Method for open extraction of mineral resources deposits

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the mining industry, to methods of open development with the use of mines open-pit and underground complex - career ore chutes. Method of surface mining steeply dipping deposits includes quarry development to the design depth using career ore chutes with storage bins, cutting ore chutes deepening of mining in the quarry, crushing of oversized blocks and rocks from the fall of the walls of the bunker with explosives), the loading of ore transport by rail. When developing career to the design depth of cut flower production and the maturity of the upper part of the ore chutes on each horizon at the approach of mining them carry out division into layers, and pedoscope with the charges in the wells, providing crushing rocks to the required size and security of the walls of the excavation. Further reduction in the size of pieces and the efficiency of ore passes by avoiding deadlocks ore reaches the application of the crushing unit in form of a bowl-stupa with a stove at the base, acting as the anvil under a layer of rock, from which the ore mass by gravity into the hopper and the feeder is fed into the crusher and then through the intermediate conveyor to the main conveyor.

The method allows to increase efficiency is Yunosti extraction of minerals by eliminating deadlocks ore in the ore chutes and application of explosives in the crushing of oversized, the destructive effect of explosions on the walls of the bins and the use of more economical conveyor transport, which increases the area of distribution of the open way in the development of mineral deposits.

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in open development steeply dipping deposits.

There is a method of developing an inclined powerful Apatite deposits in mountainous terrain using pit ore chutes to transport ore from the upper horizons on the horizon haulage tunnel, where the overload ore from the bins by gravity to transport by rail. As extraction career and approach of mining the ore chutes they are cut by the drilling and blasting of the surrounding rock mass around the mouth of the ore passes, and hopper ore chutes extend to provide moving ore after compaction impact loads on the bottom hatch of the vehicle [Rzhevsky CENTURIES, Arsentiev A.A., Anistratov SCI and other Career ore chutes. M.: Nedra. - 1969. - 208 S.].

The disadvantage of this method is that when a cutoff of the upper part of the ore passes on one ledge because of the weakness of the array cracks from previous explosions and weathering of rocks formed large pieces that reach Lucas the housing, and the crushing is carried out by use of explosives), which often is the cause of destruction and the Lucas device. When eliminating deadlocks ore produced by the sealing action of the shock loads and its freezing, destroyed the walls of the bunkers and the ore chutes, which reduces the efficiency of the method of extraction of minerals as a result of breaks in loading ore and disturbances of the rhythm of the processes in the factory.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is the way of minerals, including quarry development to the design depth using pit ore chutes and housed at the approach of mining operations to the site of their location, the use of explosives to break up the oversized and eliminate deadlocks, as well as the use of plates for receiving pieces of the required size and their loading with hatches in the railway transport [Gushchin CENTURIES, Yepimakhov Y.A. Kozyrev A.A. and other Deep ore chutes. Apatity Tr. Kola science center. - 1997. - 195 C.].

The disadvantage of this method is that cutting the upper part of the ore chutes as extraction at lower horizons to the height of the ledge does not exclude the formation of oversized, and the use of plates for the redistribution of the energy of the falling stones for crushing not found technical the CSO solutions as a result, despite some positive properties of the method, it also had breaks in loading ore abandonment hangs ore in the ore chutes, bunkers and Lucas bunker devices the use of EXPLOSIVES, crushing of oversized, the destruction of the walls of the ore chutes and hopper devices.

The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of extraction of minerals in the open way to improve the stability of the quarry, and with the exception of the destruction of the walls of bunkers and ore chutes.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of opencast mining of steeply dipping deposits, including quarry development to the design depth using career ore chutes with storage bins, cutting ore chutes deepening of mining in the quarry, crushing of oversized blocks and rocks from the fall of the walls of the bunker with explosives), the loading of ore transport by rail, cut flower production and the maturity of the upper part of the ore chutes on each horizon at the approach of mining them carry out division into layers, and pedoscope with the charges in the wells, providing crushing rocks to the required size and sound walls output. Further reducing the size of pieces and increase the efficiency of ore passes is ay exceptions hangs ore reaches the application of the crushing unit in form of a bowl-stupa with slab base working as an anvil under a layer of rock, from which the ore mass by gravity into the hopper and the feeder is fed into the crusher and then through the intermediate conveyor to the main conveyor.

Improving the efficiency of work on the vase life and maturity ore chutes by eliminating the formation of oversized achieved by dividing the thickness of breed at the height of the ledge on the layers and pedoscope capacity of each respectively allocated to the block size on fracture and dislocation of the array of the previous explosions and weathering of rocks. After selecting the location and drilling of wells on the ring circuit and thickening of the wells near the walls of the ore passes put the charges in the centers of the selected blocks for their crushing to the required size pieces. To prevent spalling of the blocks and fall into the hopper of the first series of wells around the ore passes shorter length and depth of the array increases with a small pereboom at the level of the removed layer. Blasting boreholes carried out in sections with slower, and the opposite section of the ore passes explode at the same time for additional crushing and the exclusion of their scattering. Thus, layer by layer drilled, blows up and removed the breed and to the completion of the works created intact and stable array in the walls of the ore passes, and rasdr the loose connection to the required size, the breed goes into the bin and then shipped.

Improving the efficiency of the ore passes through the elimination of education hangs ore due to its overstocking and freezing during breaks unloading ore is achieved by using crushing unit in form of a bowl-stupa with a stove at the base, acting as the anvil under a layer of rock. The parameters of such a cone-shaped device are determined by the impact effect size pieces up to 1-1 .2 m, penetrating into the rock (ore) height of 3-5 m and create a layer at the surface of the plate limit stress in compression and rupture, resulting piece is destroyed. The next pieces against the lumpy environment, deepen, finely displacing and srednelistovoy ore mass, and being in marginal condition, if not destroyed, be the anvil for the following pieces and destroyed. Expelled from the Cup-stupa ore mass gravity falls into the bunker and it is in the loosened condition, then the feeder is fed into the crusher, crushed to the required size and then through the intermediate conveyor is fed to the main conveyor and transported them to the factory or the point of overload. The size of the bowl-stupa (diameter) corresponds to the diameter of ore passes, this avoids the blows chunks on her wall (metal). To ensure it is working it is installed and fastened to concrete solid basis of the s.

When reducing the height of the ore chutes up to 25-30 m, the capacity of the buffer layer over the stove in the bowl of the mortar can be reduced to a minimum (hSL=20-30 cm), which practically does not reduce the quality crushing ore. Crushing lumps of ore on the plate was determined in the experiment conducted by the author in Sami career OJSC “Apatit” (Monograph “Deep ore chutes”, sec. 9[2]).

According to research results, even without special crushing on plate coefficient sandrolini ore, expressed as the ratio of the average diameter of the piece to pass through the ore passes and after passing amounted to Apatite ore mine in Central OJSC “Apatit” (the hardness of f=8-10)- 2-2 .5, and the output of the pieces above +400 mm 2.5-4%.

In the application of crushing and link the crushing ratio can reach 4-5, which will reduce the output pieces larger than 350-400 mm to 0.5-1%. Crusher (sekova) can operate in lightweight mode.

The drawings show a section of the plot line and ore passes with equipment and elements of fashion (figure 2, 3, 4).

Figure 1 is a General diagram 1 - the ore passes; 2 - bench; 3 - rail (body); 4 - layers cutting; 5 - crushing element (bowl-stupa); 6 - plate; 7 - base (W/b, prefab); 8 - bunker; 9 - crusher (jaw type SDP); 10 - apron feeder; 11 - intermediate conveyor; 12 - main conveyor; 13, 14, 15 - production;

2 is a diagram cf the conditions of the mouth of the ore passes 16 - wells; 17 - dispersed charges in the wells; 18 - allocated blocks.

Figure 3 - diagram of the locations of wells and section order blasting holes.

4 is a diagram of the crushing element link with crushed ore coming into the bunker.

An example of specific performance

For deposits of Apatite ores “Niorkpahsky” and “deer Creek”, presents a hollow and inclined ore bodies, on the basis of techno-economic analysis found that instead of using road transport haulage distance on the surface 3-16 km is more appropriate to use career ore chutes with conveyor transport ore to the TRANS-shipment point. Distance transportation of ore for the first Deposit will be 1.5-2 km, for the second - 3-3 .5 km

The height of the ledges hy=15 m a Drilling-rig TRD-250 MN, and transportation of the ore to ore chutes carried by dump trucks BelAZ-7519.

The ore chutes have a height of 200-350 m depending on the mountainous terrain, the diameter of 3 meters

Development of the crankcase to the design depth is as follows.

After the sinking of the ore chutes in the area of their bottom set of crushing and link (bowl-stupa) with a base in the form of powerful plate 6 and a height of 3 m with an angle of inclination of the walls to the base 45-60° and is mounted on a concrete base, a facility which is a hopper with feeder 10 (plate, used in factories), constructed the camera 13 for crusher (jaw type SDP) production of 1.5-2000 t/h and the necessary equipment (intermediate conveyor), creates a route for the overland conveyor 12. Hopper capacity 8 3-5 thousand tons, calculated with respect to uneven loading of ore in ore passes 1.

Before loading ore in ore passes in the bowl-mortar 5 creates a protective layer with a capacity of 1.5-2 m and at the beginning of loads of crushed ore with the Department of pieces of 1-1 .2 m, and then sent ordinary ore.

As lowering mining career is cutting (repayment ore chutes 1). This ledge 2 height 15 m divided by height in layers 4 with a capacity of 4-5 m, depending on the blocking rocks 18 array around the ore passes 1. Drilling wells 16 in the recess of the first layer is on the ring scheme with thickening of the walls of the ore passes and variable depth. The diameter of the wells 200-250 mm, the distance between the walls of the ore passes and first range of 0.5-1 m further inland array distance between rows is increased to 2-3 m Depth wells of the first row of 3.5-4 m, last 4.5-5 m, Thus preventing the possibility of spalling blocks near the walls of the ore passes and getting into the barrel of the ore passes. The value of the charge 17 in wells 16 is adjustable depending on the size of the crushed block and identified separately, restricted the th cracks. This eliminates nedodrzovala blocks. Blasting rows of wells in sections with a counter direction of the rocks, exploding from opposite sides of ore passes that contributes to the recrushing material. After completion of the removal of layers of rock formed a new mouth of the ore passes with intact walls and stable array and the ore passes are not oversized pieces, and ore passes, and therefore has a stable career and rhythmic in nature.

Sources of information

1. Rzhevsky CENTURIES, Arsentiev A.A., Anistratov SCI and other Career ore chutes. M.: Nedra. - 1969. - 208 S.

2. Gushchin CENTURIES, Yepimakhov Y.A. Kozyrev A.A. and other Deep ore chutes. Apatity., Tr. Kola science center. - 1997. - 195 C.

Method of surface mining steeply dipping deposits includes quarry development to the design depth using career ore chutes with storage bins, cutting ore chutes deepening of mining in the quarry, crushing of oversized blocks and rocks from the fall of the walls of the bunker with explosives), the loading of ore transport by rail, cut flower production and the maturity of the upper part of the ore chutes on each horizon at the approach of mining them carry out division into layers, and pedoscope with the charges in the wells, providing crushing rocks to the traditional size and integrity of the wall framing, and further reduction in the size of pieces and the efficiency of ore passes by avoiding deadlocks ore reaches the application of the crushing unit in form of a bowl-stupa with a stove at the base, acting as the anvil under a layer of rock, from which the ore mass by gravity into the hopper and the feeder is fed into the crusher and then through the intermediate conveyor to the main conveyor.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

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SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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