Method of biological revegetation of far north soils

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to revegetation. Proposed method comprises harrowing and forming of growth and top soil by spreading local plant types phytomass on top bare soil. Note here that after harrowing, seed of grass mixes of local plants are sown to introduce nitrogenous phosphatic potash fertilisers on the basis of 100 kg per one hectare. Layer of 8-20 cm-thick aged local plants are applied on the surface to make a protective layer. Seed of grass mix of annual and perennial local far north alien species can be used to this end.

EFFECT: higher quality of revegetation.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of restoration of disturbed land and can be used for recovery of soil and vegetation on bare soils under conditions of Arctic and subarctic regions.

Known way to recover completely destroyed natural vegetation communities (awts of the USSR №1217284, IPC3AV 79/02, publ. 1986), consisting of dense and sverhchetkih the planting of turf and leaving strips for broadening. In the center of the plot have a band width of 10 - 12 m with a dense planting of turf, on both sides of which have consistently empty lane width of 30-35 meters and strips by sorrelli planting turf in the width of 10-12 feet

The disadvantage of this known method is environmental uncertainty and economic wastefulness. If you take a divot on-site reclamation of the surrounding plant communities, thus will increase the area of bare soil, which should be immediately rehabilitated. And if the turf to bring from other natural areas, it is not only economically wasteful, and environmentally feasible, because we bring the turf due to a mismatch of the local soil and climatic conditions, the majority of plant species not take.

There is also known a method including the harrowing of the soil and the formation of vegetation and soil cover vnesenii bare soil mixture unsorted seeds along with their gender, particles axis of inflorescence, leaves and stems (EN 2157605 C1 IPC7AV 79/02, publ. 2000).

The disadvantage of this method is the use of seeds of plants grown in other, more southern climate zones that require fertilizers. Plants other natural areas in the Far North quickly complete its life cycle and die. Economically well-known method is more costly than the proposed.

Closest to the proposed by the achieved technical result is a method of land reclamation, including the formation of vegetation and soil cover by spreading on bare soil aerial parts of the phytomass local climax species (EN 2321979 C2, IPC6AV 79/02, publ 10.12.2011).

The disadvantage of this method is the use of the aerial parts of the phytomass local climax plant species, in particular at the stage of waxy seeds. In the Extreme North of the aboveground part of the plant does not always give quality phytomass, necessary for normal growth sown grass on bare soils disturbed lands. It is difficult to ensure the required amount for carrying out reclamation works, especially when the parameters are set homogeneity is at the stage of waxy seeds. In addition, we conducted the experimental studies have shown, on bare soils sowing mixtures of local climax species of plants without fertilization gives almost no effect.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality reclamation of disturbed lands of the Far North.

This technical result is achieved in that in the method of reclamation of damaged lands in the Arctic and subarctic, including the formation of vegetation and soil cover by making cultivating additives, including the harrowing of the soil and the formation of vegetation and soil cover by spreading on bare soil aerial parts of the phytomass of local plant species, after harrowing of the soil produce seed mixtures of native plant species and the application of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (required for plant growth), and nitrogen-phosphorus-potash mineral fertilizers applied at the rate of 100 kg/ha, and as phytomass use the old native plant species, applied to the surface layer 8-20 see Sowing seed mixtures of native plant species produce seed mixture of annual and perennial introduced in the North of the plant.

Reclamation of disturbed appliances lands in Yakutia has the following features:

for dumping dumps no arable or potentially fertile on the od due to the small capacity of the fertile layer of natural soil;

- the process of broadening the dumps lasts a very long time, therefore, does not prevent cryogenic and erosion processes;

- there are no nurseries of forest plantations, and in the North there is no forest land.

In the Far North do not have sufficient volume or potentially fertile-fertile soil for filling man-made surface, and harsh climatic conditions, as well as erosion and cryogenic processes slow down the growth and development of plants on disturbed lands.

All these conditions determine the main task is to develop economically viable, but at the same time effective for biological remediation method.

The method proposes the use of the old (last year's meadow grass) as cultivating an additive in seeding mixtures without dumping topsoil.

Stariki or rags called last year's dry grass in the meadows. Currently resort to using the most inexpensive way to clean hay and pasture or waste - burning. In the proposed method, it is planned to use her in the biological reclamation of disturbed lands. The composition of the elderly usually are not all the crop plants or the aftermath after mowing, this meadow grasses, sedges, legumes and Forbs. The old man represents last year's grass without seeds. The use of the Finance the elderly as cultivating the additive creates a layer for protecting crops from frost, wind, water and mechanical damage, moisture, and fertilizer will provide waste nutrients needed for growth and development of plants.

The advantages of the proposed method is the following:

- collection and preparation the elderly, which is low-cost covering material can be carried out everywhere and without reference to seasonal changes;

- ease of use and widespread of the elderly provides the ability to implement the method of remediation in spring and autumn;

in the absence of a stockpile regular irrigation of crops, the old man will hold moisture in summer and in winter to serve as a protective layer from frost and wind, with additional positive erosion effects;

- with the growth and development of plants sown mixtures old man will restrain the growth of weeds that spreads easily and prevents the growth of other plant species, will also be a protective layer for fertilizers;

to dump the soil of the old man will be an additional substrate, and when the decay is a source of nutrients;

- sowing seed mixtures of native species seed mixture of annual and perennial plants ensures uniformity of germination for several years.

The method is implemented as follows.

P is izvodyat gathering of old men and shipping it to rekultiviruemye sites. Surface rekultiviruemye sites align harrowing. After preparation of crop rows produce a crop of seed mixtures of native plant species. On rekultiviruemye surface mineral fertilizers. Provide shelter sown plots stariki and pinning it.

The application of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers at the rate of 100 kg/ha provides a complete feeding of seedlings sown mixtures as annual and perennial plants.

The optimum thickness cultivating additives (elderly) when applied to a horizontal surface of 8-10 cm, on the slopes of the dumps - to 20 see

The most efficient use of the old combined with planting one-perennial plants, as in the first season sprout the seeds of annual plants, in subsequent years, perennial grasses.

An example of a specific implementation

In the area of experimental work in the valley & Shaloh (pihal Mirny district Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)) old man consists of meadow species, as vaniki (terrestrial, Langsdorf), sedges (unnoticed, Sitnikova, wintering), Alopecurus meadow. From year to year, these meadows are not used or partially used few cattle private owners. This experience has prepared a site size of 10×10 m: different levels of surface resultif the alignment of the blade. Preliminary gathering of old men made a rake and transported to a test site. On the smoothed surface of the pilot sites made nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in a dose of 100 kg/ha of active ingredient nitrogen (A.I.). On prepared sites parallel to an ordinary method performed sowing seed mix of local herbs. Rows, the distance between which is 0.5 m, were established to prevent erosion processes. After seeding experimental plots produced their shelter by stariki.

Table 1
Table 1 presents some experimental optimal parameters of the method.
StagesName of workThe optimal ratio
1Preparing the surface of the blade for sowing seeds and planting seeds35.0 kg/ha
2The application of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers100.0 kg/ha
3Cover the surface of stariki The average thickness of 10-15 cm on the surface of 8-10 cm, on a slope of up to 20 cm

The first season of experimental works have shown:

- the coverage of vegetation to 40%;

- the average height of shoots 30-40 cm;

- prevalence among seeded species following - oats, white clover, chamomile;

in the dry conditions of the summer of 2011 and in the absence of irrigation emergence in August.

Thus, the use of this method of bioremediation in his first season gave positive results.

1. Method of reclamation of disturbed lands in the Arctic and subarctic, including the harrowing of the soil and the formation of vegetation and soil cover by spreading on bare soil aerial parts of the phytomass of local plant species, notableafter a harrowing soil produce seed mixtures of native plant species and the application of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, and the nitrogen-phosphorus-potash mineral fertilizers applied at the rate of 100 kg/ha, and as a protective layer use the old native plant species for the coating layer 8-20 see

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the seed mixtures of native plant species produce seed mixture of annual and perennial introduced in the North R is Steny.



 

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3 dwg, 1 tbl

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EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

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