Method for open extraction of mineral resource deposits

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for open development of mineral deposits (PI), located in the coastal zone of rivers, and also in terms of the flooded areas.

There is a method /Method open pit mining of mineral deposits. E 21 41/26, No. 1662166, bull. No. 8, 20.03.95/, where the extraction of PI in heavy watering lead by the drainage passages and trenches. After opening the PI around him fulfill the divergent branches of the drainage trench, and the development of PI lead from the center to the periphery. The disadvantage of this method is the disturbance currents groundwater, resulting in shallowing and even the loss of the river adjacent to the site PI.

There is a method /Way of opening and development of shallow formation of mineral deposits. E 21 41/26, No. 1675555, bull. No. 33, 07.09.91/in which different sides of the field opened two trenches, main and auxiliary. From the trenches lead mine workings under the field and carry out the extraction of PI. In this way reduce the costs of reclamation of waste deposits, however, does not solve the problem of flow of groundwater and save rivers.

There is a method /Way of water-technical recultivation of waste upland quarries. E 21 41/32, No. 2120552, publ. 1998.10.20/; which zaklyuche is implemented in layer-by-layer filling area career with the formation of pumped storage cavity in the bottom layer. To raise the level of groundwater is an additional well connected to the storage cavity. Dumping career carried out to provide him the flow of water. The method cannot be used in low areas and floodplains.

Known methods of reclamation of landscapes disturbed by surface mining /Motorina L.V., Zabelina N.M. Reclamation of lands disturbed by mining industry. The overview. M., 1968/. On the site of former quarries in the USSR, Germany, USA, Canada, was created ponds for recreation and economic needs. A distinctive feature of mining operations is their sustainability. Terms quarrying tens of years. Relatively strict laws about environment appeared a few decades ago. In this regard, in the technology fields of building materials, coal, referred to in the specified review, were not included measures to rehabilitate quarries in the reservoirs. At the end of the production PI career filled with water, cleaned, shore rekultivirovana under forest and meadows. The disadvantage of this production PI is that nature is not saved and restored.

The closest prototype of the proposed method from among the known technical solution is the method of production of construction materials, rekultivace the career under the reservoir in the area, Zhukovsky, Moscow region /Lazarev I. Restoration of disturbed areas to urban development. The publishing house construction. M., 1972 (ñ.38-39)/. The method consists in the fact that the opening of the deposits of sand and gravel is at a distance of 150 m from the river. This creates a natural filter jumper between the river and the trench. In the process of developing such a career, in the vicinity of the river, pumping water, usually in the river. After extraction, the PI is the reclamation of dumps by afforestation and filling the trench with water during floods and groundwater flow through the filter jumper. Is the improvement of the educated pond.

The disadvantage of this method is the possibility of its effective application only during the development of construction materials. For example, in the extraction of shallow coal will be lacking soil for reclamation of dumps, dumping the sides and bottom of the generated reservoir. The application of the method in the development of several quarries, including on different sides of the river, will lead to changes in the water regime of the river, its shallowing down to extinction, clogging pumped from trenches water mixed with coal dust.

The proposed method aims to eliminate these shortcomings, and its use can be half the yen following result: for a more complete extraction of PI will accelerate the return of land to productive use.

This result is achieved due to the fact that consistently expose and extract the PI of two tranches: auxiliary, which recultivated under water, and main, located on the opposite side of the river. In the main trench along the entire outside of the bead from the river immediately after mining operations are filling the inner blade width of not less than 250 m and a height at the level of the earth's surface. Calculation and experimentally proved that such a thick jumper is an obstacle to the flow of groundwater. The soil from the opening of the main trench used for reclamation of the auxiliary trench. Water from trenches pumped into the river and the reservoir (after extraction PI) through the intermediate sumps, made in the form of containers. After the creation of the reservoir achieve balance the flow of groundwater between the trenches and the river, what is judged on water levels in the river and pond.

It should be noted that the method is applicable for a particular case, when the trenches are located on one side of the river. This also provides a natural jumper, according to the way you create dumps and pumping systems.

An example of execution of the method can be shown on the development Balahtinskoj coal mine in the Krasnoyarsk region (“Closing...”, Annex 1).

In the drawing the position of the hereafter is given: 1 - auxiliary trench, 2 - natural filtering jumper, 3 - river, 4 - inner main blade of the trench 5 is the main trench 6 - circuit the development of the core trench, 7 - conduit from the trench into the sump, 8 - sump auxiliary trench 9 is a conduit from the tank into the river, a 10 - gate-valve, 11 - sump main trench.

Intelligence indicated the coal river area 3 (the width of the river called the Cheese up to 10 m with an average depth of 1 m, are found valuable fish species). The coal is located on both sides of the river at a depth from the surface of 4-10 m Height layer to 18-36 m, reserves are estimated at 200 million tons

At a distance of 150 m from the river is being developed auxiliary trench 1, i.e. the recess, the size of the 900×300 m on the surface and 30 m depth. Through natural filtration jumper 2 water from the river enters the trench 1. Trench 1 water conduit 7 is pumped into the adjacent trench sump 8. Sumps may be several, a reservoir with gidroizolirovat inner surface. After settling of suspended particles and, if necessary, additional water in the conduit 9 is returned to the river 3. From drained trench 1 is extracted coal. Considering the rate of development of the auxiliary trench 1, set the start time of development of the main trench 5, overburden which is used as the material from which IPCI exhaust space of the auxiliary trench 1 for the future reservoir.

Development of the main trench 5 from the river carried out in such a way that immediately after the excavation of coal creates internal dump 4 width of 250-300 m and a height at the level of the earth's surface. This event significantly reduces the outflow of water from the river into the trench through the corresponding jumper. The main drainage of the trench 5 is produced by pumping water into the river through the adjacent sump 11 through the conduits supplied with a gate-valve 10. Gate-dispenser allows you to direct the water from the sump 11 or in the river 3 or the auxiliary trench 1. After the extraction of coal from the auxiliary trench 1 and its preparation as bed reservoir stops pumping water into the river. After 10-15 months the reservoir to fill with water from the river through the jumper 2, groundwater across the entire surface of the bed, naturally floods and water pumped from the main trench through the tank 11 and the gate-valve 10. With the filling of the trench needs to strike a balance Vodopyanov and to monitor the water level in the river and created lake. The level should correspond to the design values, which depend on the rate of water filtration through jumpers, precipitation, degree of evaporation, economic intake. The specified condition is observed using internal dumping 4 and the suction system is through my device 10, 11.

The farther side of the main trench from the river toward the path of development 6 reduced water inflow through the jumper from the river, and the main trench can be a helper for the next cycle of reclamation in the reservoir. And a pond is a single hydraulic system that river. The surface of the blade 4 recultivated under forest plantations and fields.

Thus, using the proposed method provides practically complete extraction of coal, the preservation of the river and its biological resources, and permanent return of waste land in commercial use in the form of clean water bodies and landscaped area.

The method of open pit mining of mineral deposits (PI), including the opening of the field at a distance of 150 m from the river and creating a natural filter jumper between the river and the trench, pumping water from a trench in the river, removing PI, reclamation of dumps, filling the trench with water, landscaping educated reservoir, characterized in that sequentially open and extract the PI of two tranches - auxiliary, rekultiviruemye under water, and main, located on the opposite side of the river, and the soil overburden which is used for reclamation of the auxiliary trench, while in the main trench on the side with article the Rhone river immediately after mining operations are filling the inner blade width of not less than 250 m and a height at the level of the ground surface, water from trenches pumped into the river, and then into the reservoir through an intermediate sumps, after the creation of the reservoir ensures that the currents of groundwater between the trenches and the river were balanced, what is judged on water levels in the auxiliary trench and the river.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

The invention relates to the field of construction and mining and can be used to restore the broken ledges during operation of the quarry

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used with open placers of

FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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