Method of determining effect of light oil products on polymeric articles

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing specimens of polymeric materials of specified mass, exposing the specimens to the hostile fluid at a given temperature, and determining informative characteristic from a formula proposed.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

2 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to methods teplostojkih properties of polymer materials used for flexible containers, sealing products, hoses, filters, pipelines, containers, internal coatings, etc. and can be used in the development (modernization), production, operation and repair of hardware product.

In recent years more and more urgent becomes the problem of reducing the overall mass of technical product due to use in their design of polymeric materials. The use of polymers is due to a number of advantages over metallic materials - low density, high strength, resistance to aggressive environments, durability, the ability to take the desired shape, the use of modern technologies of production, storage and utilization of [1 - Vccsense, Url, Addanimation, Yevgrashova. Technical properties of polymeric materials, St. Petersburg, Publishing house "Profession", 2003, p.6].

One of the problems of effective use of polymeric materials in the design of technical product is the determination of their resistance to light oil products (aviation and motor gasoline, diz is global fuel fuel for jet engines and other). Upon contact with light oil products from polymeric structural material can be extracted fillers - antifreeze, antistatically, plasticizers, curing agents, rheological additives, colorants, antiseptics, antistatic agents, etc. that improve performance (strength, density, conductivity, heat capacity, frictionist and others) and technological properties (viscosity of the melt and its stability, features of formation of products and removing them from snap) [1 - Vccsense, Url, Addanimation, Yevgrashova. Technical properties of polymeric materials, St. Petersburg, Russia: the Profession, 2003, p.16, 17]. Extraction fillers affects the deformation-strength properties of the polymeric material, but also the quality of stored (transported) of light oil, which is often estimated by the actual concentration of the resin, reducing detonation resistance and evaporation. The actual tar residue from evaporation of the aviation fuel or fuel for jet engines or the heptane insoluble portion of the residue from evaporation of gasoline (washed resin). The actual content of the resin is determined according to GOST 1567-97 [2 - GOST 1567-97 (ISO 6246-95) Petroleum products. The automobile gasoline and fuel aviatio the data. Method for determining tar evaporation jet. M.: Publishing house of standards, 1999, p.4-6]. The actual concentration of resins in light petroleum products is strictly limited and is installed in mg per 100 ml of fuel. This takes into account the inevitability of resinification of light oil during storage, limit the tar on the place of production and place of consumption. Resin to form a light viscous oil precipitation of a dark brown colour, which forms on the details of tanks, pipelines, fuel tanks, combustion chambers, precipitation of the resin deteriorate the fuel in the cylinders of the engine, the combustion chamber they form Nagar, contributing to the ignition of the working mixture, detonation, hang valves and other problems [3 - stockings PV, stockings I.P. Fuel and lubricants: range, quality, use, economy, ecology. M: the Polytechnic, 1996, pp.28-29].

A known method for determining resistance of plastics to chemical environments, including the preparation of standard samples of plastics, samples chemical environments specified quality and definition under prescribed conditions of temperature and time of their resistance to the specified effect by changing the values of one or several parameters: mass, linear dimensions and mechanical properties in a relaxed and stress-deformirovannom state [4 - GOST 12020-72 Plastic. Methods for the determination of resistance to chemical environments, M.: Publishing house of standards, 1980, p.1].

The disadvantages of the known method for determining resistance of plastics to chemical environments are:

a large volume of research related to the identification of a significant number of parameters (change of mass, linear dimensions, physical and mechanical properties in a relaxed and stress-strain state before and after contact with liquid aggressive media);

plastic is recognised proof (good, satisfactory) to the action of liquid aggressive media, the results change only the strength and deformation properties.

This method does not allow to correctly evaluate the influence of light oil products from polymeric materials without certain modifications relating to the assessment of the quality of the working environment.

The closest in technical essence and taken for the prototype is a method for determining the resistance of rubbers in the relaxed condition to the effects of liquid aggressive media, including the preparation of rubber samples a given geometric shape, the impact on these samples liquid aggressive media specified quality at specified temperature and duration and subsequent determination of their resistance to the specified effect on the weight of vases is in, extracted by the environment of the samples, calculated by mathematical dependences [5 - GOST 9.030-74 "ISSCR. The rubber. Test method for resistance in the relaxed condition to the effects of liquid aggressive media" method B p.40-42].

where M1E- weight substances extracted by the environment of the sample;

M1- weight of sample, g;

M5- weight of the sample dried in a thermostat at 40°C to constant weight,

In addition, in a known way a lot of substances extracted by the environment of the sample, appreciate more and evaporation of the environment (dry residue), the index value calculated by the mathematical dependencies

where M2E- weight substances extracted from the sample (dry residue);

M0- weight capacity dry matter, g;

M is the mass of the tank to the drying, g;

M1- weight of all the samples used for testing, prior to exposure,

As an aggressive environments using standard solvents:

liquid - isooctane reference GOST 12433-83;

liquid B - isooctane + toluene (70+30 by volume);

the liquid In the isooctane + toluene (50+50 by volume);

liquid G - toluene according to GOST 5789-78 or GOST 14710-78;

liquid D - isooctane + toluene (60+40 by volume);

liquid E - isooctane + toluene (80+po volume);

The disadvantages of this method are:

great complexity and duration of the studies related to the determination of the mass of substances extracted by the environment of the samples, the change in sample mass M1Eand the dry residue M2E;

low reliability estimates associated with performing multiple measurements (before and after contact with the working environment) length, width and thickness of the samples with an accuracy of ±0.5 mm, with tolerance of each of the definitions of mass M1Eand M2Efrom the mean is ±5% (10%);

the use of standard liquids a, B, C, D, E, f [5 - GOST 9.030-74 "ISSCR. The rubber. Test method for resistance in the relaxed condition to the effects of liquid aggressive media" method B p.45, Appendix 1, table 3] as the working environment simulates real conditions of exploitation of the products and does not allow to estimate changes in the hydrocarbon composition of light petroleum products in static contact with polymeric materials;

the limitation related to the impossibility of producing samples of a given geometric shape for studies of polymer products (for example, seals of circular cross section).

The technical result of the invention is to increase the reliability of results due to the approximation of the conditions tested the full-scale operating conditions.

This technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the method of estimating the influence of light oil products from polymeric materials, including the preparation of samples of polymeric materials of a given mass, the interaction of these samples with an aggressive environment at a given temperature for a specified time, and then identify the informative indicator calculation formula according to the invention set coefficient ratio of specific products specified capacity light oil, which is used as an aggressive environment, prepare the sample light oil with a given concentration of actual pitches and divide it into two equal mass parts, the mass ratio of one part of the sample to the specified ratio ratio determined the mass of the sample polymer material, which is placed in one part of the sample light oil is kept in an airtight container both parts of the sample light oil at a temperature of from 20 to 50°and the exposure light oil with a sample of polymeric material is carried out to achieve this sample equilibrium swelling, which is set on the sample reaches a constant weight, cooled both parts of the sample light oil to room temperature and predelay actual concentration of resins in both parts of this sample, and as an informative indicator use the difference between these concentrations, for which a polymeric material, applicable storage this light oil is for aviation gasoline and jet fuels from 0.1 to 3 mg/100 cm3for gasoline from 0.1 to 5 mg/100 cm3for diesel fuels from 0.1 to 10 mg/100 cm3.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the authors, having handled a large number of statistical data on technology supply (stretchy tanks, steel tanks, tankers, pipelines, drums, cans with internal polymer coating; plastic pipes; sleeve: polymer packaging, filters, etc. for storage and transportation of light oil products obtained according to the mass of polymer material products (parts) by weight of the stored light oil. Fragments of the results of statistical processing of the results of a study of the operational characteristics of technical means of supply are presented in table. 1-6:

table 1 - the results of a study of the operational characteristics of elastic reservoirs;

table 2 - results of the operational characteristics of the drums (barrels) of polymeric materials;

table 3 - results of study the operational characteristics of cans of polymer materials;

table 4 - results of the operational characteristics of the rubber sleeves pressure-suction;

table 5 - results of a study of the operational characteristics of GRP pipes for collapsible pipelines;

table 6 - results of a study of the operational characteristics of steel horizontal tanks with internal polymer coating.

Based on the studies received coefficient ratio, representing the ratio of the weight of light oil to the mass in contact with him in the product polymer material (coefficient - a number that must be multiplied a specific value to get the desired"; "multiple - value divisible by any number [6 - Snijegu. Dictionary of Russian language, Moscow, 1991, s, 305].

Thus, having a coefficient of expansion To a particular product and using a constant sample volume light oil products (in sealed container), you can go from in situ conditions to the laboratory bench, i.e. to simulate field conditions

The coefficient of expansion ToAI-92
Table 1

The results of the study of the operational characteristics of elastic tanks
No. p.pTitle is the W indicator Numeric values
123456789
1Capacity, m346102550150250
2The weight of empty tanks, kg11012017025051510001400
3The mass of stored light petroleum, MnAI-92kg, ρ420=at 0.730 g/cm32900440073001830036500109000182500
4The mass of stored light petroleum, MnTS-1kg, ρ420=0.800 to g/cm33200480080002000040000120000200000
5The mass of stored light petroleum, MnDT-Lkg, ρ420=0,850 g/cm33400500084002100042000126000210000
62637437371113130
7The coefficient of expansion ToTS-12940478078120143
8The coefficient of expansion ToDT-L3142498482126150
9The weight of the test fuel, g150150150150150150150
10The mass of polymer material testing MPai-92g5,84,13,52,12,11,31,2
11The mass of polymer material testing MPTS-1g5,2the 3.83,21,91,91,31,0
12The mass of polymer material testing MCTPs-Lg4,83,63,11,81,81,21,0

Table 2

The results of the study of the operational characteristics of the drums (barrels) of polymeric materials
No. p.pName of indicatorNumeric values
1234567891011
1Capacity, l3241485165105127227250
2The weight of empty drum (barrel), kg1,21,93,12,33,64,8of 5.48,69,2
3The mass of stored light petroleum, MnAI-92kg, ρ420=at 0.730 g/cm23303537487793166183
4The mass of stored light petroleum, MnTS-1kg, ρ420=0.800 to g/cm32633384152 84102182200
5The mass of stored light petroleum, MnDT-Lkg, ρ420=0,850 g/cm3273541435589108193213
6The coefficient of expansion ToAI-92191611161316171920
7The coefficient of expansion ToTS-1221712181418192122
8The coefficient of expansion ToDT-L131813191519202223
9The weight of the test fuel, g150150150150150150150150150
10The mass of polymer material testing MPai-92g7,99,413,69,4 11,5948,87,97,5
11The mass of polymer material testing MPTS-1g6,88,812,58,310,78,37,97,16,8
12The mass of polymer material testing MCTPs-Lg6,58,311,57,910,07,97,56,86,5

Table 3

The results of the study of the operational characteristics of containers made of polymeric materials
No. p.pName of indicatorNumeric values
12345678
1Capacity, l3511213163
2The weight of empty cans, kg0,20,20,51,11,52,5
3The mass of stored light the logo oil MnAI-92kg, ρ420=at 0.730 g/cm2.23,78.015,322,646,0
4The mass of stored light petroleum, MnTS-1kg, ρ420=0.800 to g/cm32,44,08,816,824,850,4
5The mass of stored light petroleum, MnDT-Lkg, ρ420=0,850 g/cm32,64,39,417,926,453,6
6The coefficient of expansion ToAI-92111916141518
7The coefficient of expansion ToTS-1122018151720
8The coefficient of expansion ToDT-L132219161821
9The weight of the test fuel, g150150150150150150
10The mass of the polymer m is material for testing M Pai-92g13,67,99,410,710,08,3
11The mass of polymer material testing MPTS-1g12,57,5,8,310,08,87,5
12The mass of polymer material testing MCTPs-Lg11,56,87,99,48,37,1

Table 4

The results of the study of the operational characteristics of the rubber sleeves pressure-suction
No. p.pName of indicatorNumeric values
12345678
1Length 6 m diameter, mm⊘32⊘38⊘50⊘65⊘75⊘100
2The mass of the inner rubber layer sleeves, kgthe 1.441,742,223,003,425,16
3The weight of the items is accepting of light oil MnAI-92kg, ρ420=at 0.730 g/cm3,504,968,6014,5019,5of 34.40
4The mass of stored light petroleum, MnTS-1kg, ρ420=0.800 to g/cm33,905,449,4215,90of 21.237,70
5The mass of stored light petroleum, MnDT-Lkg, ρ420=0,850 g/cm34,105,8010,0016,9022,540,0
6The coefficient of expansion ToAI-92234567
7The coefficient of expansion ToTS-1334567
8The coefficient of expansion ToDT-L335678
9The weight of the test fuel, g150150150150150150
10The mass of the polymer mA is Arial for testing M Pai-92g755037,53025,021,4
11The mass of polymer material testing MPTS-1g505037,53025,021,4
12The mass of polymer material testing MCTPs-Lg505030,02521,418,8

Table 5

The results of the study of the operational characteristics of GRP pipes for collapsible pipelines
No. p.pName of indicatorNumeric values
123456
1Length 6 m diameter, mm⊘75⊘100⊘150⊘200
2Weight fiberglass pipe without fittings kg5,97,820,031,0
3The mass of stored light petroleum, MnAI-92kg, ρ4Ȋ 20=at 0.730 g/cm19,334,477,4137,5
4The mass of stored light petroleum, MnTS-1kg, ρ420=0.800 to g/cm3of 21.237,784,8to 150.7
5The mass of stored light petroleum, MnDT-Lkg, ρ420=0,850 g/cm322,540,090,1160,1
6The coefficient of expansion ToAI-923444
7The coefficient of expansion ToTS-14545
8The coefficient of expansion ToDT-L4555
9The weight of the test fuel, g150150150150
10The mass of polymer material testing MPai-92g50383838
11The mass of polymer material testing MPTS-1g38303830
12The mass of polymer material testing MCTPs-Lg38303030

Table 6

The results of the study operational characteristics of the steel horizontal tanks with internal polymer coating
No. p.pName of indicatorNumeric values
1234567891011
1Capacity, m34681020255060100
2The mass of the inner polymer coating tank, kg1,541,922,533,054,695,419,5610,7713,9
3The mass of stored light petroleum, MnAI-92kg, ρ420=at 0.730 g/cm2920438058407300146001850 365004380073000
4The mass of stored light petroleum, MnTS-1kg, ρ420=0.800 to g/cm332004800640080001600020000400004800080000
5The mass of stored light petroleum, MnDT-Lkg, ρ420=0,850 g/cm334005100680085001700021250425005100085000
6The coefficient of expansion ToAI-92189622812308239331133373381840675252
7The coefficient of expansion ToTS-1207825002530262334123697418444575755
8The coefficient of expansion ToDT-L220826562688278736253928444647356115
9Weight is spitemare fuel g150150150150150150150150150
10The mass of polymer material testing MPai-92g0,080,070,060,060,050,040,040.040,03
11The mass of polymer material testing MPTS-1g0,070.060,060.060.040,040,040.030,03
12The mass of polymer material testing MCTPs-Lg0,070,060,060.050,040.040.030.030,02

use of products made of polymeric materials in laboratory conditions with a high degree of certainty, using a constant sample volume light oil (150 g), placing it in an airtight container.

The authors determined that the time to reach a sample of polymeric material equilibrium swelling depends on the type and temperature of light oil. Equilibrium swelling set in d is stijene samples to constant mass value [5 - GOST 9.030-74 "ISSCR. The rubber. Test method for resistance in the relaxed condition to the effects of liquid aggressive media" p.37]. Thus, when the temperature of various light oil (50±2)°With the sample reaches equilibrium swelling occurs within the first 3-5 days (72-120 h), with further contact changes practically does not occur. When the temperature of contact with petroleum products (23±2)°marked With similar patterns as in the 50°C. However, the period of reaching the state of equilibrium swelling is slower during the first 5-15 days (120-360 h) contact (table 7).

For the climatic regions I1II10(very cool - warm wet) with an average monthly temperature in July to 25° [7 - GOST 16350-80 the Climate of the USSR. Zoning and statistical parameters of climatic factors for technical purposes. M.: Publishing house of standards, 1986, p.2.] the exposure time (exposure light oil on the construction material) for gasoline AI-92 - 5 days (120 h); fuel TS-1 DT-L - 15 days (360 hours) at a temperature of (23±2)°C;

For the climatic regions II11II12(hot-dry, hot-dry) with an average monthly temperature in July is from 30°and above the exposure time for gasoline AI-92 - 3 days (72 h); fuel TS-1 and DT-L - 5 days (120 hours) at a temperature of (50#x000B1; 2)°C.

41,5
Table 7

The results of the study time of a sample of polymer material condition of equilibrium swelling depending on the brand and the temperature of the light oil product
Brand productThe exposure time, hHolding temperature, °
23±250±2
Code material*
HDPETPORBUT 68-1HDPETPORBUT 68-1
Weight change, %
AI-92244,331,529,46,538,736,9
726,539,336,77,754,741,5
1207,251,4to 38.37,654,541,4
1687,251,3to 38.37,754,441,6
2407,351,338,47,854,6
3607,151,438,47,754,641,6
TS-1243,134,725,24,538,929,3
72a 3.939,529,95,342,333,6
1204,542.131,65,844,435,5
168of 5.443,732,75,844,535,6
2405,343,732,6the 5.744,435,5
3605,343,532,7the 5.744,535,6
DT-L242,531,124,33.335,228,7
723,134,629,64,139,834,2
120a 3.9of 37.830,74,839,934,1
1684,438,232,9/td> the 4.739,834,2
2404,338,232,9a 4.939,834,3
3604,438,232,84,839,934,1
* HDPE - high density polyethylene;

TOER - fabric polymeric experienced for elastic reservoirs;

BUT 68-1 - rubber based on the nitrile rubber.

Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the algorithm of the method for evaluating the impact of light oil products from polymeric materials;

figure 2 - dependence of the mass of polymeric material products (parts) by weight of the stored light oil (obtained experimentally by mass-produced by the domestic industry, the technology of oil products):

2A - steel tanks with a polymer coating with a capacity of 4-5000 m3production Saratov joint production-commercial company "Neftemash";

2B - polymer containers (jerrycans and drums) the capacity of 3-250 m3production Plant "CJSC containerboard products", Samara;

2B - sleeve rubber suction ⊘ 32, 38, 50, 65, 75, 100 mm (L=6 m) of the production of CJSC "kurskrezinotehnika", JSC "Circassian chief of the d rubber and technical products;

2G - GRP pipes for collapsible pipelines ⊘ 75, 100, 150, 200 mm (L=6 m) NPO "Resource", hotkovo, Moscow region;

2D - stretchy tanks 4, 6, 10, 25, 50, 150, 250 m3production of JSC "jaroslavrezinotehnika".

The container is a thick-walled metal cylinder with a cap which is fitted with a gasket that provides a seal of the container. The design of the container should be designed for the pressure arising from the tests given not less than three-fold safety factor. The container and the gasket should be made of materials resistant to the environment. The volume of the pressurized container for holding a light oil with a sample of the polymer material is selected from the need to comply with the following requirements:

level environment over the sample should be not less than 1 cm during the lling of not more than 75%.

The dimensions of the sealed container is chosen based on the conditions of possibility of its placement in the unit.

The authors experimentally obtained maximum allowable numerical value of the change rate of the actual concentration of the resins (Δ (A) light oil in contact with the polymeric material at a given temperature.

So, it is established that stay them to the light oil is considered to be material, after exposure to which at temperatures of from 20 to 50°With (depending on climatic performance products) change in the concentration of actual pitches is:

for aviation gasoline and jet fuels Δ≤3 mg/100 cm3;

for gasoline Δ≤5 mg/100 cm3;

for diesel fuels Δ≤10 mg/100 cm3.

Thus, the physical essence of the method lies in the fact that upon contact of light oil products from polymeric materials, the process of extraction of ingredients polymeric material is a light oil with a change in hydrocarbon composition and, accordingly, the physico-chemical parameters, in particular the actual concentration of resins whose definition is both a necessary and sufficient condition for evaluating the effect of light oil products from polymeric materials.

The method is implemented as follows.

Example 1. For testing received a fabric of polymeric experienced for making stretchy tank with a capacity of 4 m3(ER-4) for storage and transportation of gasoline AI-92 GOST R 51105-97 [8 - GOST R 51105-97 Fuel for internal combustion engines. Unleaded gasoline. Specifications, M.: standards Publishing house, 1999, p.2] in a moderately warm, dry climate the political district 117 (average monthly air temperature in January is minus 4-8° C, in July - plus 16-25° (C) brand TPOUR THE 405831-2005, produced by JSC "Tula plant RTI.

Examples of the method is given in accordance with the algorithm (figure 1), where numbers from 1 to 14 marked milestones (activities) evaluation of the influence of light oil products from polymeric materials.

To assess the impact of motor gasoline AI-92 on the polymeric material brand TOER set the ratio To ratio to a stretchy tank with a capacity of 4 m3(step 1). The coefficient of expansion ToAI-92for ER-4 during storage of motor gasoline AI-92 (ρ420=730 kg/m) is 26 (table 1).

Check the conditional of gasoline AI-92, which determines the concentration ratio of actual pitches in the initial state And0the known method according to GOST 1567-97. Test results determined that AAI-92=3.9 mg/100 cm3. The resulting value of the actual concentration of the resins is compared with a specified value (according to GOST R 51105-97 And0≤5 mg/100 cm3).

If gasoline conforming selected 400 ml (300 g). This volume is divided into two equal mass parts Mn=200 ml (150 g) each (phases 3, 4).

Determine the mass of polymer material for testing in contact with gasoline AI-92 according to the formula MP=Mn/KAI-92=150/26=5.8 g or table 1 (step 5).

Place the test sample of Polym REGO material weight 5.8 g in one part of gasoline AI-92 (step 6).

Sealed containers with the sample of polymeric material and without it incubated at a temperature of (23±2)°C for 72 h until the sample equilibrium swelling (step 7).

Cooling the container to room temperature (step 8).

Determine the actual concentration of resins in both parts of motor gasoline AI-92 (with polymer material and without it) Andprespectively (step 9):

AndPai-92=20,8 mg/100 cm3;

AndNaI-92=4,1 mg/100 cm3.

Determine the difference in index (ΔA) the actual concentration of the resin in the samples Andpand an(step 10).

ΔAndAI-92=AndPai-92-ANaI-92=20,8-4,1=16,7 mg/100 cm3

Compare ΔAnd the maximum allowable value (step 11).

0.1 mg/100 cm3≤ΔAndAI-92≤5.0 mg/100 cm3

Test results found that the value of the concentration index of actual pitches of gasoline AI-92 334% higher than the maximum permissible value.

Spend the rejection of polymeric material (step 12).

Conclusion: grade material TOER on THE 405831-2005 g cannot be applied in the design stretchy tank with a capacity of 4 m3(ER-4) for gasoline AI-92 during operation in moderately warm climatic region.

Example 2. Testing was done polymeric material is polyethylene Nizkor the pressure (PEND) brand HDPE 276-73 [9 - GOST 16338-85 low-pressure Polyethylene. Specifications, Moscow, Publishing house of standards, 1987, s] production of JSC "Volzhsky Orgsintez", Volgograd for manufacturing a plastic container with a capacity of 250 DM3[10 - TU 2297-012-08151164-2005 polymer Containers. Drums of petroleum products. Specifications, Moscow. FSUE "25 research Institute of the Ministry of defense of Russia", 2005, p.2-6] for use in very hot dry climate area II12(the average monthly air temperature in January plus 4 minus 4°C, in July from + 30 and above) for the storage of diesel fuel summer DT-L [11 - GOST 305-82 diesel Fuel. Technical conditions. M.: Publishing house of standards, 1999, p.3].

To assess the impact of diesel fuel DT-L polymer grade material HDPE 276-73 set the ratio To ratio to polymer drum with a capacity of 250 DM3(step 1). The coefficient of expansion ToDT-LFor bn-HDPE 250 when storing diesel fuel summer (ρ420=850 kg/m3) is 23 (table 2).

Check the conditional diesel fuel summer, which determine the concentration ratio of actual pitches in the initial state And0the known method according to GOST 1567-97. Test results determined that ADT-L=27 mg/100 cm3. The resulting value of the actual concentration of the resins is compared with a specified value (what about the GOST 305-82 And 0=40 mg/100 cm3).

If the fuel is conditioned, take away 400 ml (300 g). This volume is divided into two equal mass parts Mn=200 ml (150 g) each (phases 3, 4).

Determine the mass of polymer material for testing in contact with diesel fuel DT-L according to the formula MP=Mn/KDT-L=150/23=6.5 g or table 2 (step 5).

Place the test specimen of polymeric material by weight of 6.5 grams per one part diesel fuel DT-L (step 6).

Sealed containers with the sample of polymeric material and without it incubated at a temperature of (50±2)°C for 120 h until the sample equilibrium swelling (step 7).

Cooling the container to room temperature (step 8).

Determine the actual concentration of resins in both parts of diesel fuel DT-L (with a polymeric material and without it) Andpand anrespectively (step 9):

AndCTPs-L=37.5 mg/100 cm3;

Andbat-L=32,3 mg/100 cm3.

Determine the difference in index (ΔA) the actual concentration of the resin in the samples Andpand an(step 10).

ΔAndDT-L=AndCTPs-L-Abat-L=37,5-32,3=5.2 mg/100 cm3<10.0 mg/1003cm

Compare ΔAnd the maximum allowable value (step 11).

0.1 mg/100 cm3≤ΔAndDT-L≤10.0 mg/100 cm3

According to the results of tests, that meant the f concentration indicator of actual pitches of diesel fuel does not exceed the maximum permissible value.

Conclusion: grade material HDPE 276-73 can be used in the design of polymer drum with a capacity of 250 DM3for storage of diesel fuel DT-L when operating in a very hot dry climate area (steps 13, 14).

Thus, the method of assessment of the impact of light oil products from polymeric materials allows you to:

to reduce the effort for the research due to less labor-intensive method of preparation of the sample construction material (only by weight of Mn instead of given geometric shapes) and evaluation one of the most important physico-chemical indicator of the working environment (the actual concentration of the resin);

to increase the reliability of research results due to the proximity of laboratory tests to the conditions of products from polymeric materials in a particular climatic region (obtained By repetition of the test at a temperature of proposed use of the product);

to ensure the reliability and ecological safety of operation ground and air vehicles due to the guaranteed quality of light oil during storage, transportation and refueling (collectively, the coefficient of expansion, the temperature of the intended area of operation, the numerical values of the maximum allowable is about changing the concentration ratio of actual pitches for different light oil).

The invention can be used in the development (modernization), production, operation and repair of hardware product.

The method of assessment of the impact of light oil products from polymeric materials, including the preparation of samples of polymeric materials of a given mass, the interaction of these samples with an aggressive environment at a given temperature for a specified time, and then identify the informative indicator calculation formula, wherein the set coefficient ratio of specific products specified capacity light oil, which is used as an aggressive environment, prepare the sample light oil with a given concentration of actual pitches and divide it into two equal mass parts, the mass ratio of one part of the sample to the specified ratio ratio determine the mass of the sample polymer material, which is placed in one part of the sample light oil is kept in an airtight container both parts of the sample light oil at a temperature of from 20 to 50°and the exposure light oil with a sample of polymeric material is carried out to achieve this sample equilibrium swelling, which is set to achieve a constant sample is th weight cool both parts of the sample light oil to room temperature and determine the actual concentration of resins in both parts of this sample, and as an informative indicator use the difference between these concentrations, for which a polymeric material, applicable storage this light oil is for aviation gasoline and jet fuels from 0.1 to 3 mg/100 cm3for gasoline from 0.1 to 5 mg/100 cm3for diesel fuels from 0.1 to 10 mg/cm3.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: technologies for researching durability properties of packing washer materials for collapsible oil pipelines.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining remaining resource of rubber compacting curves utilized in oil pipeline junctions, preparation of samples of given geometrical shape is performed, measurement of source hardness conditions for stretching, relative elongation during tearing, Shore hardness, temperature fragility limit, comparison of aforementioned values to given values, culling of washers, sample coefficients of which do not correspond to given values. Remaining samples are exposed to oil product after extraction from oil product samples are thermostatted, cooled down to normal room temperature, and then the same physical-mechanical coefficients are measured again with limit values. Before preparation of samples with given geometrical shape, washers are organized in batches of same manufacturing plant and production year, additionally measured are external d1 and internal d2 washer diameters for each batch, relative compression Ecp deformation of same washers. Their deviation from standard is calculated and culling of aforementioned washer batches is performed on basis of allowed values Δd1, Δd2 and Ecp, while as allowed values Δd1, Δd2 ≤ 3%; 25% ≤ Ecp ≤ 70%. After that remaining rings with least values of relative compression deformation Ecp are utilized to prepare geometrical samples of given geometrical shape. Remaining resource ΔT is determined from following formula: years, where ki - coefficient, characterizing alteration of remaining resource ΔT dependently on climatic zone input of operation of rubber packing washers, is taken as i - climatic zones I1 - II12, additional information, T - average lifetime of rubber packing washers until removal from operation in accordance to technological characteristics provided by manufacturing plant and/or operation instructions, in years, Tn - period of operation of rubber packing washers since production year - marking of manufacturing plant, until moment of determining ΔT, years, f=9,4 MPa - minimally allowed value of conditional hardness for stretching after thermostatting of sample, MPa.

EFFECT: reliable trustworthiness of results of estimation of remaining resource under dynamic conditions of rubber packing washers in oil pipeline junctions with simultaneous increase of ecological safety due to decreased risk of emergency spilling of oil products.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy farming.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining tightening of teat cup liner before it is inserted into teat cup; acting upon teat cup liner by suspending weight for determining tightening of teat cup liner; providing expansion by introducing internal gauge into teat cup liner which is positioned within teat cup casing. Method allows extent of teat cup liner tightening to be visually detected at any time of machine milking process. Tightening of teat cup liner manufactured integral with milk pipe as well as separately therefrom is determined during operation of milking units.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced milking time.

1 dwg

FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.

12 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.

EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.

EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

2 tbl, 2 ex

The invention relates to methods for the study of strength properties of materials o-rings pipe connections, for example, type “Socket” and can be used to determine the timing of replacement of sealing pipe joints

The invention relates to the field of fur industry, textile, garment industry, and agriculture and is used for determining the density of hair natural and artificial fur when research on the stages of sorting, quality assessment

The invention relates to the field of measuring and test equipment, particularly to a device for measuring the local pressure on the human body, provide compression elements and clothing from elastic materials

The invention relates to the textile industry and can be used to estimate properties of pile materials

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.

EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.

EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.

12 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy farming.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining tightening of teat cup liner before it is inserted into teat cup; acting upon teat cup liner by suspending weight for determining tightening of teat cup liner; providing expansion by introducing internal gauge into teat cup liner which is positioned within teat cup casing. Method allows extent of teat cup liner tightening to be visually detected at any time of machine milking process. Tightening of teat cup liner manufactured integral with milk pipe as well as separately therefrom is determined during operation of milking units.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced milking time.

1 dwg

FIELD: technologies for researching durability properties of packing washer materials for collapsible oil pipelines.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining remaining resource of rubber compacting curves utilized in oil pipeline junctions, preparation of samples of given geometrical shape is performed, measurement of source hardness conditions for stretching, relative elongation during tearing, Shore hardness, temperature fragility limit, comparison of aforementioned values to given values, culling of washers, sample coefficients of which do not correspond to given values. Remaining samples are exposed to oil product after extraction from oil product samples are thermostatted, cooled down to normal room temperature, and then the same physical-mechanical coefficients are measured again with limit values. Before preparation of samples with given geometrical shape, washers are organized in batches of same manufacturing plant and production year, additionally measured are external d1 and internal d2 washer diameters for each batch, relative compression Ecp deformation of same washers. Their deviation from standard is calculated and culling of aforementioned washer batches is performed on basis of allowed values Δd1, Δd2 and Ecp, while as allowed values Δd1, Δd2 ≤ 3%; 25% ≤ Ecp ≤ 70%. After that remaining rings with least values of relative compression deformation Ecp are utilized to prepare geometrical samples of given geometrical shape. Remaining resource ΔT is determined from following formula: years, where ki - coefficient, characterizing alteration of remaining resource ΔT dependently on climatic zone input of operation of rubber packing washers, is taken as i - climatic zones I1 - II12, additional information, T - average lifetime of rubber packing washers until removal from operation in accordance to technological characteristics provided by manufacturing plant and/or operation instructions, in years, Tn - period of operation of rubber packing washers since production year - marking of manufacturing plant, until moment of determining ΔT, years, f=9,4 MPa - minimally allowed value of conditional hardness for stretching after thermostatting of sample, MPa.

EFFECT: reliable trustworthiness of results of estimation of remaining resource under dynamic conditions of rubber packing washers in oil pipeline junctions with simultaneous increase of ecological safety due to decreased risk of emergency spilling of oil products.

4 dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing specimens of polymeric materials of specified mass, exposing the specimens to the hostile fluid at a given temperature, and determining informative characteristic from a formula proposed.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

2 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: weighing equipment; chemical mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring content of binder in reel-up composite material produced by preliminary soaked thread. Method is based upon weighing. The constant values are determined according to the method as length of thread for specific type of items and value of linear density averaged for any reel before and after soaking by binder and reeling it up onto frame. Weighing is performed for item before reeling it up with soaked thread and after reeling-up and final polymerization of composite material to determine mass of composite. Basing upon the data received, content of thread is determined which value is subsequently used for finding mass content of binder in composite from relation of C=(M-LxT/M)x100%, where C is content of binder in composite, in mass percent; M is mass of composite, g; L is length of thread consumed for item, km; T is average arithmetic meaning of values of linear density of thread and its rests at any reel before and after impregnation, g/km.

EFFECT: higher stability of performance measures.

1 ex

FIELD: light industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording response of the material to be tested that represents an amplitude-frequency characteristic, calculating deformation characteristics, and determining the value of distributed mass of the vibrating part of the material. The response representing two amplitude-frequency characteristics is recorded for the same part of the material to be tested for various masses of two bodies that cause deformation. The deformation characteristics are calculated from equations of vibration theory for viscoelastic bodies.

EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.

FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating threshold capabilities of the multi-layer polymeric material and determining maximum permeability of oil product and time period required for reaching the maximum permeability.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary conditioning of rubber specimens in paraffin hydrocarbon with 12-16 atoms of carbon in the atmosphere of neutral gas and in the fuel to be tested at a temperature of 130-150°C for 3-5 hours.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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