Device scan of the electron beam
(57) Abstract:Usage: in Electrophysics, units of radiation processing of products and materials using accelerated electron beams. The essence of the invention: device scan of the electron beam contains vakuumirovaniya the bell with the exit window foil, the deflecting magnet generator sweep and corrective magnet, which is made in the form of two blocks located at the wide end of the funnel with two sides of him. Each block contains two permanent magnet, made in the form of bars of variable cross-section, extending from the middle to the end of the block, and the magnetic core having the shape of the bar. Permanent magnets have a direction of magnetization perpendicular to the wide side of the socket, and the magnets of one unit have opposite directions of magnetization, and the magnets are located in different units against each other, have the same direction of magnetization. The use of the device resulting in reduced energy consumption, increased reliability and stability of operation of the device scan. 3 Il. The invention relates to Electrophysics, specifically to the field of acceleration, transport, and transformation beams charger, side buttons is accelerated electron beams, in particular, units of radiation sterilization of medical products.In existing installations, radiation sterilization, the beam of accelerated electrons emerging from the electrostatic or high-frequency accelerator is deployed in the plane using the device scanner beam. The irradiated objects are moving on the conveyor in the direction perpendicular to the plane of sweep of the beam. The beam penetrates the irradiated object and creates in its entirety radiation dose sufficient for sterilization of products at the selected speed of the conveyor (see Svinyin M. P. the Calculation and design of high-voltage electron accelerators for radiation technologies. M. Energoatomizdat, 1989).The device scanner in such plants contains vakuumirovaniya socket extending in the plane of sweep of the beam. The narrow end of the funnel is attached to the accelerator. On the wide end of the funnel is the output window made of thin metal foil, through which the electron beam exits the vacuum to the atmosphere. On the narrow end of the funnel has an electromagnet, powered from the generator base. The electromagnet creates in the cavity of the socket variable in time the magician, rejected them on an angle, which depends on time and, thus, the fan-shaped beam is deployed in the plane.In some cases it is necessary to obtain a good uniformity of the irradiation object. In particular, in the sterilization of medical products unevenness of exposure should not exceed 20% To obtain good uniformity of the depth of the box with sterilized products must be parallel to the electron beam. To convert fan-shaped beam in parallel are used corrective magnets. The closest analogue of the proposed device contains a correction magnet in the form of an O-shaped electromagnet, in which the height of the poles and the air gap equal to the corresponding values in the electromagnet scanner. The windings of both coils have the same number of turns and connected in series to the generator base. Due to the equality of the currents of power and size, the electrons are deflected in a correction magnet at the same angle as in the magnet sweep, and their trajectories become parallel to the axis of the accelerator (see Titov, C. A. and other Output device of the electron accelerator. Auth. mon. N 708944, B. I., 1980, No. 39, S. 324).When solving the problem of the scanner, as well as saving electricity.These tasks can be solved through the use of permanent magnets. Corrective magnet can be designed in such a way that its magnetic field, in contrast to the specified prototype is constant in time but varies in space. To this end correction magnet is in the form of two blocks located on the wide end of the funnel on both sides of him. Each of the blocks contains two identical bar of magnetically hard material and one piece of soft-magnetic material acting as a magnetic core. Bars of magnetically hard material is magnetized perpendicular to the wide side of the socket, and the direction of magnetization of the two bars one block opposite, but the direction of magnetization of adjacent bars in different blocks are the same. The bars have a variable cross-section is small in the middle and increasing towards the ends of the block. Therefore, the magnetic field between the bars maximum at the ends and is equal to zero in the middle. When the migration of electrons through such a field the trajectory of their change: the farther an electron is from the axis of the accelerator, the greater the angle turns its trajectory. After Strait is Proposed corrective magnet gives power savings because the permanent magnets do not require power. Due to the lack of electronic power supplies and coils increases the reliability of the scan beam. The magnetic field of permanent magnets is more stable over time and in relation to external influences (temperature and others) than the parameters of electronic power supplies.In Fig. 1 shows the proposed device, front view; Fig. 2 is a side view, and Fig. 3 is the same, top view.The device comprises a socket 1, the output window 2, the deflecting electromagnet 3, the sweep generator 4, the blocks corrective magnet 5, each of which contains two permanent magnet 6 and the magnetic core 7.The socket 1 has a shape extending in the plane of sweep of the beam and constant in the perpendicular plane. The funnel with the narrow end attached to the electron accelerator 8 and forms with it a single vacuum volume. On the wide end of the funnel installed sealing output window 2 made of thin foil. The socket is made of a nonmagnetic material such as stainless steel. On the narrow end of the funnel is installed deflection electromagnet 3 so that its poles are from different sides of the socket. The General 6, made in the form of elongated bars of variable cross-section, and the magnetic core 7 made in the form of an elongated bar of soft-magnetic material (e.g. iron Armko). Tile permanent magnets attached to the magnetic core without air gaps. Height of bars (along the Central line of the accelerator and socket) is not changed, and the thickness of each permanent magnet minimum in the middle of a block and increases toward the end. Permanent magnets are made of magnetized magnetic solid material, such as Ba-ferrite. The direction of magnetization perpendicular to the wide side of the bell. Two permanent magnet of one unit have opposite directions of magnetization, and the permanent magnets of different blocks that are located against each other, have the same direction of magnetization. The direction of magnetization of permanent magnets conventionally shown in Fig. 3 arrows. Corrective magnet may be positioned so that the magnetic field produced between the blocks, either in the vacuum cavity of the socket, or in the air after the output open 2.The device operates as follows.The deflecting electromagnet, powered from generacy and time varying in accordance with the sawtooth law. The electron beam emerging from the accelerator 8, passes through a magnetic field deflecting electromagnet and rejected them in the plane of sweep of the beam, and the deflection angle is proportional to the magnitude of the magnetic field at the time of passage of the beam. The result for the period changes in the magnetic field at the exit of the funnel produces a beam of electrons, an unfolded fan. The trajectory of some of the electrons are shown in Fig. 1 dash-dotted lines. Corrective magnet creates in the output area of the bell or after the magnetic field that is directed perpendicular to the direction of motion of the electrons. Magnetic induction of this field is equal to zero in the middle and increases towards the ends of the magnet, and the field direction at the ends of the corrective magnet opposite. This field modifies the trajectory of the electrons so that they become parallel to the center line of the socket. As a result the entire amount of the irradiated object 9 moving on the conveyor perpendicular to the plane of sweep of the beam, is irradiated uniformly.Changing the beam section can be smooth, in which case they are wedges, as shown in Fig. 3. Thus forming a wedge (the dividing line between constant the population of the magnetic field. Changes in the beam section can also be stepped. In this case, each block may be made in the form of a set of plates adjacent one another. The design of the bars is determined in each case by considerations of manufacturability and cost of manufacture.An example implementation can serve as a device scan of the electron beam with energy of 5 MeV. Scan angle is 65othe dimensions of the irradiated object HH mm. Corrective magnet has a length of 450 mm and a height of 60 mm Each permanent magnet is made of ferrite 2,BE in the shape of a bar with a stepwise increase of the thickness, it consists of 8 plates with thicknesses from 1.8 to 12 mm According to calculations performed using three-dimensional computer programs, magnetic induction at the ends of the correcting magnet is 1500 Gauss, and the nonlinearity of the distribution of the induction along the length adjustment of the magnet does not exceed 5% of the Estimated non-uniform irradiation of the object does not exceed 10% Device scan of the electron beam, containing vakuumirovaniya socket with the output window, the deflecting magnet, generator, scanner and corrective magnet, characterized in that the adjusting magnet is made in the form of two nl the material of variable cross-section, small in the middle of the block and increasing toward its ends, magnetized perpendicular to the wide wall of the funnel, and the direction of magnetization of the two bars one block opposite, and the direction of magnetization of the bars located in different units against each other, the same.
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.
EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.
22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: technical physics, in particular, accelerators of light ions, possible use as generator of neutrons.
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of ions with magnetic isolation contains vacuumized cylindrical cover, made of dielectric material, provided with vacuum pump, magnetic coils positioned outside the cover, connected to impulse electric power source and creating axial magnetic field, anode and cathode, made in form of coaxial tubes, connected to high voltage source. Accelerator is provided with gas tank, adjustable by gas inlet valve and means for controlling gas pressure, accelerating inducers and additional magnetic coils, which are positioned on external surface of vacuum cover between inducers and are connected to impulse electric power sources. Device is also provided with inverse coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each magnetron is connected to accelerator space via through slit, made in cathode of magnetron and lying in plane, passing through appropriate cover diameter in parallel to its generating line. Anode tube is made in form of part of cover, on vacuum surface of which axially-symmetrically and with provision of electric contact by their cathodes magnetrons are mounted, while their anodes are connected to impulse electric power sources.
EFFECT: decreased instability of ion current.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, possible use in laboratory research, and also during development of new devices for medicine and engineering, where it is needed to eject electron or laser beams in impulse mode.
SUBSTANCE: the essence of method is in using the difference of spreading speeds of gas and electrons. Ejection channel is opened for the time, sufficient for flight of electrons, but insufficient for passage of gas molecules. This allows ejection of short electron beams of any power without loss of their energy with minimal flow of gas in direction of lesser pressure. Claimed device, which realizes the method, does not exhaust all of its capabilities. It is engineered for ejection of electrons from radioactive gas environment with pressure of 1Pa order into vacuum with pressure 10-5-10-6 Pa. Special feature of the method is that on its basis devices may be created for ejection of electron and laser beams without limitation of energy and distortion of their spectrum.
EFFECT: possible creation of devices, which, depending on conditions of operations in conjunction with various methods and means of vacuum and compressor engineering will ensure ejection of electron and laser beams of any energy into space with any pressure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in high-voltage electrode of double stepped forming line, which contains two coaxial metal shells connected by means of end flange, and fixed in housing of double stepped forming line by means of discharge devices on one side and support dielectric elements on the other side, connection section of discharge devices to high-voltage electrode is made in the form of annular framework; openings are made in the framework and thin metal membranes through which discharge devices are connected to high-voltage electrode are fixed in them; at that, membranes are installed with possibility of their being broken away when discharge devices are destructed.
EFFECT: reduction of labour costs for repair of high-voltage electrode without removal of double stepped forming line of accelerator.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multipass accelerator-recuperator with separate paths for accelerated and decelerated particles.
EFFECT: independent control over accelerated and decelerated particles, particularly, independent focusing and trajectory correction.
SUBSTANCE: radiant tube (4) for guiding a charged particle stream (10), having a hollow cylindrical isolation core (6) directly surrounding a beam-guiding hollow volume (8), the isolation core (6) being formed from a dielectrically acting carrier substrate (14) and an electrical conductor (16) held therein, and a metal housing (5) surrounding the isolation core (6), wherein the conductor (16) is divided into a plurality of conductor loops (20) completely encompassing the circumference of the isolation core (6) at different axial positions and galvanically connected to each other, wherein the conductor (16) in at least two spaced-apart points, particularly at the side of the ends, is galvanically connected to the housing (5), wherein metal layers are embedded in the carrier substrate (14), said metal layers being arranged one behind the other along the axis of the radiant tube (4) and inductively connected to each other through the electrical conductor (16).
EFFECT: reduced probability of breakdown.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: acceleration equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering. Accelerator for charged particles comprises a set of capacitors with the first electrode, which can be brought to the first potential, with the second electrode, which is located concentrically to the first electrode and can be brought to the second potential differing from the first potential, and with at least one intermediate electrode, which is arranged concentrically between the first electrode and the second electrode and which can be brought to an intermediate potential located between the first potential and the second potential, a switching device, with which electrodes of the set of capacitors are connected and which is designed so that during operation of the switching device arranged concentrically to each other electrodes of the set of capacitors are brought to rising steps of potential, the first and the second accelerating channels formed by the first and respectively the second holes in electrodes of the set of capacitors, so that along the first or the second accelerating channel charged particles can be accelerated by the electrodes, a device affecting the accelerated beam of particles inside the set of capacitors to make a beam of particles generate the radiated photons.
EFFECT: technical result is provision of constant field intensity along the accelerating channel.
9 cl, 9 dwg