The release device of the electron beam in the atmosphere
(57) Abstract:Device for producing a beam of electrons in the atmosphere includes a housing 2, the deflecting electromagnet 1, the fan 10, the annular outlet box. The outlet box is divided by jumpers on Autonomous sealing part. Before each link in case a screen 4 of the foil. The electromagnet creates a rotating magnetic field with changing amplitude. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The proposed design of the ledge is designed for use in electron accelerators used for radiation treatment of gaseous and liquid media.Known exhaust device with an annular outlet box .The deficiencies in the system of issue of this type are:
trace of the electron beam on the foil exhaust box rotates around the circumference, so after each turnover electron beam re-heats the same place foil window. The result is unevenly heats the working surface of the outlet ports and, therefore, is not realized to the full extent possible the discharge of the window is reduced and its service life;
ribs (jumper), perceiving the atmospheric pressure acting on the Central part of the discharge device, set the jumpers). In addition, the existing mix on the foil imposes a limitation on the maximum possible diameter of the outlet box. Limit the width of the foil thickness manufactured does not exceed 200 mm Ribs (jumper), not installed in the vacuum cavity and foil, it is impossible to cover protective screens, since all electrons are evenly dispersed on the standard angle on the foil graduation open.The proposed device is devoid of these disadvantages and is characterized by the fact that the trace of the electron beam on the foil moves in a spiral, uniformly irradiating the entire area of the outlet ports. The output end of the housing is divided by ridges, divides the working area of the outlet ports on a standalone sealing part. Two seal to the casing attached to the annular exhaust port, which is cut eight Windows, each of which is hermetically closed and Autonomous foil.Before bridges (edges) in the vacuum cavity have security screens, reducing the number of electrons bombarding and heating these jumpers.In Fig. 1 - Fig. 5 shows the release device of the electron beam in the atmosphere:
in Fig. 1 shows gavryuseva electron beam electromagnet;
in Fig. 4 - design of the outlet box;
in Fig. 5 - external element with protective screens;
in Fig. 6 is a graph of the amplitude of the current in the coils of an electromagnet.The proposed system of release of the beam in the atmosphere produced and is being prepared for testing at the Institute together with the electron accelerator.The release device of the electron beam in the atmosphere consists of an electromagnet 1, the housing 2 with a flat exit end. The Central part of the distal end is removed, and this place was entered the inner cone, the axis of which a Faraday Cup 3. On the output side of the case is made of eight Windows, through which the electron beam. On the path of the electron beam left only eight water-cooled jumpers, covering approximately 3% of the area irradiated by the beam. Over the ridges on the legs have security screens 4, a strip of foil from a refractory material with a thickness of 20-30 mm To the output end of the body through two seal attached to the annular exhaust port 5 (see Fig. 4) on which, as on the output side, there are eight Windows. All the Windows are closed titanium film 6 of a thickness of 50 μm, which is tightly attached to the outlet box using the framework 7 and wines fan 10. At the top of the case ends with a space, which is welded to the thin-walled cone of stainless steel. The cone is welded to the tube, which fly into accelerated electrons. The area around the cone (see Fig. 3) installed the electromagnet.Accelerated in the accelerator beam of electrons enters in rotating with angular velocity radians/s magnetic field created by the currents ix, iyin the coils of the electromagnet, and is deflected for a corner . This rotating magnetic field moves the trace of the electron beam at the outlet window along the circle of radius r with uniform speed equal to r. In order to obtain circular scan, the coils are connected in pairs, skipped sinusoidal current ixand iyshifted in phase by 1/4 of the period. In this case the equality of the amplitudes of these currents circular scan is of the form an exact circle.In the proposed release of the amplitude of the currents in the coils of the electromagnet slowly change over time, providing the change of the amplitude of the rotating induction field B, which determines thereby the movement trace of the electron beam on the foil window on a spiral trajectory. The rate of change of the amplitudes of the currents of the coils sets the speed of parmesean to be approximately equal to the diameter of the beam on the foil. Therefore, one revolution of the beam moves on the beam diameter dn. This local heating foil is inversely proportional to the beam diameter and the velocity of the footprint of the beam on the foil, is equal to r. The pattern of change in the amplitude of the current in the coils of the electromagnet has a sawtooth character and is visible on the graph shown in Fig. 6.In the proposed device window width b is approximately equal to ten times the diameter of the beam dntherefore . The exact value of the period Tappointed from the condition that the ratio of the period Tto the period of the treatment beam on the window is a non-integer number. Compliance with this condition specifies the smooth sliding of spiral trajectories of the beam on the foil and, therefore, uniform heating of the entire surface of the outlet ports.In the case where the beam diameter is much less than the pitch of the helix, the period Tyou should choose from the condition
< / BR>where
n is an integer much greater than one.When this condition is offset by pallage spiral trajectories, separated from each other by a time period Tand , therefore, the minimum local overheating foil.The range of variation of the amplitude of the magnetic field B and the sizes of the device (see drawing)
< / BR>The efficiency of the exhaust device depends on the thickness and material of the foil, transparency outlet ports. In the proposed release with a titanium foil with a thickness of 50 μm, the energy loss of the electron is about 35 Kev, which is at an electron energy of 1-2 MeV 2-3% of the beam power. The required thermal conditions foil is defined by the axial fan which provides air cooling foil window.Heat losses on the jumpers outlet ports, covering approximately 3% of floor area in the proposed device is significantly reduced by installing a protective screen 4 (see Fig. 5).The electrons flying through the screens, scattered on the standard angle . When the proportion of electrons bombarding jumpers significantly reduced. the thickness of the jumpers, h is the distance from the screen to the lintel - angle scattering of electrons. 1. Device for producing an electron beam in an atmosphere containing a sealed enclosure with a fan, while outside the housing in the area of its accession to the electron accelerator is installed deflecting electromagnet and to the output end of the housing is hermetically attached to the annular exhaust port, atomno sealing part, moreover, the electromagnet is arranged to generate a rotating magnetic field with changing amplitude.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that inside the enclosure before each jumper has a foil shield.
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.
EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.
22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: technical physics, in particular, accelerators of light ions, possible use as generator of neutrons.
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of ions with magnetic isolation contains vacuumized cylindrical cover, made of dielectric material, provided with vacuum pump, magnetic coils positioned outside the cover, connected to impulse electric power source and creating axial magnetic field, anode and cathode, made in form of coaxial tubes, connected to high voltage source. Accelerator is provided with gas tank, adjustable by gas inlet valve and means for controlling gas pressure, accelerating inducers and additional magnetic coils, which are positioned on external surface of vacuum cover between inducers and are connected to impulse electric power sources. Device is also provided with inverse coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each magnetron is connected to accelerator space via through slit, made in cathode of magnetron and lying in plane, passing through appropriate cover diameter in parallel to its generating line. Anode tube is made in form of part of cover, on vacuum surface of which axially-symmetrically and with provision of electric contact by their cathodes magnetrons are mounted, while their anodes are connected to impulse electric power sources.
EFFECT: decreased instability of ion current.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, possible use in laboratory research, and also during development of new devices for medicine and engineering, where it is needed to eject electron or laser beams in impulse mode.
SUBSTANCE: the essence of method is in using the difference of spreading speeds of gas and electrons. Ejection channel is opened for the time, sufficient for flight of electrons, but insufficient for passage of gas molecules. This allows ejection of short electron beams of any power without loss of their energy with minimal flow of gas in direction of lesser pressure. Claimed device, which realizes the method, does not exhaust all of its capabilities. It is engineered for ejection of electrons from radioactive gas environment with pressure of 1Pa order into vacuum with pressure 10-5-10-6 Pa. Special feature of the method is that on its basis devices may be created for ejection of electron and laser beams without limitation of energy and distortion of their spectrum.
EFFECT: possible creation of devices, which, depending on conditions of operations in conjunction with various methods and means of vacuum and compressor engineering will ensure ejection of electron and laser beams of any energy into space with any pressure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in high-voltage electrode of double stepped forming line, which contains two coaxial metal shells connected by means of end flange, and fixed in housing of double stepped forming line by means of discharge devices on one side and support dielectric elements on the other side, connection section of discharge devices to high-voltage electrode is made in the form of annular framework; openings are made in the framework and thin metal membranes through which discharge devices are connected to high-voltage electrode are fixed in them; at that, membranes are installed with possibility of their being broken away when discharge devices are destructed.
EFFECT: reduction of labour costs for repair of high-voltage electrode without removal of double stepped forming line of accelerator.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multipass accelerator-recuperator with separate paths for accelerated and decelerated particles.
EFFECT: independent control over accelerated and decelerated particles, particularly, independent focusing and trajectory correction.
SUBSTANCE: radiant tube (4) for guiding a charged particle stream (10), having a hollow cylindrical isolation core (6) directly surrounding a beam-guiding hollow volume (8), the isolation core (6) being formed from a dielectrically acting carrier substrate (14) and an electrical conductor (16) held therein, and a metal housing (5) surrounding the isolation core (6), wherein the conductor (16) is divided into a plurality of conductor loops (20) completely encompassing the circumference of the isolation core (6) at different axial positions and galvanically connected to each other, wherein the conductor (16) in at least two spaced-apart points, particularly at the side of the ends, is galvanically connected to the housing (5), wherein metal layers are embedded in the carrier substrate (14), said metal layers being arranged one behind the other along the axis of the radiant tube (4) and inductively connected to each other through the electrical conductor (16).
EFFECT: reduced probability of breakdown.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: acceleration equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering. Accelerator for charged particles comprises a set of capacitors with the first electrode, which can be brought to the first potential, with the second electrode, which is located concentrically to the first electrode and can be brought to the second potential differing from the first potential, and with at least one intermediate electrode, which is arranged concentrically between the first electrode and the second electrode and which can be brought to an intermediate potential located between the first potential and the second potential, a switching device, with which electrodes of the set of capacitors are connected and which is designed so that during operation of the switching device arranged concentrically to each other electrodes of the set of capacitors are brought to rising steps of potential, the first and the second accelerating channels formed by the first and respectively the second holes in electrodes of the set of capacitors, so that along the first or the second accelerating channel charged particles can be accelerated by the electrodes, a device affecting the accelerated beam of particles inside the set of capacitors to make a beam of particles generate the radiated photons.
EFFECT: technical result is provision of constant field intensity along the accelerating channel.
9 cl, 9 dwg