Coaxial diode with magnetic insulation of high current pulsed accelerator of relativistic electron beam of microsecond duration

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive diode contains explosive-emission cathode, mounted on catopocerinae, a vacuum chamber, which also serves as the anode, and the solenoid. The cathode is made in the form of a ring wedge-shaped cross-section with a radially directed outward with a sharp edge, the outer radius of which specifies a fixed magnetic power tube, and the distance from the tube to any point of katalogizacija with which potential emissions greater than the length of the scattering across the magnetic field, the plasma formed on catopocerinae, during the pulse duration. 4 Il.

The invention relates to accelerator technology and can be used when creating a pulsed high-current relativistic electron accelerators microsecond range.

Known coaxial diode with magnetic insulation (CDMI) high-current accelerator of relativistic electron beam (REB) microsecond duration, containing catalogization with a fixed explosive-emission cathode located in a vacuum chamber inside the solenoid.

Closest to the invention, the technical solution chosen as a prototype, Akoume the camera inside the solenoid, creating a magnetic tube in the area of the cathode.

The disadvantages of the prototype are that, first, the electron beam formed in the magnetic tube, always have a significant transverse velocity, and the greater, the stronger the tube, and, secondly, emitting electrons, the plasma-side surface of the cathode, Rassias normal to the surface, i.e., across the magnetic field, increases the mean radius of the tubular beam. Meanwhile, the weaker the tube, the more plasma is involved in this process. This is due to the fact that the plasma moves in the direction opposite to the pressure gradient, therefore, under pressure from neighboring areas (lateral and inner radius) formed on the surface extended along the length of the cathode plasma "squeezed" in the direction of increasing radius. This mechanism determines the scattering length, i.e. the distance that shifts the plasma during the pulse duration.

An object of the invention is to stabilize the outer radius of the electron beam during the microsecond time intervals, due to the almost complete absence of side surface of the cathode and katalogizacija, with which the possible scattering Poperechnaya fact, the cathode is made in the form of a ring wedge-shaped cross-section with a radially directed outward sharp edge, an outer radius which determines the fixed magnetic force tube (surface), and the distance from any point of the tube to any currents of katalogizacija with which potential emissions greater than the length of the scattering across the magnetic field, the plasma formed on catopocerinae, during the pulse duration. The electric field intensity on the surface of katalogizacija for which the specified condition is not met (i.e., near the surface of the magnetic tube, for example a spherical part of the holder of Fig.1), is insufficient for the development process emission during the pulse.

Comparative analysis of the prototype shows that the claimed CDMA differs significantly lower area of the side surface with which the possible emission, which allows to conclude that the criterion of "novelty."

Known different shapes diode with ostrinia (blade) cathodes. In some cases, the edge is directed directly toward the anode, which is also the collector of electrons. In the case of CDMA electrons fly in the direction of the collector pair the s edge. The very point is made in order to increase the electric field strength, and with it the issue with them electrons.

In our case, the direction of current flow perpendicular to the direction of the tip on the anode tube. The sharp edge is used to minimize (and ideally completely prevent) the emission of electrons (and therefore heating of the surface, the formation of plasma, its expansion, and so on).

When comparing the proposed solutions with other known technical solutions in this field of engineering not found solutions with similar features and decisive similar technical tasks, which allows to conclude that the criterion of "inventive step".

In Fig. 1 presents CDMI, General view; Fig.2 and 3 shows two (of many possible) way of attaching a thin annular cathode catopocerinae and the radial distribution of current density of the electron beam obtained in these conditions; Fig.4 shows the same distribution, but corresponding to the cathode with a large area of the side surface, as, for example, in the prototype.

CDMI contains explosive-emission cathode 1, is made in the form of a ring wedge-shaped cross-section with radially snaplogic anode. A magnetic field of 1 T in the area of the cathode is generated by the solenoid 4. Magnetic power tube 5 is defined by an outer radius of the cathode.

CDMA works as follows.

When a high voltage to the cathode 1 and the holder 2 autoelectronic emission heats their surface, and formed as a result of this plasma is further emitter of electrons. Repeatedly cited in the literature, the velocity of the transverse (with respect to the magnetic field) motion plasma varies in the range v= (1,5-4).105cm/s, and the number of plasma and its velocity is greater, the greater the current selection with its surface. The electrons emitted from the surface of katalogizacija and extending in a strong ( 1 T) magnetic field along the power lines, turn out to be trapped between the surfaces, the capacity of which is equal to the total energy of the particles, normalized to the unit of charge. This results in the shielding of the surface of katalogizacija spatial charge of the electrons, and further emission stops. The resulting plasma with katalogizacija no time during the impulse to go beyond the magnetic force of the tube defined by the outer radius of the cathode is th point of katalogizacija 2 to any point magnetic power tube 5). Plasma with the end surface of the cathode under the influence of an electric field propagating along the magnetic field system and does not change the beam radius, and the number of the plasma formed on the side surface, is insignificant due to the small area of the latter, and imitirovannymi electrons from it does not make a significant contribution to the beam current. In Fig.2 and 3 it can be seen that the outer radius of the cathode 1 exceeds the radius of katalogizacija 2 more than 3 mm ( r 3 mm), above the rate of transverse movement of the v1= (1,5-4).105cm/s plasma does not have time for time measurements = 700 NS to compensate for the difference of the radii.

Radial profile of the current density REP was measured partitioned manifold by a receiver placed at a distance b 30 cm from the cathode 1. The results of the measurements are presented in Fig.2-4. The histogram shows the density distribution of the beam current J along the radius r at different times for two different ways of mounting the cathode 1: coaxial holder 2 cone shape (Fig.2) and the holder 2 made in the form of two separate rods-suspensions (Fig.3). The zero reference on the x-axis corresponds to the outer radius of the cathode. It is seen that the average radius of the RAP is practically unchanged for lying to the thickness of the beam in Fig.3 in General significantly less than in Fig.2, its azimuthal heterogeneity associated with the emission of electrons from the terminals of the suspension, restrict the scope of this design. The cathode with a large area of the side surface, i.e., the prototype (Fig.4), forms the beam radial profile of the current density which varies considerably during the pulse duration (the core of the current density distribution of the beam is shifted to the right on the x-axis over time).

Thus, the use of the invention allows to obtain a tubular high-current REB microsecond duration, in which the radial profile of the current density remains practically unchanged during the pulse.

COAXIAL DIODE WITH MAGNETIC INSULATION of high CURRENT PULSED ACCELERATOR of RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAM of MICROSECOND DURATION, containing catalogization with a fixed explosive-emission cathode located in a vacuum chamber inside the solenoid, wherein the cathode is made in the form of a ring wedge-shaped cross-section with a radially directed outward sharp edge, an outer radius which determines the fixed magnetic force tube, and the distance from any point of the tube to any point to which I catopocerinae, for the duration of the pulse.

 

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