Generator-shaper electromagnetic pulse (options)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to pulsed power technology, accelerator technology and can be used to generate high-current high-voltage electric pulses of rectangular shape for powering the accelerator devices, plasma, liner loads, and so on, the circuit Breaker is placed in the region of the lateral or outer electrode and to carry out specific electrical connection between the electrodes, circuit breaker and power source. The technical result consists in excluding the impact of the circuit breaker on the insulator separating the load from the volume of the forming line, thereby increasing the reliability of the generator, and to reduce the linear dimensions of the generator, since the transfer of the current interrupter of the paraxial region allows you to create generators with linear dimensions small compared with the linear dimensions of the circuit breaker. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 4 Il.

The invention relates to pulsed power technology, accelerator technology and can be used to generate high-current high-voltage electric pulses of rectangular shape for powering the accelerator devices, plasma, liner narwal forming lines with distributed parameters (Izhaki Ya C. Pulse device.- M: Owls. radio, 1959, S. 349). In this work theoretically, the principles of formation of an electromagnetic pulse with a short-circuited line with current and possibility of realization of the generator on this principle. Constructive solution required a particular purpose, is missing.

Known as the electromagnetic pulse generator in which the magnetic energy of the current is stored in a closed toroidal circuit (A. I. Pavlovsky and other Nuclear energy, 1974, T. 37, vol. 3, S. 228, Fig. 1B). The generator contains a squirrel-cage at the outer radius of the radial line toroid-shape cross-section formed in the outer cylindrical electrode, limited along the axis of the lateral electrodes, electrically connected with the external electrode and connected in series with the radial line, the circuit breaker on the basis of exploding wires, located axially in the axial region of the line and connected one end side electrode and the other to the output of the current source and the current source with the transmission line. The load is connected in parallel with the circuit breaker and is located along the axis of the generator.

The disadvantage of such a generator AVI volume forming lines, which can be filled with a dielectric (solid, liquid, gaseous), from the load, usually under vacuum (electron beam, liner and so on), is in close proximity to the circuit breaker. Triggering a powerful current interrupter (exploding wires, plasma current interrupter) is accompanied by an intense increase in temperature, evaporation, dispersion, plasma, etc. that can lead to the ingress of explosion products, plasma cell and its premature breakdown, and consequently, to decrease the potential of the output voltage and reduce the duration of the generated pulse. That is, decreases the reliability of the generator.

In addition, the generators operating at low load, for efficient transmission of power to the load must have a low impedance is comparable to the load. Small wave impedance of the generator on the basis of radial forming lines defines and small linear dimensions of the generator. On the other hand, when the small linear size of the generator axial location of the circuit breaker in it (especially for accumulated and break currents amplitude hundreds and thousands ka) is not always possible, because the size of the current interrupter is building relatively robust at small linear dimensions of the generator-shaper electromagnetic pulse, having a high output voltage in comparison with the prototype while maintaining linear (axial) dimensions. The generator is necessary for the formation of high-voltage high-current pulses with inductive energy storage. It is particularly convenient to use such a generator when used as the primary source of current magnetic flux compression generator (ICG), which enables the development of very large currents in misconducting load, which is a closed toroidal path in the accumulation of power in it. In such a generator, the electric field is excited between the two portions of the inner surface of a single closed conductive cavity, which simultaneously plays the role of the electromagnetic screen. That is, a closed toroidal generator housing from the outside is at zero potential.

The technical result consists in excluding the impact of the circuit breaker on the insulator separating the load from the volume forming lines by reducing the possibility of premature breakdown on this insulator under the influence of the products of the operation of the circuit breaker, thereby increasing the reliability of the generator, while maintaining a small linear dimensions of the generator from lack is yatela current from the paraxial region of the generator in the region of the lateral or outer electrode and the organization of a particular electrical connection between the electrodes, circuit breaker, a source of current. This technical result can be achieved in two versions of devices to the same destination - the generators-the generators of electromagnetic pulse. This is due to the Association of the proposed devices in the application options.

The technical result in the generator according to the first embodiment is achieved by the fact that in contrast to the known generator containing series-connected

- power supply with line,

at least one circuit breaker,

- inductive drive, made in the form of radial lines with toroidal conductive housing formed by the outer cylindrical electrode, limited along the axis of the lateral electrodes, electrically connected with the external electrode, and

is connected to the output of the inductive storage in parallel with the circuit breaker directly or through aggravating discharger load, the proposed generator in the radial line coaxial toroidal body between the two side electrodes introduced an additional inner cylindrical electrode, electrically connected by its end to one of the side electrodes, and the side electrode, or in an external criterion period, and a current source connected between the end of the inner cylindrical electrode not connected to side, and body.

The technical result in the generator according to the second variant is achieved by the fact that in contrast to the known generator containing series-connected

at least one circuit breaker,

- inductive drive, made in the form of radial lines with toroidal conductive housing formed by the outer cylindrical electrode, limited along the axis of the lateral electrodes, electrically connected with the external electrode, and

is connected to the output of the inductive storage in parallel with the circuit breaker directly or through aggravating discharger load, the proposed generator in the radial line coaxial toroidal body between the two side electrodes introduced an additional inner cylindrical electrode, electrically connected by their ends to the two side electrodes, and in one of the side electrodes or in the outer cylindrical electrode arranged annular gap, the current interrupter connected to the electrodes forming a gap, and a current source connected to the electrodes forming the approach proving achievable technical result in both cases is as follows. The transfer switch current from the paraxial region of the generator, where it is in close proximity to the insulator separating the forming line from the load (vacuum cavity), in the region of the lateral or outer electrode makes it possible to eliminate the effect of SOS on the insulator and prevent premature breakdown of the insulator under the influence of the products that appear upon actuation of the circuit breaker, which can serve as exploding wires, plasma TV. Are particularly affected when the circuit breaker is designed for currents of the order of hundreds and thousands of ka. In addition, when the generator is on a given load impedance of the generator must be consistent with the load resistance. If the load resistance is small, for effective transfer current in the low impedance load and an impedance forming a radial line must be small (of the order of the load resistance), which means that the linear size of the generator should also be small, since the linear dimensions of the generator-shaper toroidal configuration is uniquely defined eat ~ 1 m and wave impedance of ~ 0.5 Ohm linear size will be ~ 7 8 see... At the same time the circuit breaker, especially at the level of the currents of the order megaamper may have dimensions greater than the distance between the side plates of the radial line (linear dimensions of the generator), so placing it in the axial direction like the prototype becomes impossible.

The transfer of the current interrupter in the area of the electrode allows the use of circuit breakers with large linear dimensions, because the radial size of the generator-shaper significantly exceeds its linear size. Similarly, the problem is solved and when placing the circuit breaker in the area of the external electrode in the generators-the generators on the basis of homogeneous radial lines, because these lines cone diverging in the direction from the axis to the outer electrode.

Transfer breaker in each of the variants with maintaining the electrical connection elements of the current path can be provided thanks to the specifics of the design execution of the electrodes of the generator and the respective connection electrodes, circuit breaker, current source in an electrical circuit that meets the equivalent electrical circuit. Then for the first option on the basis of formula accommodation prerivat is Romareda in them. Introduction to radial line coaxial toroidal body between the two side electrodes of the additional inner cylindrical electrode, connecting one end to the side electrode placed therein and electrically connected with the electrodes that make up this gap, circuit breaker, connecting a current source between the non-connected side end of the internal electrode of the cylindrical electrode and the housing is formed of a closed electrical circuit in which is stored magnetic energy of a current transmitted from the primary power source. When you break the circuit in the breaker trips current radial forming line with current generates a load rectangular electrical pulse, and the energy stored in the line is transferred to the load.

For the second variant, the possibility of placing the circuit breaker in one of the side electrodes or in the outer cylindrical electrode is also due to the organization of the annular gap in them. Electric closed circuit, in which is stored the energy current from the primary source, is formed by the introduction of radial line coaxial toroidal body between the two side electrodes is m, placement in an organized annular gap and is electrically connected with the electrodes forming the gap, the current interrupter, the organization of the annular gap between the outer cylindrical electrode and one of the side and connecting the source of current between the electrodes bounding the gap. When triggered, the current interrupter pulse shaping is the same as that described for the first variant.

Thus, for each of the options for the location of the circuit breaker on the side or the outer electrode with the corresponding electrical connection allows you to save a small linear dimensions of the generator due to the lack of dependence of these dimensions from the linear dimensions of the circuit breaker and install the insulator separating the load from the forming line, at a much greater distance from the circuit breaker, which will reduce the likelihood of contact with the insulator products of explosion of conductors or plasma and increase the reliability of the generator.

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the generator-shaper in the first embodiment (shown in half-section, since the generator of assymmetrical) with the location of the circuit breaker on the side electrode;

in Fig. 2 - circuits the electrode;

in Fig. 3 diagram of the generator-shaper on the second version with the location of the circuit breaker on the side electrode;

in Fig. 4 diagram of the generator-shaper on the second version with the location of the circuit breaker on the outer cylindrical electrode.

The generator according to the first embodiment contains connected in series to the current source 1, line 2, toroidal conductive housing formed by the outer cylindrical electrode 3 and two side electrodes 4 electrically connected with the external electrode, the internal cylindrical electrode 5 is electrically connected at one end with a lateral electrode in the lateral electrode (Fig. 1) or in the outer cylindrical electrode (Fig. 2) made the annular gap (a-a) in which at least one circuit breaker 6 connected to the electrodes forming the gap. In parallel with the circuit breaker directly or through aggravating discharger 7 connected to the load 8. The current source 1 is connected to the end of the inner cylindrical electrode not connected to side, and the second (without circuit breaker) side electrode (the body).

The generator according to the first embodiment is as follows. In between current source sets the current I0and the energy in the line is stored in the magnetic field. In the process of establishing the current I0radial line represents the concentrated inductance, since the accumulation time of the current is significantly greater than the electrical length of the line. At time t = 0 is triggered the circuit breaker 6, the circuit of the inductive storage is broken and the output end in parallel to the circuit breaker 6 in the direction of the load 8 begins to spread current wave. Radial line begins to work on the load as short-circuited forming line with current I0connected to the load Rn(the internal resistance of the current source a little). When this current is passed to the load equal to

< / BR>
where the characteristic impedance of the line; Rn- load resistance. The voltage at the load is:

< / BR>
When negotiating line with the load, the energy stored in the line, the whole is transferred to the load. (Approved = Rn), then the current in the load voltage at the load

The pulse duration will be determined by the time of the double mileage waves on the line.

The generator according to the second variant contains connected in series to the current source 1, line 2, toroidal conductive Keski electrode 5, electrically connected by their ends to the two side electrodes. In one of the side electrodes (Fig. 3) or in an external electrode (Fig. 4) performed an annular gap (a-a) in which at least one circuit breaker 6 connected to the electrodes forming the gap. In parallel with the circuit breaker 6 directly or through aggravating discharger 7 connected to the load 8. The current source 1 is connected to the electrodes forming the annular gap created between the outer cylindrical electrode 3 and one of the side 4 (clearance). Options 1 and 2 are connected to the power source. The generator according to the second embodiment is similar to that described for the first variant.

The described generator (options) should be used as a pulsed power source for accelerating device for feeding liner, plasma loads with a current of ~ 106...107A voltage of ~ 106...107In and a pulse duration of 10-8...10-7C.

Here are specifications of one of the variants (Fig. 3) of the proposed generator. The generator uses a uniform radial lines. Outer diameter D = 3 m, inner d = 1 m, as is Lisa) with impedance = 0.5 Ohms. As the dielectric lines used deionized water. The current accumulated in the line - 8 MA. Under ideal breakaway current and negotiating line with the load in the load will be transmitted pulse forming line, with a duration of ~ 110 NS, the amplitude of current I = 4 MA, the voltage on the load resistance Rn= 0.5 Ohm, equal to U = 2106C. When the linear dimensions of the generator was 8 see Reliability is increased two times.

Therefore, the proposed generator is generated and the generated electric pulse to a load of 0.5 Ohm load current of 4 MA, the voltage 2106B, a duration of ~ 110 NS. Excluded the influence of the plasma current interrupter on the insulator due to its transfer from the circuit breaker, i.e., improves the reliability of the generator 2 times, saved small linear dimensions of the generator due to ensure their independence from the linear dimensions of the circuit breaker (linear dimensions of the plasma current interrupter exceed 8 cm).

1. Generator-shaper electromagnetic pulse containing connected in series to the current source with the communication line, at least one circuit breaker, inductive drive, made in the form of radial lines with taroob electrodes, electrically connected with the external electrode, and is connected to the output of the inductive storage in parallel with the circuit breaker directly or through aggravating discharger load, characterized in that a radial line coaxial toroidal body between the two side electrodes introduced an additional inner cylindrical electrode, electrically connected by its end to one of the side electrodes, and the side electrode or the outer cylindrical electrode arranged annular gap, the current interrupter connected to the electrodes, between which is formed a gap, and a current source connected between the end of the inner cylindrical electrode not connected to side, and body.

2. Generator-shaper electromagnetic pulse containing connected in series to the current source with the communication line, at least one circuit breaker, inductive drive, made in the form of radial lines with toroidal conductive housing formed by the outer cylindrical electrode, limited along the axis of the lateral electrodes, electrically connected with the external electrode, and is connected to the output inductive acopam, in the radial line coaxial toroidal body between the two side electrodes introduced an additional inner cylindrical electrode, electrically connected by their ends to the two side electrodes, and in one of the side electrodes or in the outer cylindrical electrode arranged annular gap, the current interrupter connected to the electrodes, between which is formed a gap, and a current source connected to the electrodes, forming a circular incision is made between the outer cylindrical electrode and one of the side.

 

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