Coaxial diode with magnetic insulation of high current pulsed accelerator of relativistic electron beam of microsecond duration
(57) Abstract:The inventive diode contains explosive-emission cathode, mounted on catopocerinae, a vacuum chamber, which also serves as the anode, and the solenoid. The cathode is made in the form of a ring wedge-shaped cross-section with a radially directed outward with a sharp edge, the outer radius of which specifies a fixed magnetic power tube, and the distance from the tube to any point of katalogizacija with which potential emissions greater than the length of the scattering across the magnetic field, the plasma formed on catopocerinae, during the pulse duration. 4 Il. The invention relates to accelerator technology and can be used when creating a pulsed high-current relativistic electron accelerators microsecond range.Known coaxial diode with magnetic insulation (CDMI) high-current accelerator of relativistic electron beam (REB) microsecond duration, containing catalogization with a fixed explosive-emission cathode located in a vacuum chamber inside the solenoid.Closest to the invention, the technical solution chosen as a prototype, Akoume the camera inside the solenoid, creating a magnetic tube in the area of the cathode.The disadvantages of the prototype are that, first, the electron beam formed in the magnetic tube, always have a significant transverse velocity, and the greater, the stronger the tube, and, secondly, emitting electrons, the plasma-side surface of the cathode, Rassias normal to the surface, i.e., across the magnetic field, increases the mean radius of the tubular beam. Meanwhile, the weaker the tube, the more plasma is involved in this process. This is due to the fact that the plasma moves in the direction opposite to the pressure gradient, therefore, under pressure from neighboring areas (lateral and inner radius) formed on the surface extended along the length of the cathode plasma "squeezed" in the direction of increasing radius. This mechanism determines the scattering length, i.e. the distance that shifts the plasma during the pulse duration.An object of the invention is to stabilize the outer radius of the electron beam during the microsecond time intervals, due to the almost complete absence of side surface of the cathode and katalogizacija, with which the possible scattering Poperechnaya fact, the cathode is made in the form of a ring wedge-shaped cross-section with a radially directed outward sharp edge, an outer radius which determines the fixed magnetic force tube (surface), and the distance from any point of the tube to any currents of katalogizacija with which potential emissions greater than the length of the scattering across the magnetic field, the plasma formed on catopocerinae, during the pulse duration. The electric field intensity on the surface of katalogizacija for which the specified condition is not met (i.e., near the surface of the magnetic tube, for example a spherical part of the holder of Fig.1), is insufficient for the development process emission during the pulse.Comparative analysis of the prototype shows that the claimed CDMA differs significantly lower area of the side surface with which the possible emission, which allows to conclude that the criterion of "novelty."Known different shapes diode with ostrinia (blade) cathodes. In some cases, the edge is directed directly toward the anode, which is also the collector of electrons. In the case of CDMA electrons fly in the direction of the collector pair the s edge. The very point is made in order to increase the electric field strength, and with it the issue with them electrons.In our case, the direction of current flow perpendicular to the direction of the tip on the anode tube. The sharp edge is used to minimize (and ideally completely prevent) the emission of electrons (and therefore heating of the surface, the formation of plasma, its expansion, and so on).When comparing the proposed solutions with other known technical solutions in this field of engineering not found solutions with similar features and decisive similar technical tasks, which allows to conclude that the criterion of "inventive step".In Fig. 1 presents CDMI, General view; Fig.2 and 3 shows two (of many possible) way of attaching a thin annular cathode catopocerinae and the radial distribution of current density of the electron beam obtained in these conditions; Fig.4 shows the same distribution, but corresponding to the cathode with a large area of the side surface, as, for example, in the prototype.CDMI contains explosive-emission cathode 1, is made in the form of a ring wedge-shaped cross-section with radially snaplogic anode. A magnetic field of 1 T in the area of the cathode is generated by the solenoid 4. Magnetic power tube 5 is defined by an outer radius of the cathode.CDMA works as follows.When a high voltage to the cathode 1 and the holder 2 autoelectronic emission heats their surface, and formed as a result of this plasma is further emitter of electrons. Repeatedly cited in the literature, the velocity of the transverse (with respect to the magnetic field) motion plasma varies in the range v= (1,5-4).105cm/s, and the number of plasma and its velocity is greater, the greater the current selection with its surface. The electrons emitted from the surface of katalogizacija and extending in a strong ( 1 T) magnetic field along the power lines, turn out to be trapped between the surfaces, the capacity of which is equal to the total energy of the particles, normalized to the unit of charge. This results in the shielding of the surface of katalogizacija spatial charge of the electrons, and further emission stops. The resulting plasma with katalogizacija no time during the impulse to go beyond the magnetic force of the tube defined by the outer radius of the cathode is th point of katalogizacija 2 to any point magnetic power tube 5). Plasma with the end surface of the cathode under the influence of an electric field propagating along the magnetic field system and does not change the beam radius, and the number of the plasma formed on the side surface, is insignificant due to the small area of the latter, and imitirovannymi electrons from it does not make a significant contribution to the beam current. In Fig.2 and 3 it can be seen that the outer radius of the cathode 1 exceeds the radius of katalogizacija 2 more than 3 mm ( r 3 mm), above the rate of transverse movement of the v1= (1,5-4).105cm/s plasma does not have time for time measurements = 700 NS to compensate for the difference of the radii.Radial profile of the current density REP was measured partitioned manifold by a receiver placed at a distance b 30 cm from the cathode 1. The results of the measurements are presented in Fig.2-4. The histogram shows the density distribution of the beam current J along the radius r at different times for two different ways of mounting the cathode 1: coaxial holder 2 cone shape (Fig.2) and the holder 2 made in the form of two separate rods-suspensions (Fig.3). The zero reference on the x-axis corresponds to the outer radius of the cathode. It is seen that the average radius of the RAP is practically unchanged for lying to the thickness of the beam in Fig.3 in General significantly less than in Fig.2, its azimuthal heterogeneity associated with the emission of electrons from the terminals of the suspension, restrict the scope of this design. The cathode with a large area of the side surface, i.e., the prototype (Fig.4), forms the beam radial profile of the current density which varies considerably during the pulse duration (the core of the current density distribution of the beam is shifted to the right on the x-axis over time).Thus, the use of the invention allows to obtain a tubular high-current REB microsecond duration, in which the radial profile of the current density remains practically unchanged during the pulse. COAXIAL DIODE WITH MAGNETIC INSULATION of high CURRENT PULSED ACCELERATOR of RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAM of MICROSECOND DURATION, containing catalogization with a fixed explosive-emission cathode located in a vacuum chamber inside the solenoid, wherein the cathode is made in the form of a ring wedge-shaped cross-section with a radially directed outward sharp edge, an outer radius which determines the fixed magnetic force tube, and the distance from any point of the tube to any point to which I catopocerinae, for the duration of the pulse.
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.
EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.
22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: technical physics, in particular, accelerators of light ions, possible use as generator of neutrons.
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of ions with magnetic isolation contains vacuumized cylindrical cover, made of dielectric material, provided with vacuum pump, magnetic coils positioned outside the cover, connected to impulse electric power source and creating axial magnetic field, anode and cathode, made in form of coaxial tubes, connected to high voltage source. Accelerator is provided with gas tank, adjustable by gas inlet valve and means for controlling gas pressure, accelerating inducers and additional magnetic coils, which are positioned on external surface of vacuum cover between inducers and are connected to impulse electric power sources. Device is also provided with inverse coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each magnetron is connected to accelerator space via through slit, made in cathode of magnetron and lying in plane, passing through appropriate cover diameter in parallel to its generating line. Anode tube is made in form of part of cover, on vacuum surface of which axially-symmetrically and with provision of electric contact by their cathodes magnetrons are mounted, while their anodes are connected to impulse electric power sources.
EFFECT: decreased instability of ion current.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, possible use in laboratory research, and also during development of new devices for medicine and engineering, where it is needed to eject electron or laser beams in impulse mode.
SUBSTANCE: the essence of method is in using the difference of spreading speeds of gas and electrons. Ejection channel is opened for the time, sufficient for flight of electrons, but insufficient for passage of gas molecules. This allows ejection of short electron beams of any power without loss of their energy with minimal flow of gas in direction of lesser pressure. Claimed device, which realizes the method, does not exhaust all of its capabilities. It is engineered for ejection of electrons from radioactive gas environment with pressure of 1Pa order into vacuum with pressure 10-5-10-6 Pa. Special feature of the method is that on its basis devices may be created for ejection of electron and laser beams without limitation of energy and distortion of their spectrum.
EFFECT: possible creation of devices, which, depending on conditions of operations in conjunction with various methods and means of vacuum and compressor engineering will ensure ejection of electron and laser beams of any energy into space with any pressure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in high-voltage electrode of double stepped forming line, which contains two coaxial metal shells connected by means of end flange, and fixed in housing of double stepped forming line by means of discharge devices on one side and support dielectric elements on the other side, connection section of discharge devices to high-voltage electrode is made in the form of annular framework; openings are made in the framework and thin metal membranes through which discharge devices are connected to high-voltage electrode are fixed in them; at that, membranes are installed with possibility of their being broken away when discharge devices are destructed.
EFFECT: reduction of labour costs for repair of high-voltage electrode without removal of double stepped forming line of accelerator.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multipass accelerator-recuperator with separate paths for accelerated and decelerated particles.
EFFECT: independent control over accelerated and decelerated particles, particularly, independent focusing and trajectory correction.
SUBSTANCE: radiant tube (4) for guiding a charged particle stream (10), having a hollow cylindrical isolation core (6) directly surrounding a beam-guiding hollow volume (8), the isolation core (6) being formed from a dielectrically acting carrier substrate (14) and an electrical conductor (16) held therein, and a metal housing (5) surrounding the isolation core (6), wherein the conductor (16) is divided into a plurality of conductor loops (20) completely encompassing the circumference of the isolation core (6) at different axial positions and galvanically connected to each other, wherein the conductor (16) in at least two spaced-apart points, particularly at the side of the ends, is galvanically connected to the housing (5), wherein metal layers are embedded in the carrier substrate (14), said metal layers being arranged one behind the other along the axis of the radiant tube (4) and inductively connected to each other through the electrical conductor (16).
EFFECT: reduced probability of breakdown.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: acceleration equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering. Accelerator for charged particles comprises a set of capacitors with the first electrode, which can be brought to the first potential, with the second electrode, which is located concentrically to the first electrode and can be brought to the second potential differing from the first potential, and with at least one intermediate electrode, which is arranged concentrically between the first electrode and the second electrode and which can be brought to an intermediate potential located between the first potential and the second potential, a switching device, with which electrodes of the set of capacitors are connected and which is designed so that during operation of the switching device arranged concentrically to each other electrodes of the set of capacitors are brought to rising steps of potential, the first and the second accelerating channels formed by the first and respectively the second holes in electrodes of the set of capacitors, so that along the first or the second accelerating channel charged particles can be accelerated by the electrodes, a device affecting the accelerated beam of particles inside the set of capacitors to make a beam of particles generate the radiated photons.
EFFECT: technical result is provision of constant field intensity along the accelerating channel.
9 cl, 9 dwg