Device for stabilizing the current of the beam of charged particles

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in accelerator technology, can be used in multiple electron accelerators for industrial purposes. The inventive device containing a source of electrons, the pulse modulator source, the synchronization system of the accelerator, N accelerating sections, N pulsed RF amplifiers modulators, entered N of elements OR N controlled delay lines, magnetic induction sensor, meter charge, ADC, adder, three delay lines, the timer comparison circuit, the preset value of the beam current, the three elements, four counters, and two triggers, two driver signals and the divisor. The beam pulses and the pulses of microwave power fed into the accelerating section of the accelerator, pre-synchronized to obtain the optimal energy spectrum of the beam at the exit of the accelerator, which eliminates distortion of the energy spectrum of the charged particle beam at the output of the linear accelerator in the process of stabilizing its average current. 1 Il.

The invention relates to accelerator technology and can be used in multiple electron accelerators for industrial purposes.

Known is th source of accelerating voltage, e-the gun from the hot cathode and the control channel is the filament current [1] .

The disadvantage of this device is the distortion of the energy spectrum of the beam in the process of stabilization, as this change occurs, the current load accelerating waveguides, which ultimately affects the amount of energy of accelerated electrons. Given the position follows from the formula

= e 1-exp(l)-I0RWl1- .

This disadvantage leads to worse conditions for physical experiments.

The closest technical solution to the claimed is a device of stabilizing the beam current of the electron linear accelerator [2] , containing a source of electrons, representing a two-electrode electron gun with indirectly heated cathode, the emission of which is regulated by stabilization of the filament heater. The source of electrons is controlled by a pulse modulator source associated with the synchronization system of the accelerator, in addition, the device contains the accelerating section, the input connected to the electron source, and the input microwave power with pulsed RF amplifier connected to the modulator his.

The disadvantage of this device is the distortion of the energy spectrum of the beam in the process of stabilization that worsens the condition of conducting physical experiments.

The aim of the invention is the elimination of the distortion of the energy spectrum of the charged particle beam at the output of the linear accelerator in the process of stabilizing its average current.

The goal is achieved that the device stabilization beam current multiple linear electron accelerator containing a source of electrons, a controlled pulse modulator source that is associated with the synchronization system of the accelerator, connected in series accelerating sections, the first of which input is connected to the electron source and the input microwave power of each of them connected to appropriate the s OR, N controlled delay lines, magnetic induction sensor, the charge meter, analog-to-digital Converter (ADC), the adder, three delay lines, timer, digital comparison circuit, the preset value of the beam current, the three elements, four up / down counters, two triggers, two driver signals, the divider, while the magnetic induction sensor is installed at the exit of the accelerator and its exit through the meter charge beam is connected to the ADC, the output of which is connected to the information input of the adder, the output associated with the first input of the comparison circuit, and the enable input output connected to the output of the second delay line, the entrance of which is connected to the output of the timer is also connected to the input set timer to zero and to the first inputs of the first and second elements, And the timer input connected with the output of the synchronization system of the accelerator, which is also connected to the inputs of the N controllable delay lines connected to the corresponding modulators, RF amplifiers to the input of the divider and through the first delay line connected to the enable input of the ADC, the second input of the comparison circuit is connected with a preset value of the beam current, and the output of "Less" is connected to the WTO is the counting input of the first counter, with the input set to zero the third counter and to the input of the first driver signal, the output of which is connected to the enable input write a second counter, an information input connected to the output of the first counter, and the input count is connected to the input count of the fourth counter and through a third delay line is connected to the output of the divider, which is connected to the first inputs of N elements OR whose outputs are connected to the control inputs of the corresponding controlled delay lines, the second inputs of N elements OR connected to the output of the third element, And third inputs connected to the output of the first trigger, which is also connected to the enable input of the account of the second counter, the output of transfer which is connected to the reset input of the first trigger with the "More" of the comparison circuit connected to the second input of the second element And whose output is connected with the input set to logic "1" of the second trigger, with a counter input of the third counter with the input set to zero first counter and to the input of the second driver signal, the output of which is connected to the input recording resolution of the fourth counter, an information input connected to the output of the third counter, and vyhodnogo counter and a second input of the third element And.

The authors are not known technical solutions, which have characteristics similar to the characteristics that distinguish the claimed technical solution to the prototype. It gives the basis to consider the proposed solution meets the criterion of "significant differences".

The drawing shows a block diagram of the device of the stabilizing beam current of charged particles.

The device comprises an electron source 1, controlled by a pulse modulator 6, associated with the system 11 synchronization of accelerator, N accelerating sections 2,3, connected in series and connected to the output of the electron source 1, N pulse amplifiers RF 7,8 connected to the inputs of the input microwave power corresponding accelerating sections and managed their corresponding modulators 12, 13, magnetic induction sensor 4 which is connected through the meter 9 charge beam analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 14, the output of which is connected to the information input of the adder 19, the output associated with the first input of the digital circuit 24 comparison and the input resolution output connected to the output of the second delay line 10, the input of which is connected to the output of timer 15, also connected to the input of the timer to zero, and with the first whodey also connected to the inputs of N managed lines 17,18 delay, United with their corresponding modulators, RF amplifiers, 12,13, to the input of the divider 16 and through the first delay line 5 is connected to the enable input of the ADC 14. Second input of the digital circuit 24 comparison is connected to the device 20 preset value of the beam current, and the output of "Less" is connected to the second input of the first item And 25, the output of which is connected with the input set to logic "1" of the first flip-flop 29, with a counter input of the first counter 34, with the input set to zero the third counter 32 and to the input of the first driver 35 signals, the output of which is connected to the input recording resolution of the second counter 33, an information input connected to the output of the first counter 34, and the input count is connected to the input count of the fourth counter 31 and through a third delay line 21 is connected to the output of the divider 16, which is connected to the first inputs of N elements OR 22, 23 whose output is connected to the control inputs of the corresponding managed lines 17,18 delay, the second inputs of N elements OR 22,23 connected to the output of the third element And 27, and third inputs connected to the output of the first flip-flop 29, which is also connected to the enable input of the account of the second counter 33, the output of transfer which severage item And 30, the output of which is connected with the input set to logic "1" of the second trigger 26, with a counter input of the third counter 32 with the input set to zero first counter 34 and to the input of the second imaging unit 28 signals, the output of which is connected to the input recording resolution of the fourth counter 31, an information input connected to the output of the third counter 32, and the output of the transport is connected to the reset input of the second trigger 26, the output of which is connected to the enable input of the account of the fourth counter 31 and to a second input of the third element And 27.

As digital circuits 24 a comparison of the device can be used digital Comparators performed on the chip type IP, CSP. Design and operating principle of magnetic induction sensor 4 described in the work: Moskalev, C. A. , Sergeev, I. Shestakov Century, the Measurement of charged particle beams. M : Atomizdat, 1980. The meter 9 charge described in the work: Ushakov Century. And. , styervoyedov N. ,, Borkowski C. F. Meter charge per pulse of the accelerated beam of electrons. Instruments and experimental techniques, 1986, No. 5, S. 25-27. Managed line 17,18 delay based on the principles described in the work: Vazhenina H. P. , Volkov N. I. , Chadovich I. I. Methods and schemes remineralization. As the divider used divider 2, made on the basis of the binary counter. The average beam current is defined as the ratio of the total charge of the pulse beam on the selected averaging interval the value of this interval. At constant averaging interval can be considered that the average beam current is proportional to the total charge of the pulse beam in this interval.

The beam pulses and the pulses of microwave power fed into the accelerating section of the accelerator, pre-synchronized to obtain the optimal energy spectrum of the beam at the exit of the accelerator. The value of the total charge of the pulse beam is governed by the fact that part of the pulse synchronization starts amplifiers microwave applying microwave power in the accelerating section, not in sync with the pulse beam. By adjusting the number of such pulses, it is possible to adjust the total charge of the beam, and therefore, the average beam current. Thus the energy spectrum of the beam is not distorted. If the averaging interval half pulse synchronization starts amplifiers microwave synchronously with the pulses of the beam, and the other half not, then it is possible to adjust the total charge of the pulse beam from "0" to the maximum value. At the same time to create Ravana pulses of microwave power and pulse beam is achieved by increasing the delay of the synchronization signals, running modulators of microwave amplifiers using controlled delay lines, for the working limits.

Let us consider the process of stabilization of the average beam current. During the entire averaging interval are summed charges pulses of the beam and at the end of this interval the total charge that is proportional to the magnitude of the average current beam in this interval is compared with a specified value. If it turns out that the total charge is less than the specified value, the number of pulses triggering amplifier microwave asynchronously with the pulse beam on the following averaging interval is reduced by one. At the end of the next interval averaging is another comparison of the total charge of the pulse beam to a specific value, and if the comparison result is the same, the number of pulses triggering amplifiers microwave asynchronously with the pulses of the beam will be reduced by the following averaging interval to another, then there will be this averaging interval for two. Thus, the number of pulses triggering amplifiers microwave asynchronously with the pulses of the beam will be reduced at each subsequent interval averaging one up until the result becomes more than necessary and the number of pulses running the amplifiers microwave asynchronously with the pulse beam on each averaging interval will be sequentially incremented by one before the change of the comparison result and the process will go in reverse order.

Changing the averaging interval, it is possible to change the time constant testing of the device, but it also changes the accuracy of the testing, as it is determined by the contribution of each beam. The smaller the averaging interval, the greater the contribution of each pulse of the beam and the coarser will be the development of changes of the average current. In view of these considerations, the optimum averaging interval depending on the conditions of the physical experiment. Let us consider the operation of the device is its structural scheme.

The electron source 1, a controlled pulse modulator 6 source run by the system 11 synchronization of accelerator, produces a pulse of a parcel of electrons that come in consistently United accelerating sections 2, 3. The inputs for the input microwave power of each of them receives power from the corresponding each accelerating section of a pulsed RF amplifier 7.8. Pulsed RF amplifiers 7,8 controlled by modulator is Riki on pre-selected optimal from the point of view of the configuration of the energy spectrum of the start value, but every second clock pulse taken from the output of the divider 16 by two, through the elements 22,23 OR fed to the control inputs of managed lines 17,18 delay acting on them so that the delay created by controllable delay lines 17,18, increases by an amount in excess of working, thereby creating a mismatch between the beam pulses and the pulses of the start of microwave amplifiers. Thus, there is a rotation synchronous with the pulses of the beam launch amplifiers microwave and non-synchronous, i.e. the average beam current is determined only by the half of the pulse beam. The outputs of the magnetic induction sensor 4 through the meter 9 charge beam is fed to the ADC 14, to the input resolution conversion which receives the clock delayed by the first delay line 5 to the time required for actuation of magnetic induction sensor 4 and the meter 9 charge beam. The value of the charge of each pulse of the beam are summed by the adder 19. The measurement interval is set by the timer 15, which is a binary counter counting clock pulses. When receiving a specified number of clock pulses that define the averaging interval, the timer 15 generates a pulse interval's end, to the receipt of this pulse at the output of the adder 19 is set to the value of the total charge of the pulse beam during the measurement interval. The delay generated by the second delay line 10, is determined by the time required for actuation devices 4,9,14,19. The output code of the adder 19 is supplied to the first input circuit 24 comparison to the second input of which is the code from the device 20 preset value of the beam current.

Suppose that as a result of comparison of the magnitude of the charge pulse beam and a specified value at the end of the averaging interval the output of "Less" scheme 24 comparisons have established a logical "1", and the output is "More" logical "0", that is, the total charge of the beam over the averaging interval is less than the specified device 20 presets. The pulse end of the interval from the output of timer 15 through the first item And 25 is fed to the counting input of the first counter 34, setting its output code is equal to one, and through the first imaging unit 35 is fed to the input recording resolution of the second counter 33 by which it is recorded information from the first counter 34, in this case equal to one. In addition, this signal is fed to the input of the installation unit of the first flip-flop 29, the output of which blocks OR 22,23 and, when the entry permit account of the second counter 33, allows the account. The first synchrounous, optimal from the point of view of the configuration of the energy spectrum of the beam, the value starts modulators 12,13 amplifiers microwave 7,8 synchronously with the pulse beam. On the second clock divider 16 produces a pulse received on a locked first trigger 29 elements OR 22,23 and does not affect the control inputs controlled lines 17,18 delay. Therefore, the second clock pulse is delayed managed lines 17,18 delay as to the optimal value and starts modulators 12,13 amplifiers microwave 7,8 synchronously with the pulse beam. Delayed by the third delay line 21 at the time of the second clock pulse of the divider 16 is fed to the input count of the second counter 33 and subtracting unit, zonulae it. The output signal from the transfer of the second counter 33 resets the first trigger 29, the output of which unlocks items OR 22,23 and, when the entry permit account of the second counter 33, locks it.

In the future, each even-numbered clock pulse of the averaging interval through the elements OR 22,23 arrives at the inputs of managed lines 17,18 delays, which slip their operational limits and break the synchronization between accelerator pulses and pulses of microwave power.

Further, the device operates as in the first case. Thus in this interval averaging the number of pulses triggering amplifiers microwave 7,8 asynchronously with the pulses of the beam, has now decreased by two. This should lead to an increase in total charge of the pulse beam by an amount determined by the charges of the two pulses of the beam. If the result of the comparison made at the end of the averaging interval, remains the same, then the device will decrease in the next interval averaging the number of pulses triggering amplifiers microwave asynchronously with the pulses of the beam, up to three and so on up until the comparison result will be the opposite. In this case, the output of "Less" scheme 24 comparison appears logical "0" and the output of "More" is a logical "1". While the first item And 25 is blocked. The pulse timer 15, appearing at the end of the averaging interval, through the second And gate 30 is supplied to the input set to zero first counter 34, throwing it comes to citywhat recording resolution of the fourth counter 31, on which it is recorded information from the third counter 32 and in this case equal to 1, is fed to the input set to "1" of the second trigger 26, the output of which is fed to the enable input of the account of the fourth counter 31 and to the input of the third element And 27, allowing the passing of the clock. The first clock pulse of the new averaging interval is supplied through the third element And 27 and the elements OR 22, 23 on the control inputs controlled lines 17, 18 delay, which displace its delay for the working limits, thus there is a misalignment of the beam with pulses of microwave power coming into the accelerating section 2,3. On the second clock pulse divider 16 together with the second sync pulse again goes through the elements 22,23 OR on the control inputs controlled lines 17,18 delay, shifting the delay for the working limits. In addition, the pulse divider 16, delayed by the third delay line 21 at the time of the second pulse, is fed to the input count of the fourth counter 31 and zonulae it. The output signal from the fourth transfer counter 21 resets the second trigger 26, the output signal which locks the third element And 27 and, when the enable input accounts included four, is this the averaging interval the number of pulses triggering amplifiers microwave asynchronously with the pulses of the beam is increased by one. This should lead to a reduction in the total charge of the pulse beam by an amount determined by the charge of one pulse beam. If the result of comparison of the total charge of the pulse beam with a given value produced at the end of the averaging interval, remained the same, the device for the next interval averaging will increase the number of pulses triggering amplifiers microwave asynchronously with the pulses of the beam, up to 2 and so on up until the comparison result does not change. At the outputs of the circuit 24 comparison signals change polarity, the pulse from the output of the first item And 25 sets the third counter 32 to zero, and the device executes the error signal. Thus regulating the average current of the charged particle beam in a linear accelerator.

Introduction significant differences allows you to remove the distortion of the energy spectrum of the charged particle beam in the process of stabilizing its average current. This follows from the fact that in order to stabilize the average beam current is not applied to the current control emission of electrons, regulirovanie adopted in practice. These adjustments cause distortion of the energy spectrum of the beam at the exit of the accelerator, as shown in the works: Lebedev A. N. Sallnow A. C. fundamentals of physics and technology of accelerators. M. : Energoatomizdat, 1983. So 3, S. 80,82,83,87,105; Improvement of the energy spectrum in the accelerator with standing wave delay injection/ C. F. Vikulov, C. N. Zavorotny, V. C. Ruzin, C. K. Shilov// technical physics letters, 1982, T. 52, vol. 11, S. 2188-2191. Thus, the proposed device uses a different principle of regulation of the average beam current is devoid of these shortcomings, which allows to preserve the spectrum of the undistorted beam in the process of stabilization, and thus to improve the conditions of conducting physical experiments and, consequently, to reduce the costs of their conduct.

DEVICE for STABILIZING the CURRENT of the BEAM of CHARGED PARTICLES containing a source of electrons, a controlled pulse modulator source associated with the synchronization system of the accelerator, N series-connected accelerating sections, the first input of which is connected to the electron source and the input microwave power of each of them is connected to the output of the corresponding high-frequency pulse amplifier, the input of which is connected with the corresponding modulator the course of the linear accelerator in the process of stabilizing its average current, put N elements OR N controlled delay lines, magnetic induction sensor, meter charge beam, analog-to-digital Converter, an adder, three delay lines, the timer comparison circuit, the preset value of the beam current, the three elements, four up / down counters, two triggers, two driver signals, the divider, and the input of magnetic induction sensor is connected to the output of the N-th accelerating section, and exit through the meter charge beam connected to the analog-to-digital Converter, the output of which is connected to the information input of the adder, the output of which is connected with the first input of the comparison circuit, and the enable input of the output of the adder connected to the output of the second delay line, the input of which is connected to the output of the timer is also connected to the input of the timer setting to "0" and to the first inputs of the first and second elements And the timer input connected to the output of the synchronization system acceleration, which is also connected to the inputs of the N controllable delay lines connected to the corresponding modulators high-frequency amplifiers to the input of the divider and through the first delay line to the input resolution conversion analog-to-digital Converter, the second input of the comparison circuit element, And the output of which is connected with the input set to a logical unit of the first trigger, with a counter input of the first counter with the input set to "0" of the third counter and to the input of the first driver signal, the output of which is connected to the enable input write a second counter, an information input connected to the output of the first counter and the input of the count - input count of the fourth counter and through a third delay line with the output of the divider, which is connected to the first inputs of N elements OR whose outputs are connected to the control inputs of the corresponding controlled delay lines, the second inputs of N elements OR connected to the output of the third element, And third inputs connected to the output of the first trigger, which is also connected to the enable input of the account of the second counter, the output of transfer which is connected to the reset input of the first trigger with the "More" of the comparison circuit connected to the second input of the second element And whose output is connected with the input set to a logical unit of the second trigger, with a counter input of the third counter with the input set to "0" of the first counter and to the input of the second driver signal, the output of which is connected to the enable input g is sa is connected to the reset input of the second trigger, the output of which is connected to the enable input of the account of the fourth counter and a second input of the third element I.

 

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