reservoir pressure;

for humidification of waste at solid waste landfills.

Gumina-mineral complex to be paid in the amount of 0.3 kg per 1 m3cuttings, nodamage is in the barn, to eliminate toxic properties and lowering the hazard class of the waste.

Then is phased excavation of drill cuttings on the buffer layer.

The flooring of the sludge layer is not more than 8-10 cm, which provides for quick drying. Dry drill cuttings up to the shoulders. It is prohibited to place neutralized drilling sludge in the water protection zone of surface and underground water bodies. Upon completion of the work is biotesting.

Depending on the location of the drilling site, the surrounding topography, natural and climatic conditions, and technical specifications chosen method of disposal of drill cuttings:

A. Burial at the place of work, if such a method of disposal of drill cuttings is specified in the construction of the well and has a positive conclusion of the state ecological expertise.

B. Transport to the nearest municipal solid waste and industrial waste for use as an insulating layer.

C. Use neutralized to 5 hazard class (confirmed by biotesting) cuttings as inert filler, clean and dry barn.

Waterproofing material is removed from the barn and is disposed at a solid waste landfill.

After all the above work production the is filling cleared and reclaimed barn neutralized the drill cuttings 5 hazard class (by consent), mineral soil, seized earlier in his device. When filling is plugging of the soil, equating its density with the density of the surrounding rocks to avoid the effects of waterlogging and drainage.

After the liquidation of the barn is a rough layout of the site to identify inconsistencies with the surrounding terrain and to improve the physical-chemical properties of soil at the site is gypsuming at the rate of 10 t/ha, contour bunding wells to define the boundaries of the application of topsoil and is finishing the layout of the plot for the restoration of the former terrain. Is the return of topsoil with preservation of the former arable horizon.

To restore soil fertility entered gumina-mineral complex to compensate for the loss of humus and is the complex structuring of the soil. Pre-field training is conducted with application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of 1 kg/ha to Plan and carry out sowing of phytomelioration, like all field work should be the best agronomic terms.

Upon completion of the work is soil sampling for chemical analysis according to the results, if necessary, is performed mowing and zapaska of phytomelioration.

1. Method of neutralizing necesarias is the R soils, including the site preparation processing, collection, excavation and delivery of oil-contaminated soils on site processing, preparation of oil-contaminated soil, characterized in that make gumina-mineral complex, obtained in the process of low mechanical extraction of humic acid by grinding of lignite in the disperser mixing powdered brown coal with alkali, provide biostructural oil-contaminated soil.

2. The method of disposal of waste drill cuttings, including liming, chemical coagulation, making flocculants, characterized in that make cuttings of gumino-mineral complex, obtained by low-temperature mechanical extraction of humic acid by grinding of lignite in the disperser mixing powdered brown coal with alkali, to produce a staged excavation of drill cuttings on the buffer layer covering the sludge layer is not more than 8-10 cm, dried drill cuttings, dry drill cuttings are put in piles for subsequent utilization.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing humic fertiliser for organic farming, meant for treating soil and vegetative plants, wherein said fertiliser is obtained in two steps: at the first step, natural humic acids contained in brown coal are transferred into an aqueous solution in form of ammonium humate by treating with 1.5-2.0% aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution to pH 6.9-7.1 with the ratio of the liquid component to the solid component of 7-7.5:1, and the obtained solution is separated from the mineral ballast which is not chemically bonded to the humic acids; and at the second step, metal cations chemically bonded to the ammonium humate are removed from the ammonium humate solution by treating with a cationite to pH 4.0-4.2.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain water-soluble humic acids which do not container both the mineral ballast and metal cations.

2 cl, 4 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of production of the concentrate of humic acid from brown coal, including its crushing to obtain microparticles, preparing the suspension in the diluted solution of alkali, and extraction, with mechanical stirring of the suspension in the reactor-mixer from the microparticles of humic acid coal. The coal is subjected to two-stage crushing, and at the second stage of crushing the microparticles with ragged surface are formed, and in stirring the suspension in the reactor-mixer it is simultaneously affected with ultrasound for 7-15 min., then the solid phase is separated from the liquid phase by precipitation of insoluble coal-ash in the sediment basin for 15-20 min., and the liquid phase is fed in the cracking reactor, the catalyst-hydrochloric acid is added, the liquid phase is resolved to water and humic acid of 90%, 70% and 40% concentration after sedimentation for at least 24 hours.

EFFECT: invention enables to create a complete cycle of industrial production of humic acids, to improve the performance and efficiency of their extraction of brown coal, to extend the scope by improving the quality of the finished product.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining the biologically active humic product that includes crushing and screening of organic materials, as which peat is used with a moisture content close to the natural, and the peat processing is performed by the preliminary granulation with the subsequent holding the granules in closed containers for cooling for 12 hours, and then the cooled granules are repeatedly granulated to produce granules with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the granules obtained during the preliminary granulation, then hot granules obtained during the second granulation are poured into water to form an aqueous solution, the resulting mixture is subjected to stirring by the submerged mixer to form a homogeneous viscous flowable paste, alkali is added to the resulting paste to the pH of 10-10.5, and the resulting product is obtained after cooling of the resulting paste to the ambient temperature.

EFFECT: invention enables to increase the concentration of biologically active humic substances in the finished product, and to simplify the technology of its production.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils. Proposed method comprises reclamation leveling and introducing nitrogen, phosphoric and potassium mineral salts. To process seeds and vegetating plants before sowing, biologically active product of peat peroxidate-ammoniac hydrolysis containing humic acids in concentration of 0.0025-0.005% is used. Note here that plowing and seeds sowing are performed. Is necessary, additionally sown are seeds and introduced are nitrogen, phosphoric and potassium mineral salts.

EFFECT: stimulated seeds germination, intensified photosynthesis, activation of native microflora.

2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of production of water-soluble humic acids which includes drying of brown coal with a content of humic acids of at least 50%, crushing the brown coal, processing the crushed coal with the alkaline reagent, and brown coal before crushing is dried to a residual moisture content of no more than 20%, after crushing it is divided into fractions : more than 10 mm, 4-10 mm, 2-4 mm, 0.5-2.0 mm and less than 0.5 mm; fractions of more than 10 mm and 4-10 mm are returned for recrushing, fractions of 2-4 mm or less than 0.5 mm in the solid phase are processed with dry alkaline reagent with intensive stirring while maintaining the temperature in a range 40-80° C; the fraction of 0.5-2.0 mm is dispersed with intensive stirring in softened water and processed with an aqueous solution of an alkaline reagent while maintaining the pH of the reaction mixture in the range of 10.0-10.5 and the temperature in the range of 40-80° C, the solution obtained as a result of the reaction is purified from water-insoluble substances by centrifugation, the solution is concentrated by vaporisation under discharging with the residual pressure of 5000-6000 Pa and the temperature of 50-60° C, and then dried in a fluidised bed at the temperature of 130-140° C.

EFFECT: waste-free production of water-soluble salts of humic acids.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: granular fertiliser based on peat containing granules, and the granules are made using peat, binder. The binder is made in the form of a mixture of water and peat, with the mixture of water and peat is at least once passed through the dispersing agent at a differential pressure on the dispersing agent from 0.1·105 Pa to 25·105 Pa.

EFFECT: invention enables to increase significantly the hardness of granules, to increase significantly the resistance of granules to moisture exposure.

2 cl, 17 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: cobalt-containing peat-zeolitic fertiliser of prolonged action which comprises lowland peat and natural zeolite modified by trace element cobalt in the ratio 2.1:1-2.6:2. Natural zeolite which is crushed to the grain size of 0.5-0.7 mm, is saturated with the 0.009-0.011% solution of cobalt sulfate CoSO4 for 5-7 hours at a weight ratio of natural zeolite and solution of cobalt sulfate 1:8-1:9.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the biological productivity of low-productive cryoarid and cryomorphic soils, crop yield, and to improve their quality composition.

3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing water-soluble humic acids from caustobioliths of the coal family, which involves exposing caustobioliths to a potassium or sodium hydroxide solution with concentration of 2.0-4.0 wt %, separating the liquid phase, treating the liquid phase with acid, followed by separation in a centrifugal force field and separating the heavy phase, treating the obtained heavy phase with a hydroxide of alkali or alkali-earth metals until obtaining a ready product, wherein the caustobioliths are subjected to attrition with a potassium or sodium hydroxide solution to obtain particles with size of 250-5 mcm in amount of not less than 90 wt %, wherein the heavy phase is also subjected to attrition with a hydroxide of an alkali or alkali-earth metal until achieving pH 3.5-5.0.

EFFECT: invention increases output of humic acids while maintaining their natural state and cutting the duration of the process.

5 cl, 6 dwg, 5 tbl, 18 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and can be used in recycling wastewater sludge formed at city aeration stations. The method involves mixing wastewater sludge with storage life of less than 3 years with turf in volume ratio of 0.5:0.5 or 0.6:0.4, respectively. The obtained mixture undergoes aerobic composting in the presence of a biological activator in amount of not less than 15% of the volume of the compost mixture. The biological activator used in the compost mass is inoculating compost based on poultry droppings and microbial strains Bacillus subtilis B-168, Bacillus mycoides B-691, Streptomyces sp. Ac-154, Mukor psychrophilus F-1441, Candida utilis Y-2441 in amount of 1·106-1·107 cells per millilitre per ton of poultry droppings.

EFFECT: shorter composting time.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: wood chemical processing, peat industry and agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of wood chemical processing, peat industry and agriculture and can be used for production of surface-active agents, plant growth stimulants and duff fertilizers based on lignocarbohydrate vegetal resources. The essence of the suggested ulmification method for vegetal resources lies in the fact that lignocarbohydrate material undergoes mechanochemical processing with the help of ammonium persulphate with the amount of 0.2 g/g of the raw material with the presence of ammonia water with the amount of 0.1 g of NH3/g of the raw material within 10 minutes in the chemical reactor of the planetary mill AGO-3 with the filling degree of 25 %. Further on the stock is carried over to the hydrodynamical cavitating device and endures a cavitating influence with the rotary speed of 3,000 rpm at the temperature of 60°C and the water duty 133-1333 within 20 min. Then the liquid part is separated in the centrifuge process and extraction of humic acids from the liquid part is performed with its acidifying by a mineral acid up to pH 2.

EFFECT: intensification of the alkaline hydrolysis process of the organic matter containing in the vegetal resources.

1 dwg, 3 tbl, 18 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of extracting 3,4-benz(a)pyrene, having high toxicity and carcinogenic properties, from soil, bottom deposits and waste water sludge. The method involves mixing the analysed sample in powder form with a liquid extractant in a given volume ratio, heating the obtained mixture with thermal ageing which allows the transfer of 3,4-benz(a)pyrene into the solution, filtering the solution by decantation, adding an extractant of corresponding polarity to the analysed compound, followed by evaporation of the solution to a dry substrate and determining the amount of 3,4-benz(a)pyrene by liquid chromatography. The liquid extractant used is distilled water. Heating and thermal ageing of the obtained mixture are carried out in a sealed reactor and once the 3,4-benz(a)pyrene is transferred into the solution, the reactor is cooled to room temperature.

EFFECT: using a simple technology, the method enables to cut the duration and number of steps of extraction and increases the output of the extracted 3,4-benz(a)pyrene.

5 cl, 5 ex, 2 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation of disturbed soils, in particular technogenic wastelands. The method comprises application on the soil surface of wastes, mineral fertilisers, and sowing of perennial grasses. At that, on the soil surface the mining wastes are applied with the layer not less than 5 cm, containing calcite and/or hydrous magnesium silicate. Compound fertilisers N70P70K70 are applied, then exfoliated vermiculite is spread with a layer of up to 1 cm with granules of up to 4 mm, a mixture of seeds of perennial plants is sown, watered and covered with a polymer film which is removed at the 5-7th day. As mining wastes the carbonatite wastes are also used, or screened olivinite ore or serpentinite magnesite. As the seeds of perennial plants the red fescue, timothy, awnless brome, European dune wild ruttishness is used in the amount of 50-100 g/m2. Watering is carried out at the rate of 5 l/m2.

EFFECT: method reduces complexity of technical and biological works on recultivation of disturbed soils and planting of urban areas, wastes recycling of mining and processing complex, increasing the efficiency of formation of sowing culture phytocoenoses and their durability, accelerating the process of recultivation with creation of conditions for accelerated accumulation of elements of fertility in the disturbed layer.

4 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: biotechnologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used to produce a new biopreparation for cleaning of water, soil, industrial drains from pesticides resistant to decomposition and selected from chlorophenoxyacetic acids, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), chlorophenoxyacetic acid (CPAA), phenoxyacetic acid (PAA), - 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-α-propionic acid, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy-α-propionic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy-α-propionic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-α-butyric acid, methyl-[1-(butylamino) carbonyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate, 2,4-dichlorophenol, imidoclapride, hexachlorohexane, and also phenol. The biopreparation is an association of strains of bacteria Pseudomonas putida VKPM V-10997, Bacillus cubtilis VKPM V-10999 and Rhodococcus erythropolis VKPM - As-1882 at the weight ratio of (1-2):(1-2):1. At the same the biopreparation, as a rule, contains additionally a sorbent, organic, mineral and stimulating additives and has activity that stimulates growth of plants and fungicide properties. The produced biopreparation is introduced as an aqueous solution by means of sprinkling into polluted soil or industrial drain in efficient amount.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve cleaning of water, soil, industrial drains from pesticides resistant to decomposition.

21 tbl, 29 ex

FIELD: biotechnologies.

SUBSTANCE: strain of bacterial Pseudomonas panipatensis VKPM V-10593 is proposed, which is capable of quick recycling of oil and oil products, in particular, diesel fuel. Strain may be used to clean soil and water reservoirs contaminated with oil and oil products, in a wide range of temperatures from +8 to +30°C.

EFFECT: improved properties of a strain.

2 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry and agriculture to disinfect, decontaminate and restore soil fertility, production of humic fertilisers, obtaining artificial biological soil and artificial dispersed soil. The method is realised by dehydrating waste water sludge and treating the sludge with reagents. The reagents used are a composition of 0.3-8% hydrate of potassium or sodium oxide in dry form, 3-15% zinc sulphate salt and 15-30% lowland peat with respect to the weight of the obtained mixture. The obtained mixture is treated in a high-speed dissolver to obtain humic fertilisers. Before treatment with reagents, the dehydrated sludge is subjected to high-speed disintegration with impeller-type heads which are fitted with discharge electrodes of electro-plasma apparatus with voltage of 3-7 kV and discharge frequency of 0.2-2 Hz. In the preferred version, the obtained humic fertilisers are mixed with soil from stripping works, which is contaminated with heavy metals and oil-products, in ratio ranging from 1:3 to 1:10 to form artificial biological soil, which is then mixed with ground construction and demolition wastes in ratio ranging from 1:1 to 1:5 to form artificial dispersed soil.

EFFECT: method enables disinfection of waste water sludge, decontamination thereof from oil products and heavy metals, obtaining water-insoluble humic fertilisers, artificial biological soil and artificial dispersed soil.

3 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry and agriculture to disinfect, decontaminate and restore soil fertility, production of humic fertilisers, obtaining artificial biological soil and artificial dispersed soil. The method is realised by dehydrating waste water sludge and treating the sludge with reagents. The reagents used are a composition of 0.3-8% hydrate of potassium or sodium oxide in dry form, 3-15% zinc sulphate salt and 15-30% lowland peat with respect to the weight of the obtained mixture. The obtained mixture is treated in a high-speed dissolver to obtain humic fertilisers. Before treatment with reagents, the dehydrated sludge is subjected to high-speed disintegration with impeller-type heads which are fitted with discharge electrodes of electro-plasma apparatus with voltage of 3-7 kV and discharge frequency of 0.2-2 Hz. In the preferred version, the obtained humic fertilisers are mixed with soil from stripping works, which is contaminated with heavy metals and oil-products, in ratio ranging from 1:3 to 1:10 to form artificial biological soil, which is then mixed with ground construction and demolition wastes in ratio ranging from 1:1 to 1:5 to form artificial dispersed soil.

EFFECT: method enables disinfection of waste water sludge, decontamination thereof from oil products and heavy metals, obtaining water-insoluble humic fertilisers, artificial biological soil and artificial dispersed soil.

3 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. The Bacillus atropheus IPNG - ELA-2 bacteria strain, having recycling capacity with respect to oil and oil products, is deposited in the Russian National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (VKPM) under registration number VKPM V-10592 and can be used to clean water and soil from oil.

EFFECT: invention enables to cut the duration of recycling oil and oil products.

4 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recultivation of soils contaminated with oil and oil products. Proposed method comprises oil processing, introducing fertilisers, biological agents and sowing of grass. Note here that plowing is carried out without trenching to depth of 30-35 cm with introduction of zeolite-bearing clays, alanites, in amount of 5-6 t/hec together with minced vegetable residues of leguminous plants and leaf litter in amount of 1.5-2 t/hec and autumn planting of annul clover in amount of 25-30 kg/hec. Clover seed are pre-wetted in the solution of Baikal-EM-1 bio preparation mixed with p-amino-benzoic acid with 0.001%-concentration of every component for 2-3 h. In spring, in budding-blooming phase, bio mass is tilled into soil and herbage is pre-sprinkled with the same mix in amount of 200-300 l/hec.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of soil reclamation.

2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recultivation of soils contaminated with oil and oil products. Proposed method comprises oil processing, introducing fertilisers, biological agents and sowing of grass. Note here that plowing is carried out without trenching to depth of 30-35 cm with introduction of zeolite-bearing clays, alanites, in amount of 5-6 t/hec together with minced vegetable residues of leguminous plants and leaf litter in amount of 1.5-2 t/hec and autumn planting of annul clover in amount of 25-30 kg/hec. Clover seed are pre-wetted in the solution of Baikal-EM-1 bio preparation mixed with p-amino-benzoic acid with 0.001%-concentration of every component for 2-3 h. In spring, in budding-blooming phase, bio mass is tilled into soil and herbage is pre-sprinkled with the same mix in amount of 200-300 l/hec.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of soil reclamation.

2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to reclamation and biotechnologies. Proposed method comprises loading contaminated soil into reactor to uniformly distribute it therein. Then, sand with biosorbant added thereto is loaded into said reactor to mix it with soil to make the mix of components to be processed by water solution of humic acid of 2-5%-concentration in water to moisture content of prepared mix making 50-60%. Said mix is held and periodically mixed in the reactor. Specified concentration of contaminants reached, mixing is terminated to discharge cleaned mix. Instead of adding biosorbant to sand, the latter is treated by the mix of humic acid with concentration in water of 2-5 wt % and bioagent of 0.01-0.05%. Proposed plant comprises intake bin with cover for working medium, device to transfer working medium from said bin into bioreactor, irrigation system with storage tank, heating air blower for preheating working medium and maintaining preset temperature in closed volume, working medium discharge screw and heat-isolated bed with heated floor. Note here that intake bin allows separate feed of working medium elements. Besides, storage tank allows receiving solution of humic acid in water or solution of humic acid with bioagent in water. Also, heat-isolated bed comprises two layers with spacing there between communicated with heating air blower outlet.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and quality.

15 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to reclamation. The method includes planting seeds or seedlings of vegetable crops and their vegetative irrigation with electroactivated aqueous solutions - anolyte and catholyte. The first irrigation after planting is carried out with the activated aqueous solution of anolyte and catholyte at their ratio (70:30)-(80:20). The subsequent irrigations are carried out with the activated aqueous solution of with the ratio of anolyte and catholyte (30:70)-(20:80). At that after the first irrigation with the activated solution one irrigation with light water is carried out, and the subsequent irrigations with the said solutions are alternated with irrigations with light water so that one irrigation with the activated aqueous solution is accounted for two irrigations with light water with the predetermined irrigation norm. Prior to mixing the components of the activated water the anolyte pH is 3.2-4.7, and the catholyte pH is 10.5-12.0.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of vegetable produce and increase productivity, reduce energy consumption and improve the environmental friendliness of the process, and also reduce the consumption of activated aqueous solutions during irrigation.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

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