The final window of the electron accelerator
(57) Abstract:Usage: in accelerator technology and may find application in radiation technologies using electron irradiation, such as disinfection of grain, preservation of food, radiation chemistry, including gas treatment, crosslinking of polymers and other inventive in the final window of the electron accelerator containing a flange with a hole, closed transparent for electrons foil from the supporting substrate, the latter is made of pyrocarbon tissue. The invention allows to produce large magnitude currents (units amps) with low energy loss in the exhaust box, which increases the efficiency of the exhaust box. 1 Il. The invention relates to accelerator technology and may find application in radiation technologies using electron irradiation, such as disinfection of grain, preservation of food, radiation chemistry, including gas treatment, crosslinking of polymers and otherYou know the final window of the electron accelerator containing a flange with a hole, closed transparent for electrons foil [Abrahamian, E. A. Industrial electron accelerators-M. Energoatomizdat, 1986, S. 165-172]
N. the diameter of the round window is necessary to increase the thickness of the foil, which reduces its transparency and density of the noise current. In the end, the value of the output current does not depend on the diameter of the window, and in the case of aluminum foil is 10-2A.The closest technical solution is the final window of the electron accelerator [see ibid., S. 168] contains a flange with a hole, closed transparent for electrons foil from the supporting substrate. As a supporting substrate using metal ribs located at a distance l from each other. The beam is cut ribs into pieces, each of which produced a piece of foil in the form of ribbons. If the width of each ribbon l, the total length of all ribbons b, such that the window transmits the current in the b/l times greater than the "basic window" in the form of a square with side length l. The current through this "simple window" (like round Windows) does not depend on the size l in the case of aluminum foil is about 510-3A. Thus, the total current window may be increased to any desired value.The disadvantage of such outlet ports are loss of beam current on the edges that make up 30-40% of its value.The technical result of the invention is to reduce losses current puckorius, contains a flange with a hole, closed transparent for electrons foil from the supporting substrate, the supporting substrate is made of pyrocarbon tissue.The drawing shows a diagram of the exhaust window.The window contains the flange 1 with a hole, closed by a supporting substrate 2, made of pyrocarbon fabric and foil 3. Foil vacuum-sealed to the flange by means of a gasket 4 and divides the vacuum volume of the accelerator (in the drawing to the left of the foil) and the atmosphere (right).The outlet box is as follows.Electron beam falls on the window on the vacuum side. The maximum amount of current through a window is determined by the material properties of the foil. The density of power losses in the foil (1) Pp~ jhz, where j is the current density of the beam, h is the thickness of the foil, z the charge of the nuclei of the foil material, the density of the foil. The thickness of the foil is determined by the linear dimensions of the foil (diameter) l and its specific strength :
(2) h~1/ power Density, remove from foil atmosphere, will be
(3) PCH~T/h, where is thermal conductivity of the foil, T permissible operating temperature at which there is no significant reduction in mechanical properties of the foil. From (1) to(3) April per unit of measurement of such quantities then used in the exhaust boxes titanium K=2, beryllium K=2,5. For pyrocarbon K=200 and, accordingly, the current flowing pyrocarbon film (cloth) is 2 A. Consideration of thermal radiation will increase noise current. In the final window pyrocarbon fabric is used as transparent for electrons supporting vacuum-tight thin foil substrate. The foil thickness is determined from (2), much less than that which allows technological capabilities, and really she is 5 μm for titanium and 10 μm for aluminum. Perhaps the coating on the fabric of a vacuum-tight metal layer thickness of about 1 μm.Consider the example of execution of the outlet window of the accelerator with electron energy 1 MV and a current of 0.5 A. There are programs calculate the passage of electrons through matter, but easier to use tabular data, for example, from [Baranov, C. F. Dosimetry of electron radiation. -M. Atomizdat, 1974] when the mass thickness of the pyrocarbon tissue 0.03 g/cm2and aluminum foil 2,710-3g/cm2the energy loss of the beam will be about 1% of the Diameter of the window will be 6 seeThus, the invention allows to produce large magnitude currents (units amps) with low losses Oronogo accelerator, contains a flange with a hole, closed transparent for electrons foil from the supporting substrate, wherein the supporting substrate is made of pyrocarbon tissue.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of obtaining an electron beam involves applying supply voltage between a cathode with a cavity and an anode. A high-voltage discharge is initiated in a gas-discharge cell. A plasma forms in the cavity of the cathode, which provides for emission of electrons, accelerated by the strong field of the high-voltage discharge. The formed plasma has low density, for which purpose the surface of the cathode cavity is made from a dielectric. The generated electron beam can also be used as an auxiliary electron beam, which is directed over the surface of the open part of the cathode with a cavity. At the open part of the cathode on the side of the anode, a high-current electron beam is then formed. The device for generating an electron beam comprises an anode and a hollow cathode with an opening on the walls, which is located near the anode, all put into a gas-discharge cell. The wall of the hollow cathode with an opening is made from a dielectric sheet with an opening. The high-voltage power supply is connected to the anode and cathode.
EFFECT: provision for operation of sources under high pressure.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronic engineering. An exit window unit of an electron beam (10) generating device comprises a supporting plate (22) and an electron exit window foil (20). The supporting plate (22) is configured to reduce creases in said foil (20). The foil (20) is fastened to the supporting plate (22) along a closed fastening line (26), which bounds a region in which the supporting plate (22) has a structure of openings and supporting parts for the foil, arranged in an alternating manner. When a vacuum is created in the housing (14), said structure is configured to form a topographic profile of the foil (20) which substantially absorbs any excess foil.
EFFECT: invention relates to a method of reducing creases in foil.
9 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electronic engineering. Mounting assembly consists of support plate (22) and exit window foil (20) for use in an electron beam device, said support plate (22) being designed to reduce wrinkles in said foil (20), which wrinkles may arise due to surplus foil arising in assembly process. Foil (20) is bonded to support plate (22) along closed bonding line (26) bounding substantially circular area in which support plate (22) is provided with apertures and foil support portions and in which area foil is adapted to serve as a portion of a wall of a vacuum tight housing of electron beam device. Invention also relates to a method of reducing wrinkles.
EFFECT: technical result is increased efficiency of resolution of passage of electrons and longer service life of foil.
10 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.
EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.
22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: technical physics, in particular, accelerators of light ions, possible use as generator of neutrons.
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of ions with magnetic isolation contains vacuumized cylindrical cover, made of dielectric material, provided with vacuum pump, magnetic coils positioned outside the cover, connected to impulse electric power source and creating axial magnetic field, anode and cathode, made in form of coaxial tubes, connected to high voltage source. Accelerator is provided with gas tank, adjustable by gas inlet valve and means for controlling gas pressure, accelerating inducers and additional magnetic coils, which are positioned on external surface of vacuum cover between inducers and are connected to impulse electric power sources. Device is also provided with inverse coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each magnetron is connected to accelerator space via through slit, made in cathode of magnetron and lying in plane, passing through appropriate cover diameter in parallel to its generating line. Anode tube is made in form of part of cover, on vacuum surface of which axially-symmetrically and with provision of electric contact by their cathodes magnetrons are mounted, while their anodes are connected to impulse electric power sources.
EFFECT: decreased instability of ion current.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, possible use in laboratory research, and also during development of new devices for medicine and engineering, where it is needed to eject electron or laser beams in impulse mode.
SUBSTANCE: the essence of method is in using the difference of spreading speeds of gas and electrons. Ejection channel is opened for the time, sufficient for flight of electrons, but insufficient for passage of gas molecules. This allows ejection of short electron beams of any power without loss of their energy with minimal flow of gas in direction of lesser pressure. Claimed device, which realizes the method, does not exhaust all of its capabilities. It is engineered for ejection of electrons from radioactive gas environment with pressure of 1Pa order into vacuum with pressure 10-5-10-6 Pa. Special feature of the method is that on its basis devices may be created for ejection of electron and laser beams without limitation of energy and distortion of their spectrum.
EFFECT: possible creation of devices, which, depending on conditions of operations in conjunction with various methods and means of vacuum and compressor engineering will ensure ejection of electron and laser beams of any energy into space with any pressure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in high-voltage electrode of double stepped forming line, which contains two coaxial metal shells connected by means of end flange, and fixed in housing of double stepped forming line by means of discharge devices on one side and support dielectric elements on the other side, connection section of discharge devices to high-voltage electrode is made in the form of annular framework; openings are made in the framework and thin metal membranes through which discharge devices are connected to high-voltage electrode are fixed in them; at that, membranes are installed with possibility of their being broken away when discharge devices are destructed.
EFFECT: reduction of labour costs for repair of high-voltage electrode without removal of double stepped forming line of accelerator.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multipass accelerator-recuperator with separate paths for accelerated and decelerated particles.
EFFECT: independent control over accelerated and decelerated particles, particularly, independent focusing and trajectory correction.
SUBSTANCE: radiant tube (4) for guiding a charged particle stream (10), having a hollow cylindrical isolation core (6) directly surrounding a beam-guiding hollow volume (8), the isolation core (6) being formed from a dielectrically acting carrier substrate (14) and an electrical conductor (16) held therein, and a metal housing (5) surrounding the isolation core (6), wherein the conductor (16) is divided into a plurality of conductor loops (20) completely encompassing the circumference of the isolation core (6) at different axial positions and galvanically connected to each other, wherein the conductor (16) in at least two spaced-apart points, particularly at the side of the ends, is galvanically connected to the housing (5), wherein metal layers are embedded in the carrier substrate (14), said metal layers being arranged one behind the other along the axis of the radiant tube (4) and inductively connected to each other through the electrical conductor (16).
EFFECT: reduced probability of breakdown.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: acceleration equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering. Accelerator for charged particles comprises a set of capacitors with the first electrode, which can be brought to the first potential, with the second electrode, which is located concentrically to the first electrode and can be brought to the second potential differing from the first potential, and with at least one intermediate electrode, which is arranged concentrically between the first electrode and the second electrode and which can be brought to an intermediate potential located between the first potential and the second potential, a switching device, with which electrodes of the set of capacitors are connected and which is designed so that during operation of the switching device arranged concentrically to each other electrodes of the set of capacitors are brought to rising steps of potential, the first and the second accelerating channels formed by the first and respectively the second holes in electrodes of the set of capacitors, so that along the first or the second accelerating channel charged particles can be accelerated by the electrodes, a device affecting the accelerated beam of particles inside the set of capacitors to make a beam of particles generate the radiated photons.
EFFECT: technical result is provision of constant field intensity along the accelerating channel.
9 cl, 9 dwg