Device for irradiating an object with a beam of charged particles
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, namely to electromagnetic devices scan beam used for irradiation of various objects. A device for scanning and analysis of the beam is made in the form of an electromagnet scan beam. The current sensor is analyzed beam is made in the form of the collector of the inverter. The generator excitation current has two outputs and two inputs. The first input of the generator is connected to the output of the programmer electromagnet scanner, and the second input - output device analysis. The first output of the generator is connected to the input of the electromagnet scanner, and the second output to the first input of the Registrar of the spectrum. The second input of the Registrar of the spectrum is connected to the output of the sensor is analyzed beam. The sensor is installed in the plane sweep for the final window of the vacuum chamber away from the Central axis of the electromagnet scanner. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, namely to electromagnetic devices scan beam used for irradiation of various objects with a beam of charged particles.The known device for allocryptopine and movement of irradiated object with a conveyor in the other direction, perpendicular to the sweep direction. Such devices are used, in particular, radiation technologies and installations for sterilizing objects by an electron beam.Closest to the present invention is a device for irradiating objects with a beam of charged particles, which contains a vacuum chamber having the outlet box for the beam, an electromagnet scanner, generator excitation current of the electromagnet and the programmer sweep associated with this generator. (KN. Abrahamian, E. A. Industrial electron accelerators. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1986, S. 88, Fig. 6.15).A disadvantage of this device is the lack of tools for analyzing the energy spectrum of the beam, which is often one of the most important requirements of radiation technology. In particular, the State standard of the Russian Federation GOST R 50325-92 entered 01.01.94 right requires in his article 2.5.3 during radiation sterilization of medical products by an electron beam to measure the energy periodically using magnetic analysis". This analysis of the spectrum of the beam is usually carried out in the intervals between the cycles of irradiation, which uses a magnetic spectrometer with his sidestone increase the size of the installation, growing energy consumption, deteriorating its technical characteristics, especially in installations with local radiation protection.In the proposed device, these drawbacks are absent, as in the quality of the analyzing electromagnet is used an existing an electromagnet scanner. For this purpose a device for irradiating an object with a beam of charged particles, consisting of a vacuum chamber with an outlet box, of an electromagnet sweep generator excitation current of the electromagnet and the programmer sweep entered programmer analysis, the Registrar of the spectrum with two inputs and the current sensor are analyzed beam, made in the form of collector inverter and mounted over the outlet window of the vacuum chamber; in addition, the generator excitation current of the electromagnet is made with two inputs and two outputs, the first input of the generator is connected to the output of the programmer sweep, and the second generator input coupled to the output of the programmer analysis, the first generator output is connected to the input of the electromagnet scanner, and the second generator output with the first input of the Registrar of the spectrum, and the second input of the Registrar of the spectrum is connected to the output of the sensor to address the parameters, describing the operation of the device. The device comprises a device for scanning and analysis of a beam, made in the form of an electromagnet scanner 1 with a vacuum chamber 2 having an outlet port 3, the generator excitation current 4, made with two inputs 5, 6 and two outputs 7, 8, programmer sweep 9 output 10, programmer 11 to the outlet 12, the Registrar of the spectrum with 13 inputs 14, 15, the current sensor is analyzed beam 16, the trajectory of the beam 17.A-A - a axis of the beam, is not rejected by the scan - the Central axis of the electromagnet.B-B - a plane passing through the current sensor 16 is analyzed beam perpendicular to the axis A-A and plane sweep, coinciding with the plane of the drawing.a is the effective length of the magnetic field of the electromagnet scanner, seel is the distance from the edge region of the magnetic field to plane B-B, seeL= l+a/2 is the distance from the mean plane of the electromagnet scan to plane B-B, seeD is the distance from the axis A-A through current sensor is analyzed beam, seeThe proposed device operates alternately in the exposure mode and the control mode of the energy spectrum of the beam. In exposure mode: programmer 9 fo the Torah 4. Generator 4 excites the electromagnet scanner 1 and provides the scan beam at the irradiation object. One of the trajectories of the beam 17 is shown in Fig. 1.In the control mode of the energy spectrum in the pauses between cycles of irradiation program from the programmer analysis 11 is fed to the input 5 of the current generator 4, which excites the electromagnet sweep 1 running in this mode, the function of the analyzing electromagnet. To the input 14 of the Registrar spectrum 13 from the output 8 of the power generator 4 receives the program change in time of the excitation current of the electromagnet scanner 1, which determines the change in time of the magnetic field induction B in the working gap of the electromagnet 1. The change with time of the magnetic field B is connected with the change of kinetic energy of particles falling on the current sensor 16, the signal from which is fed to the input 15 of the Registrar spectrum 13.For example, the programmer analysis 9 can form the law of linear growth in time of the magnetic field B in the working gap of the electromagnet 1. For small values of induction B due to weak deflecting magnetic field to the current sensor 16 installed at a distance D from the Central axis A-A of the electromagnet, will reach only the TIC will increase. The value of the current sensor 16 is associated with the energy of the particles, and obtained from the Registrar 13 the relationship of these values gives the energy spectrum of the beam.On the known geometrical parameters shown in Fig.2, determine the value of the curvature radius R of the trajectory of a particle in a magnetic field
(Sherstnev L., Electron optics and electron-beam devices, M.: Energy, 1971, S. 214). The value of R is a constant such magnetic spectrometer, it defines the relationship between the kinetic energy W of the singly charged particles entering the current sensor 16, and the induction B in the air gap of the electromagnet 1. This relationship is described by the known formula
< / BR>(Moskalev Century A. and others, Measurement of parameters of charged particle beams. - M. : Atomizdat, 1980, S. 70),
W is the kinetic energy of the particles, eV;
E0- the rest energy of the particle, eV;
B - the magnetic field in the working gap of the electromagnet sweep, HS;
R is the radius of curvature of the particle trajectory in a magnetic field, seeThe application of the proposed device, for example, in the sterilization installations with electron beam will be excluded from the separate installation of the analyzing magnet device and the second radiation protection of the entire installation. Device for irradiating objects with a beam of charged particles, comprising a device for scanning the beam vacuum chamber, with the outlet box, the electromagnet scanner, generator excitation current of the electromagnet scan and programmer sweep associated with the generator excitation current, characterized in that it contains a programmer analysis of the beam, the Registrar of the spectrum of the beam with the first and second inputs and sensor are analyzed beam, made in the form of collector inverter and mounted in the plane sweep for the final window of the vacuum chamber away from the Central axis of the electromagnet scanner and generator excitation current of the electromagnet is supplied with two inputs and two outputs, and the first one of its inputs connected to the output of the programmer sweep of the beam, and the second input - output device analysis, the first output of the generator excitation current connected to the input of the electromagnet scanner, and the second generator output with the first input of the Registrar of the spectrum, the second input of the Registrar of the spectrum is connected to the output of the sensor is analyzed beam.
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.
EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.
22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: technical physics, in particular, accelerators of light ions, possible use as generator of neutrons.
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of ions with magnetic isolation contains vacuumized cylindrical cover, made of dielectric material, provided with vacuum pump, magnetic coils positioned outside the cover, connected to impulse electric power source and creating axial magnetic field, anode and cathode, made in form of coaxial tubes, connected to high voltage source. Accelerator is provided with gas tank, adjustable by gas inlet valve and means for controlling gas pressure, accelerating inducers and additional magnetic coils, which are positioned on external surface of vacuum cover between inducers and are connected to impulse electric power sources. Device is also provided with inverse coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each magnetron is connected to accelerator space via through slit, made in cathode of magnetron and lying in plane, passing through appropriate cover diameter in parallel to its generating line. Anode tube is made in form of part of cover, on vacuum surface of which axially-symmetrically and with provision of electric contact by their cathodes magnetrons are mounted, while their anodes are connected to impulse electric power sources.
EFFECT: decreased instability of ion current.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, possible use in laboratory research, and also during development of new devices for medicine and engineering, where it is needed to eject electron or laser beams in impulse mode.
SUBSTANCE: the essence of method is in using the difference of spreading speeds of gas and electrons. Ejection channel is opened for the time, sufficient for flight of electrons, but insufficient for passage of gas molecules. This allows ejection of short electron beams of any power without loss of their energy with minimal flow of gas in direction of lesser pressure. Claimed device, which realizes the method, does not exhaust all of its capabilities. It is engineered for ejection of electrons from radioactive gas environment with pressure of 1Pa order into vacuum with pressure 10-5-10-6 Pa. Special feature of the method is that on its basis devices may be created for ejection of electron and laser beams without limitation of energy and distortion of their spectrum.
EFFECT: possible creation of devices, which, depending on conditions of operations in conjunction with various methods and means of vacuum and compressor engineering will ensure ejection of electron and laser beams of any energy into space with any pressure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in high-voltage electrode of double stepped forming line, which contains two coaxial metal shells connected by means of end flange, and fixed in housing of double stepped forming line by means of discharge devices on one side and support dielectric elements on the other side, connection section of discharge devices to high-voltage electrode is made in the form of annular framework; openings are made in the framework and thin metal membranes through which discharge devices are connected to high-voltage electrode are fixed in them; at that, membranes are installed with possibility of their being broken away when discharge devices are destructed.
EFFECT: reduction of labour costs for repair of high-voltage electrode without removal of double stepped forming line of accelerator.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multipass accelerator-recuperator with separate paths for accelerated and decelerated particles.
EFFECT: independent control over accelerated and decelerated particles, particularly, independent focusing and trajectory correction.
SUBSTANCE: radiant tube (4) for guiding a charged particle stream (10), having a hollow cylindrical isolation core (6) directly surrounding a beam-guiding hollow volume (8), the isolation core (6) being formed from a dielectrically acting carrier substrate (14) and an electrical conductor (16) held therein, and a metal housing (5) surrounding the isolation core (6), wherein the conductor (16) is divided into a plurality of conductor loops (20) completely encompassing the circumference of the isolation core (6) at different axial positions and galvanically connected to each other, wherein the conductor (16) in at least two spaced-apart points, particularly at the side of the ends, is galvanically connected to the housing (5), wherein metal layers are embedded in the carrier substrate (14), said metal layers being arranged one behind the other along the axis of the radiant tube (4) and inductively connected to each other through the electrical conductor (16).
EFFECT: reduced probability of breakdown.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: acceleration equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering. Accelerator for charged particles comprises a set of capacitors with the first electrode, which can be brought to the first potential, with the second electrode, which is located concentrically to the first electrode and can be brought to the second potential differing from the first potential, and with at least one intermediate electrode, which is arranged concentrically between the first electrode and the second electrode and which can be brought to an intermediate potential located between the first potential and the second potential, a switching device, with which electrodes of the set of capacitors are connected and which is designed so that during operation of the switching device arranged concentrically to each other electrodes of the set of capacitors are brought to rising steps of potential, the first and the second accelerating channels formed by the first and respectively the second holes in electrodes of the set of capacitors, so that along the first or the second accelerating channel charged particles can be accelerated by the electrodes, a device affecting the accelerated beam of particles inside the set of capacitors to make a beam of particles generate the radiated photons.
EFFECT: technical result is provision of constant field intensity along the accelerating channel.
9 cl, 9 dwg