Method and system for monitoring in online mode

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of measuring a set of technological parametres of a chemical process taking place in a chemical reactor. The method of determining at least one technological parametre of a chemical process taking place in a reactor 2, involves passing a sample of the process medium of the chemical process into a lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36) and isolation of the said sample from the remaining process medium in the said reactor; circulation of the said sample in the said lateral circuit and its thermal processing therein to the required temperature; taking measurements of at least one technological parametre of the said sample, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and/or taking spectrometre measurements with provision for spectrometric data at the required temperature; controlling the chemical process based on the determined at least one technological parametre. The method is realised in a system which has an output 18 and an input 28; lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36), connected to the reactor 2 through output 18 and input 28, which enable passage of the sample of process medium from the said reactor 2 to the said lateral circuit and back to the said reactor; a device 30 for circulating the said sample; valves V1, V2, V4, V5 for isolating the said sample in the said lateral circuit from the remaining process medium in the said reactor 2; a device for thermal processing 46, 50, 52, V7 the said sample in the said lateral circuit to the required temperature; and a device for measuring 38 at least one technological parametre, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity; and/or apparatus for measuring spectrometric data at the required temperature in the said lateral circuit and apparatus for controlling the chemical process based on the measured technological parametres.

EFFECT: invention allows for taking a large number of measurements of different technological parametres, accurate measurement at temperatures different from temperature of the reactor, fast switching between measurements taken in inline and online modes, as well as prevention of clogging of equipment of the system.

18 cl, 4 dwg

 

System

The present invention relates in General to a method of measuring the parameters of chemical processes, where the measurements are carried out after the temperature of the processing liquid media, are a necessary condition and, accordingly, system. This system in particular is suitable for use in the manufacture of resins.

The level of technology

Monitoring of technological parameters of chemical processes in industry with the help of automated control systems is well known to specialists in the field of engineering.

Some monitoring systems require operator intervention, including manual sampling of liquid medium for further processing on the special equipment in order to conduct measurements or analysis, it is possible in a laboratory remote from the place of sampling. Such systems are labor-intensive and often final results in them cannot be quickly obtained.

Others include automated, do not use rapid cooling system processing mode in-line, which includes pumping environment, which will be analyzed in the path in which you installed the appropriate mobile equipment. The measurement is carried out at approximately the same temperature prevailing inside the reactor. The temperature is and the environment in these systems is not clearly defined. The measured temperature may have a significant value to obtain accurate data. This situation occurs when conduct quantitative determination of, for example, viscosity, pH and many other technological parameters. The viscosity of the reaction medium solution of the two reactants in the reaction tank can be very close at elevated temperatures of reaction, but it varies considerably at lower temperatures. Measurement at a lower temperature can in this case to provide more accurate data. One example of a technology that does not use thermal processing, disclosed in (patent) USA 6635224, demonstrating the installation for monitoring polymers in online in order to quickly determine various properties of the polymer.

Thus, there is a need for a more versatile system that allows accurate measurements at temperatures other than the temperature of the reactor. It would also be desirable to create a system that allows fast switching between measurements performed in the modes of in-line and online. It would also be desirable to create a system that allows for smooth and continuous monitoring. It would also be desirable to create a system of providing protection against clogging of the equipment included in the system, as well as the protection against loss of reactive substances. It would also be desirable to create a system that allows a large number of measurements of various technological parameters. It would also be desirable to provide a simplified and rapid monitoring system that allows the measurement of technological parameters in the modes of in-line and online. The aim of the present invention is to provide such a system.

Invention

The term "system mode in-line", as used herein, refers to a system where the sample flow technological environment, the parameters of which should be determined, passes through the side path where you installed measuring equipment. Thus, the temperature of the sample flow will be essentially the same as in the reactor, and thus it is not additionally adjusted.

The term "system online", as used herein, refers to a system in which the sample flow technological environment removed from the reactor and passed in a closed circuit, separated from the reactor, the circuit includes a device for thermal processing environment, thus, it is possible measurements that can be made when installed and controlled temperature, which is different from the temperature of the reactor. Determined that this specified type closed the addition circuit provides a much more accurate measurement compared to the open continuous contours, through which flow continuously sent back to the reactor.

The term "technological environment", which is used in this description, is intended to cover all participating reagents or other components or substances in a reactor in which a chemical process is carried out using, for example, solvents, solutions, etc.

The term "sample"as used herein, means a portion or fraction of the technological environment, extracted from the reactor used for measuring process parameters.

The way of measuring technological advanced options specified in claim 1 of the claims, and system for carrying out such measurements is defined in paragraph 10 of the claims. Preferred embodiments of the method and system are further defined in other paragraphs of the attached claims.

The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 is a diagram illustrating an automated system with rapid cooling, in which the combined operation modes in-line/online according to one variant of implementation of the present invention;

Figure 2 shows the curves of dependence of viscosity on temperature for the two resins;

Figa - side view of the sieve, spontannogo in the system according to the invention;

Fig.3b - view from the output end of the sieve.

Detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention

1 shows a system comprising a reactor periodic action (tank reactor) 2, in which the preparation process of the resin. The stirring device 4 is controlled by using the appropriate electric motor located in the tank reactor.

At the bottom of the tank reactor 2 is output 18 that is associated with the portion 20 of the pipeline. Valve V1 is installed on the portion 20 of the pipeline. Section 20 of the pipeline is divided into two lines with sections 22 and 24 pipelines, respectively. On the section 22 of the pipeline is installed, the valve V3 and the first contour formed with sections 20 and 22 of pipelines, finally formed using additional section 26 of the pipe connected to the outlet 28 at the bottom of the tank reactor 2, in which the inlet is preferably not too close to the outlet 18. On the section 26 of the pipeline is installed, the valve V2.

Device for circulation of a sample, preferably a pump 30 that is used to pass the environment of the sample through the system, placed on the section 24 of the pipeline. Section 24 is divided into two lines with sections 32 and 34 of the pipelines. On the section 32 has a valve V6. Sections 32, 22, 24, and 36 is overshot the second circuit. On the section 36 has a measuring box 38, further described below. Side contour formed by the sections 20, 24, 32, 36 and 26 of pipes, is a "measuring circuit in-line.

The third circuit is formed sections 20, 24, 34, 40, 42, 36 and 26 of the pipelines. On the section 34 has a valve V4 and the sieve 44, their function and design will be further considered below. On the section 40 has a heat exchanger 46 for thermal processing of passing the sample to the desired temperature. Finally, the valve V5 is installed on the section 42. Stand-alone or single side circuit formed by the sections 22, 24, 34, 40, 42 and 36 pipelines, should be understood as "contour measurement on-line.

The cooling medium may be omitted through the heat exchanger 46 of the inlet pipe 50 through the corresponding valve V7 on outlet piping 52.

Thus, in the figure 1 system, there are two side of the path, namely the path mode in-line and contour in online mode, both contain a common pump 30 and the measuring box 38. The first circuit, formed by the sections 20, 22 and 26 of pipes, by itself, any function does not.

In the following example, a complete system of contours has a capacity of the sample is approximately equal to 40 liters, and provided for its use with the reactor having the m volume 50 m 3. Thus, the sample represents approximately 0.08% of the total volume of the reactor. Examples of suitable sensors for pH and viscosity, respectively, are TBI-Bailey (pH) and BTG-Klle (for viscosity). Other suitable sensors may be, for example, industrial turbidity sensor, for example sensor dual beam scattered light radiation from Optek-Danulat GmbH-Essen, Germany, as well as spectroscopic facility for research in the near IR region of the spectrum to collect spectrometric data process, for example Interactance Immersion System 6500 from FOSS. Plate heat exchanger, respectively, are used for rapid cooling of the technological environment. Measuring box 38, respectively, includes an elongated tube in which the sensor/sensors are preferably installed to measure the temperature of the sample and preferably, in addition, to control the performance of the refrigeration unit heat exchanger, determining the temperature of the sample. The change of performance of the refrigeration unit can thus be controlled, and accordingly can be made regeneration of the refrigerator. Preferably, install two sensors at each end of the box. During thermal processing will occur the volume change, causing changes in pressure. That is their change in pressure/volume, preferably regulate protective valve V1, open throughout the stage of heat treatment (tempering). The joints consist essentially of rubber elements, with the necessary flexibility. These joints act to reduce vibrational movement in the measuring box, which is particularly useful for measuring the viscosity. Device for the circulation of the sample, preferably the pump may be turned off when the stage temperature processing is already completed and you must proceed to conduct measurements of process parameters. This disconnect is an advantage in the sense that the process parameters, such as viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity or spectrometric data can be measured, at a time when the sample is stationary in these parts of the pipeline. Otherwise, the sample flow, if it moves through the measuring equipment, distorts measurements and makes them less accurate. This discrepancy can be associated with particles dissolved in the sample flow. The flow can also cause effects on the sensor turbulent physical strength. Additional impurities, in addition to the particles, for example, air bubbles, wood chips in some production lines, can be completely or partially eliminated. Particles, etc. m which can also be removed using filtration devices, as is further disclosed in this specification.

The invention is further illustrated by example. The author proposes to use the invention, for example, in the manufacture of urea-formaldehyde resin. The technology of its reception may correspond to the following scheme:

1. Download solution of formaldehyde (50 wt.%) and regulation of the pH to 8.0 and 8.6, using sodium hydroxide in an appropriate reactor.

2. Download urea to achieve a molar ratio formaldehyde/urea (F/U) of 2.0-2.2 and control/regulation of the pH to 8.0 and 8.6. Raising the temperature to 80C and the reaction within a specified period of time equal to 10 minutes.

3. Regulation of pH to 5.2 to 5.5 with formic acid and raising the temperature to 95C (exothermic reaction), and the course of the condensation reaction until the desired viscosity of 400 to 500 mPas.

4. Completion of the condensation reaction by increasing the pH to 8.0-8.6 and adding urea until the end molar relationship F/U to 1.0 to 1.2. Evaporation before reaching the dry matter content of 65-70 wt.%.

5. Control pH (8.0 to 8,6) and unloading of the reactor.

As follows from this above scheme, the regulation of pH is performed in the beginning of the process (stage 1). The definition of pH is performed repeatedly during the course of stage 2 and early stage 3, after which the measured viscosity. In order to achieve the high precision values of the viscosity, measurements should be conducted at 25C. the process temperature in the tank of the reactor during the condensation reaction was 90C. In stage 4 re-define pH. Thus, the proposed use requires measurements at two individual temperatures, and switching of measurements made at high and low temperature should preferably be carried out very quickly.

For measurements of pH (stages 1, 2 and 4) use "mode in-line. Thus, the circuit in the measuring mode in-line, defined by the sections 20, 24, 32, 36 and 26 of pipes, installed by opening valves V1, V2, V6 and closing valves V4, V5 and V3. The pump 30 is pumping process fluid from the reactor 2 through the circuit mode in-line, and the environment, therefore, will pass through the measuring box 38, which has a pH-meter. The specified medium is pumped through the box 38 in a period of time sufficient to remove stable pH readings. In the considered case your measurements characterize the pH prevailing in the reactor.

pH meter (not shown per se), respectively located in the measuring box 38. Sometimes, the substance of glass, located in the measuring probe of the pH meter, is under the influence of the process conditions, especially the composition of the technological environment, and virani is the W variance values can be implemented by software of the control system.

For viscosity measurement (stage 3) use "online". Thus, the circuit in the measuring mode online, certain sections 22, 24, 34, 40, 42 and 36 pipelines, set by closing valves V1, V2 and V6 and opening valves V3, V4 and V5. In this mode the sample technological medium pumped out of the reactor in the above loop to populate the environment, which is then examined, in this case, when the above-defined "contour-line is filled, the valves V1 and V2 closed. Then the specified medium circulating through the heat exchanger 46. The heat exchanger receives the corresponding cooling medium through the inlet 50 as long as the temperature does not reach the required value. The flow of the cooling medium can be stopped by the valve V7. A temperature sensor (not shown) is also located within the measuring box 38. Of course, if necessary, the pH can be continuously monitored during thermal treatment (tempering).

As noted above, rapid cooling is especially important when measuring the viscosity, but also in the measurement of other temperature-sensitive parameters. At high temperatures, for different substances, the viscosity varies very slightly, so the conclusion is obvious from the presented figure 2, which shows the change in viscosity is depending on the temperature for two different resins. Obviously, shows the difference is almost negligible at 100C, whereas at room temperature (about 20C) shows the difference becomes significant. Thus, measurements at higher temperatures require extreme precision on the equipment used. Even if the equipment is accurate, the measurement is affected by various phenomena, such as oscillations, small solid particles present in the flow, etc. These relatively small disturbance can, however, exert a great influence on these measurements. It was determined that only 1-5 minutes may be required before reliable measurements can be made on the tempered sample, which allows accurate monitoring. In the process, discussed above as an example, was considered only a measurement mode in-line and temperature treatment/measurement in the on-line mode.

However, a number of other modes is workable for a variety of purposes. Namely, when the viscosity measurement is carried out, it is inevitable some time passes, and technological environment is undergoing change. To get the current value of the viscosity, the substance within a closed circuit online, you need to replace with the tunes a sample of the technological environment. This procedure can be understood as the implementation of procedures for substitution using the appropriate functions in the online mode. For this purpose, close the valve V3 and open valves V1 and V2 with the emptying of the circuit through the entrance tank reactor 28 and the injection of fresh sample in the path through the exit from the tank reactor 18. This replacement procedure is interrupted when the temperature at the inlet 28 becomes equal to the temperature at the outlet 18. During this phase of the replacement of the heat exchanger preferably is disabled, that is, the valve V7 is switched off, to prevent the passage of cooling medium through the heat exchanger. At this stage, that is, when the inlet temperature and the outlet temperature will be equal, the system is ready to work in another online (thermal treatment/measurement).

In some embodiments, embodiments, for example when using a sensor with a relatively slow time to reach equilibrium values (e.g., pH meter), it may be desirable to isolate the sample flow without carrying out rapid-cooling in the heat exchanger. This can be done by closing valves V1, V2, V4 and V5 and opening valves V3 and V6. Thus, the sample is circulated through the measuring box 38 during the interval of time sufficient for this type of sensor, in order to achieve the equilibrium state. So the procedure I will be understood as the execution of the function without the use of thermal processing.

For sample you can select circulation without heat treatment during the interval of time sufficient to establish equilibrium pH-meter, this despite the fact that the remaining sample at the moment is stationary in locked loop, however, it will be to some extent continue to cool. Thus, when the equilibrium pH was successful, circulation circuit tempering resume, and now is the time required to reach the desired temperature will be somewhat reduced, and savings time. Found that switching from function of temperature treatment to function without the use of thermal treatment can be carried out only approximately 15-60 seconds, which provides a very fast and effective monitoring through measurement at both temperatures of the reactor, as well as samples of the reactor, subjected to thermal processing.

Also, of course, is necessary to clean the system at the moments of time between the execution of programs downloads. For the implementation of the cleanup there are several possible modes of operation. This cleaning itself is not part of this invention and should actually be lighting is on for each individual technology, like the regulation of the mode of operation of the conventional washing machine.

Since different paths for different measurement modes are generated subpaths of the full system of lateral contours and since they are interconnected with multiple valves, it is possible to make virtually instant switching between different modes, just opening and closing the appropriate valves. As a consequence, the management of chemical process in which several parameters must be controlled within small time intervals, greatly simplified and carried out with much greater efficiency.

Often the technological environment is contaminated by small particles, fibers and other debris that could pass through the pump without being crushed to a sufficiently small size. The distance between the plates in the heat exchanger is a critical factor (in the case of a plate heat exchanger). Preferably, this distance is typically about 4 mm, but can, of course, vary from different manufacturers.

To prevent such fragments of the substance to occupy the space between the plates may be installed strainer located upstream of the flow in the heat exchanger. This bolt is not necessary for operation of the system according to the image the structure, but first and foremost it is installed as measures to guarantee security. However, measurement of, for example, viscosity can adversely presence in the thread mentioned objects, and thus can still be useful for the successful operation according to the invention.

The sieve shown in figa and 3b and generally designated 44, includes an elongated casing-casing 54, made of stainless steel, and the housing has a mainly rectangular cross-section. The sieve has an inlet 56 and outlet 58, and it is placed on the section 34 of the pipeline leading to the heat exchanger 46 (see figure 1). Auxiliary input 60 to effect the washing place within the top at an angle in the housing 54. Inside of the sieve body 54 is placed mesh structure 62. The grid is placed at an angle to the body so that the incoming fluid will pass underneath the mesh structure 62. Thus, any particles, etc. that will be captured by the mesh structure 62, will remain on the bottom surface 64 of the housing 54, thereby reducing the risk of clogging of the mesh. The mesh structure 62 includes a grid of 66 set in a thin acid-resistant frame structure (not shown in the figure). Inside the housing 54 has two guide protrusions 70 and 72 on each vertical wall 74 and 76 of the housing 54. Orienting the tabs prostituts is from the bottom of the housing-side end of the output diagonally upward to the upper end of the casing inlet, and so these pairs of guide protrusions form appropriate guiding device, by which the Assembly unit from the grid and frame structure is inserted through the opening 78 (dotted lines) at the end of the exit housing 54. The hole is closed using a protective casing 79, which can be protected against leaks with a snug fit suitable fastening means and suitable sealing means. Thus, the replacement of the screen of the device as a whole is not required, but will be enough to replace the mesh structure 62, which is easy operation.

In the above description, the present invention has been described using an example in which among other interest options were presented to the pH and viscosity. Qualified specialist in the field of technology should understand that underlie the principle of the invention can be used also for measuring other parameters in any process that requires monitoring of the parameters in the conditions of rapid cooling, and quick switching between measurements carried out, without departing from the concept of the invention as defined in the attached claims.

1. Method for determining at least one technologically advanced, the ski parameter chemical process, carried out in the reactor (2), which includes
(a) passing a sample of the technological environment of the specified chemical process in lateral outline(20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36) and isolation of the specified sample from the remaining technological environment in the specified reactor;
(b) the circulation of the specified pattern in the specified lateral contour and its thermal processing there until the desired temperature;
(c) performing a measurement of at least one process parameter of the specified sample selected from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and/or performing spectrometric measurements with the provision of spectrometric data at the required temperature;
(d) management of chemical process based on the identified at least one process parameter.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which thermal processing are obtained by operation of the heat exchanger in the specified side of the path.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, which includes the circulation of part of the sample isolated from a sample in the specified subpath side of the path, with the specified residue from a sample held in a stationary state, and therefore there is no thermal treatment in the specified subpath, and in connection with which one or more parameters measured for the sample in the specified subpath.

4. The method according to the SNO any one of claims 1 and 2, where sample volume is 1% of the volume of the technological environment in the reactor.

5. The method according to claim 1, in which the sample volume is 1% of the volume of the technological environment in the reactor.

6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, further comprising
e) circulation of the technological environment in a closed subpath to the specified side of the path without thermal treatment;
f) selectively performing a measurement at the temperature of the reactor in the specified subpath.

7. The method according to claim 3, additionally including
e) circulation of the technological environment in a closed subpath to the specified side of the path without thermal treatment;
f) selectively performing a measurement at the temperature of the reactor in the specified subpath.

8. The method according to claim 4, additionally including
e) circulation of the technological environment in a closed subpath to the specified side of the path without thermal treatment;
f) selectively performing a measurement at the temperature of the reactor in the specified subpath.

9. The method according to claim 5, further comprising
e) circulation of the technological environment in a closed subpath to the specified side of the path without thermal treatment;
f) selectively performing a measurement at the temperature of the reactor in the specified subpath.

10. System for measuring process parameters chemical process is about in the reactor (2), includes the output (18) and the input (28); lateral outline(20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36), associated with the specified reactor (2) through the outlet (18) and the input (28)allowing the passage of the sample technological environment from the specified reactor (2) to the specified side of the circuit and back to the specified reactor; the device (30) for circulation of the specified pattern; valves (V1, V2, V4, V5) for isolation of the specified pattern in the specified lateral contour from the remaining technological environment in the specified reactor (2); the device for thermal treatment (46, 50, 52, V7) the specified pattern in the specified lateral contour to the desired temperature; and measuring device (38), at least one process parameter selected from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity; and/or means for measuring spectrometric data at the required temperature in the specified side circuit and a tool for the management of chemical process based on the measured process parameters.

11. The system of claim 10, in which the measuring box (38) is installed in the specified lateral contour, such box is selected, at least one sensor to perform the required measurements.

12. The system of claim 10, in which the specified side circuit includes a subpath(22, 24, 32, 36), does not contain a device for thermal processing, the specified subpath is f is nclonelyman in an isolated state from the side of the path.

13. System according to clause 12, in which the specified measuring box (38) establish so that it is capable of performing the operation when the system operates with the specified subpath.

14. The system of claim 10, further comprising sieve device (44)made in the specified lateral path upstream of the means of temperature treatment (46), the specified sieve, comprising a casing (54); the specified housing (54)having an inlet (56) and output (58) and mounted on pipe section (34); mesh structure (62), comprising a grid (66) and the framework that supports the specified grid installed inside the casing (54).

15. The system of item 12, further comprising sieve device (44)made in the specified lateral path upstream of the means of temperature treatment (46), the specified sieve, comprising a casing (54); the specified housing (54)having an input (56 and output (58) and mounted on pipe section (34); mesh structure (62), comprising a grid (66) and the framework that supports the specified grid installed inside the casing (54).

16. The system of item 13, further comprising sieve device (44)made in the specified lateral path upstream of the means of temperature treatment (46), the specified sieve, comprising a casing (54); the specified housing (54)having an inlet (56) and output (58) mounted on the plot is the site of the pipeline (34); the mesh structure (62), comprising a grid (66) and the framework that supports the specified grid installed inside the casing (54).

17. System according to clause 16, in which the casing (54) provided with projections (70, 72) on the respective vertical walls (74, 76) in the casing (54), these guide protrusions (70, 72) extend from the bottom of the box by the end of the exit diagonally up to the top at the end of the input box, the specified pair of protrusions forms a corresponding guiding device, in which a node of the mesh and frame structure is inserted through a hole (78) at the end of the outlet casing (54).

18. The application of the system according to any of PP-17 managed to obtain resins.



 

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FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: method of bulk solids mixture evaluation includes sampling from mixer, pressing of tablets, digital imaging of tablets, and evaluation of key component concentration and mixture heterogeneity. Calibration tablets with known concentration of key component are prepared. Digital images thereof are used to observe calibration brightness dependence of key component concentration. Further digital image of analysed tablets are broken up into cells of the same area to evaluate brightness of each cell. Then arithmetical mean of brightness in all cells is calculated. Calibration dependences are used to evaluate key component concentration in tablet. Heterogeneity coefficient of mixture sample is calculated by formula: , where n is number of cells; Ci is brightness of i-th cell; is arithmetical mean of brightness in all n cells.

EFFECT: most complete data accessing of bulk solids mixture quality, i.e. components test of mixtures and heterogeneity (variation coefficient) of their distributions.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: instrument for analysis of colloidal liquids and sols contains source of light and the following components installed along the direction of emission: condenser, light filter with different coefficient of transmission, reservoirs for analysed medium, photodetector that is connected with registering device via measuring circuit. Emission with different length of light wave (colour) with the help of light guide that is optical fibre, integral from the side of beams entry butt end and then fork-shaped bifurcated, is introduced into two lightproof and shaded form inside cups of instrument detectors, which have identical dimensions and volumes, below the bottom, and on top - covers with fixing brackets for tips of every branch of bifurcated light guide and micrometers. Holes are provided along generatrix on top and bottom of cups for analysed liquid entry into sensors and air exhaust during sensors submersion into reservoirs, on internal surface of covers segments of annular photodetectors are installed with transparent rings of their protection against analysed medium, which perceive level of scattering of emission by lateral surface of complete straight annular cone of Faraday-Tyndall. Value of linear displacement is measured with micrometers of clock type, leg of which rests on rocker. Electric value of emission scattering intensity in colloidal liquid is determined by two electric measuring instruments separate for every sensor, which are connected to the third one according to bridge circuit, which has zero in the middle and potentiometer, which is used in calibration of instrument according to liquid standard in both reservoirs by installation of pointer at zero with further replacement of standard liquid for analysed one in one of the reservoir. Extent of liquid correspondence to standard liquid is estimated by value of pointer deviation from zero to one side or the other. Quantitative and qualitative content is determined by adjustment of instrument according to standard medium and earlier available weight percent or volume content of ingredients, selection of light filters and their combinations.

EFFECT: simplification of analyses of colloidal liquids and sols.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises choosing the value of water concentration measured by one of the pickups depending on the current value of the parameter given in advance and determined by the properties of the water-oil mixture and supplying the results of measurements to display.

EFFECT: enhanced precision.

6 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises generating high-velocity flow of loose material inside the chamber for analyzing, sampling the central part of the flow, and illuminating the material, and receiving the light by means of a spectrometer. The housing has open top end and confined outlet. The open top end is defined by the mutually intersected surfaces to form sharp edges that divide the flow into the branch that enters the housing and the branch that flows around the housing.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

8 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises means for illuminating the specimen of granulated mineral. The light reflected from the mineral is received and analyzed to obtain information on the composition of the granulated material. The specimen has bottom surface and top surface. The zone of illumination is interposed between the bottom and top surfaces.

EFFECT: improved design.

19 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording and processing the optical signal that carries information on the fluctuation of flow velocity of the active laser fluid of a CO2-laser. The relative fluctuations of the inverse wave are recorded, and d(v2) is determined from the formula proposed. The inverse wave is generated by the internal resonance of four-wave mixing on the nonlinearity of the coefficient of the active fluid of the laser.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of the measurements.

2 dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises processing the image of the surface of specimens sampled from the mixing device each specified time interval. The maximum homogeneity can be judged by the minimum in the plot of the dependence of brightness of image color on duration of mixing.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy.

4 cl, 2 tbl

The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used in control systems of technological processes

Cavitation reactor // 2372139

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatus for carrying out physico-chemical processes in a liquid using energy of elastic harmonic oscillations propagated by more than two ultrasonic sources at the same frequency, and can be used in acoustochemistry, as well as in analysis and practical use of sonoluminescence and sonosynthesis. The reactor has coaxially placed acoustic resonators, which form plane-elastic waves with circular fronts in liquid. Dimensions of resonators are chosen based on the relationship between the diametre clearance between waveguides of resonators, and phase of each even resonator is shifted by half the wave period relative the phase of each odd resonator. Instantaneous value of sound pressure of cavitation noise from all resonators at the centre of the resonator at any point in time is approximately in the same phase. Also the centre of the reactor is the location of maximum amplitude of sound pressure from cavitation of each resonator.

EFFECT: intensification of processes due to increase of total amplitude of sound pressure and easier control of the reactor.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

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