Method for building non-working quarry edge

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used when the outdoor design of sloping and steep deposits.

There is a method of satkoski Board when mining steeply dipping ore bodies, which consists in the successive elevation excavation of overburden and fossil and satkoski ledges with depth at the same angle, forming a flat wall of the open pit (Mowasalat, K.M. Shtukaturov, African. Iron ore career. M.: Nedra, 1982. - 262 C.).

The disadvantage of this method is that there is one value of the slope Board regardless of that exploration are usually two-three zone depth of field, different faulting and fracturing of rocks, generally decreasing with depth of extraction. The overestimation of the angles of a slope side at the top leads to premature sliding and collapse sections of the Board, and the underestimation of the slope in the deep zone multisynaptic and intact rocks leads to the reduction in the depth of the pit. In addition, this leads to an automatic reduction of the width of the working area of the quarry to the minimum values, and in the bottom of the quarry up to 15-30 m

There is a method of detuning side when finalizing kimberlitovoi field, namely, that the Board initially build p megalocnus depth with parameters valid for stability, and then carry out the redemption side below the intermediate bottom at the stage of completion of the array of minerals in the tests pillars and finish the offset flanges on this site ultra steep ledges under extreme angle maturity (A.S. No. 2180041 C2 E 21 41/26 Anikiev, Vasaitis, Nkizmenenia, Evenduring, Mwhahaha, publ. 27.02.2002 bull. No. 6).

The disadvantage of this method is that satkoski and offset the greater part of the Board are carried out with parameters that ensure their stability, and when satkoski the bottom of the Board under steep angles is the cutting Board, as a General factor of resistance is less than 1.3 (draft). In addition, before the completion of the inventory factor may be lower than the values in the ultimate state, and it is possible to move the Board.

In addition, at high and steep slopes of the scarp is not guaranteed safety of mining in the finalization career with small reserves in the pillars.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a way of satkoski and the detuning of the Board, including the offset side with its slope, close to the respective profile boards Cos (Ameen, Amiotte, Vasenin Rational profile pit. Horn. INF. - Analyt. bull No. 1, 002, - S-145). While the profile of the side sections of the slope in its upper position (20-25°), followed by a gradual increase in the bottom on the last part of their angle is 90°. This Board meets on the form of a “drop”on the potential (inclined) surface separation and the associated clutch.

Methodology research Institute Board height is divided into 3 parts, and at the top of satkoski section of the Board is at an angle of 30-35° or more with steep angles from the middle and lower parts of the slope side.

The disadvantage is that the sloping angles of the slopes of the upper parts of the sides do not correspond to the real conditions of their stability in rocks. These slopes correspond to the slopes of loose rocks and close to the slopes of the dumps.

In addition, the sloping angles of the slopes in the upper parts of the side cause much damage in the development of open method because the parameters of the pitwall on the surface can reach 4-6 km and more, and these areas will develop a large amount of additional overburden.

The aim of the invention is the creation of ranocchiocciola steep side on the quarry when you decrease the amount of overburden at all stages of its satkoski and offset.

This objective is achieved in that the method satkoski and the detuning of the pit includes cuts from Tupou with changing angles. Moreover, differentiated by the depth of the pit angles of slopes dual ledges form with regard to the reduction of parameters violations with depth of field, natural deblocking upper horizons and impact of mass explosions and weathering of rocks, with a gradual increase their toughness to the appearance of the vertical slopes dual ledges when finalizing career, and the angles of the slopes of the escarpments and areas of the flanges on the upper horizons in rock silentresident rocks are 50-55°, sredneotraslevyh and fractured 70-60° and multisynaptic rocks can be 80-85°, and parts of the side height of 60 to 90 m in the deepest part of the pit with vertical twin ledges and safety berms 10 m have the angle slope 80-85°.

Feature create sustainable boards in quarries, particularly deep, is that the offset of the upper ledges and areas of the Board ahead of the formation of ledges in deep zones for 20-30 years or more.

In known methods of determining the parameters of the pitwall (method research Institute and others) will be taken into account weakened the sliding surface, which over time when finalizing career Board goes in equilibrium (limit) state. The design characteristics of the rocks on the shift while rarely exceed taking into account the factor of n3=1.3: internal friction angle (ϕ=0-32°, and coupling With a=0.2 To 0.4 MPa. Defined the parameters of the pitwall depth N=300-500 m (angle of slope side αb), as a rule, do not exceed 42-45°.

Meanwhile, on the Genesis of education (magmatic) and the structure of the rock especially inclined and steeply dipping ore bodies working in the slope of the flanges on the slice (without identified krutetskii boards tectonic discontinuities), the Deposit can be divided into types: rock multidentate close to monolithic rock medium and fractured, silentresident. Grip rocks in them differs much more: 0.3-0.5 MPa (at offset blocks relative to each other) to 7-10 MPa (at work packs per slice).

Ranostay the optimal tilt angle of the ledges and the pit with the depth of field you need to define given:

- reduction of fracture and dislocation of rocks with depth of field;

- the influence of mass explosions in quarries on fracture (cracking) Protassova array (size 100-140 diameters of charge and more);

effects of weathering and hydrogeology on the stability of slopes ledges and Protassova array Board;

the influence of the discharge of the array;

accounting period of completion career when mining under the last sottoceneri ledges are not conducted.

Reduction of fracture of rock masses is Bob with depth of field can be

described by an expression of the form

KTr=A/Nx,

where a is a constant;

H - depth of the pit;

x is the exponent.

The values as constant a and x for deposits, and various to be determined.

The impact of massive explosions in a career in violation Pridonya arrays is determined based on the explosion of the explosive for the entire service life of a career (in periodonal zone).

In General, the wedge shift in priodonta array from the explosion of the explosive probation may be issued by the slope of a line to the horizontal at an angle α1. The depth distribution of irregularities on the surface on the number of CC varies from 10-15 m (multisensory array) to 100-120 m (silentresident array), and from the edge of the slope near the bottom from 3-5 5-10 m

The width of the zone of weathering, which should be taken into account when satkoski ledges and areas of the Board may vary from 1-2 m (multidentate close to monolithic) up to 8-10 m (silentresident arrays) for 20-25 years standing.

The effect unloading of the array is manifested largely in the fractured block array, especially during the formation of the wedge offset.

Accounting period improvement career you need to make sodoku ledges under the maximum possible angle up to 90°, since the conduct of work under such short slopes and dvijeniyami on such sites flanges with a minimum of disturbance of rock impossible.

Simultaneous consideration of influencing factors determines a smooth change of angles satkoski ledges and side plots with depth of field, and the profile of the slope of the sides close to the convex slowly varying geometry and slope to a vertical section near the bottom of the quarry.

The steepness of certain parts of the Board can vary from 50-55° (top single shoulder silentresident arrays), 70-60° in fractured arrays at intermediate levels and up to 80-85° multisynaptic arrays at deeper horizons in the finalization of the quarry.

The table shows the classification of the rocks of fractures and fracture in accordance with the coefficients of fracture.

Table

Classification of rock masses for fracture and adhesion breeds
IndicatorsUnitsArray types
  multidentatefracturedintensely fractured
The ratio of fractureThe number of cracks per 1 m of the core3-515-25more than 25-30
GripMPa7-702-3 0,5-1

Figure 1 shows a section of the field with differentiated by the depth of the pit angles of slope of the scarp edge.

On figa, 2B, 2C, 2G, 2D shows graphs of the variation of the values of cohesion and angle of internal friction of the rock material at least reduce its particle size d. When blocks of size 1 m more grip rocks up to 7-10 MPa, and the internal friction angle of 45° or more.

An example of specific performance

For Narkoznogo deposits of Apatite-nepheline ores, working out of the same quarry mine “Vostochny”, OJSC “Apatit” based on consideration of all influencing factors, such as a large disturbance of the rocks in the upper horizons (large size breeds), the impact of massive explosions in a career that reduces the coupling between the units to a minimum value and a spread of up to 50-100 m, weathering of rocks in the upper horizons of the width of 20-30 m in 20 years of career settings are defined sustainable slopes of escarpments and areas of the Board until the end of the mine pit.

On the middle and especially the lower horizons of the width of the zone violations is constantly decreasing and is 5-10 m at working on the last of the horizon.

The coefficients a and x that determine the pattern of reduction of the coefficient of fracturing with depth, respectively And=116, x=0,43. Under the established area of violations of the quarry (NC=260-390 m) defined sustainable corners of the ledges and slopes of the plots of the Board. They were on the top horizon 50-55°, later increasing to 60-70° (medium horizons) and up to 80-85° on the bottom, the latter two double ledge (section side SN=60 m) have an angle of 90° (vertical double ledges) berm 5-10 m for safety performance. The angle of slope side on this site will be 78-80°.

The draft angle of a slope side (flat) 46-47°. In the proposed method the steepness of the Board 56-57°, which reduces the amount of rocks in the sides from scattering in comparison with the project up to 35-38 million3.

For deep Masvingo career of mine East of OJSC “Apatit” (NC=600-800 m) section of the bead in the deepest part of the quarry with minimal disruption zakomornogo array defined three double vertical ledge 30 m berm width 5-10 m (section side SN=90 m), the angle of the slope of the plot side - 78-80°. Open pit height of the ledges h=15 m, saloobrazovanie is made by drilling with a diameter of 100-120 mm

How satkoski and the detuning of the pit, including the cutting ledges with changing angles, characterized in that the differential depth career corners of jambs dual ledges form with regard to the reduction of parameters violations with depth of field at natural blocking of the upper horizons and impact of mass explosions and rock weathering with gradual uvelicheniya steep to vertical clearance slope dual ledges when finalizing career, moreover, the angles of the slopes of the escarpments and areas of the flanges on the upper horizons in rock silentresident rocks are 50-55°, sredneotraslevyh and fractured 70-60° and multisynaptic rocks can be 80-85°, and parts of the side height of 60 to 90 m in the deepest part of the pit with vertical twin ledges and safety berms 10 m have an angle of repose of 80-85°.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

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FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

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FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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