Method of assessing possibility of use of multi-layer polymeric material for manufacturing means for supplying oil product

FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating threshold capabilities of the multi-layer polymeric material and determining maximum permeability of oil product and time period required for reaching the maximum permeability.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to methods of investigation of properties of multilayered polymeric materials used for the manufacture of flexible containers, pallets, bags, filter, pipes, barrels, jerricans, drums, internal coatings, etc. and can be used in the development (modernization), production, operation and repair of hardware product.

Technical means of supply are designed for storage and transportation of petroleum product, a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of different group membership, molecular weight and structure, as well as non - (sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen) compounds and different (viscosity, anti-wear, detergent and other additives.

In recent years more and more urgent becomes the problem of reducing overall mass while enhancing the operational reliability of technical product due to use in their design of polymeric materials.

The use of polymers is due to a number of advantages over metallic materials: low density, high strength, resistance to aggressive environments, durability, the ability to take the desired shape, the use of modern the technology of production, storage and disposal [Vccsense, Url, Addanimation, Yevgrashova. Technical properties of polymeric materials, St. Petersburg, publishing house "Profession", 2003, p.6].

Now manifests an increased interest in multi-layer polymeric materials having barrier properties to petroleum products, in addition, the combination of layers allows to achieve the best mechanical properties, while the total thickness of the multilayer material can be 15-20% less than single-layer [MS Pavlenko. The equipment for manufacture of polymer films and prospects of use received on it products. Thematic Supplement to the journal "packaging industry", No. 2-3, 2005, p.36]. The improvement of the barrier properties are achieved due to the presence in polymer nanocomposites nanocomposite material, which contains a polymer (a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl alcohol EVON, nylon 6, MXD6, polyacrylnitril PAN, polyethylene terephthalate PET, polyketone, thermoplastic, and ethylene/maleic anhydride (EMA) and particles of a modified clay having a nano (RF patent No. 2270146, IPC B65D 35/08). It is also known that the performance properties of polymeric materials: strength, density, conductivity, heat capacity, frictionist, resistance to biodegradation, etc. increase with the help of special additives [Vccsense, Url, APN is Mitchenko, Yevgrashova Technical properties of polymeric materials, St. Petersburg, publishing house "Profession", 2003, p.16, 17].

The use of modern multilayer polymeric materials (L 328 NESU, TPOUR THE 405831-2005, "Polishd WITH(30)140" THE 2245-001-52186250-2005 and other) technical supply ensures high reliability and environmental safety of operations.

Feature maintenance of hardware product is periodic contact the inner surface teplostojkogo layer with oil (filling, storage and emptying), as well as evaporation and permeability of oil through the multilayer polymeric material.

The permeability of a petroleum product is the most important performance indicator to assess the possibility of using multi-layer polymeric materials for the manufacture of technical equipment supply. Permeability allows to determine not only the quantitative loss of oil, but also the degree of fire hazard, pollution, impact on staff and other factors in the operation of technical means.

Practice has shown that when in contact with oil from a multilayer polymeric structural material extracted fillers: antifreeze, antistatically, plasticized the market, the curing agents, rheological additives, colorants, antiseptics, antistatics. Extraction fillers affects the deformation-strength properties of not only the technical means of the multi-layer polymeric material, but also the quality of stored (transported) products.

In addition, the money supply are used in different climatic regions of I1II12(very cold very hot) with a temperature range from minus 50 to plus 70° [GOST 16350-80 the Climate of the USSR. Zoning and statistical parameters of climatic factors for technical purposes, Moscow, Publishing house of standards, 1986, p.2].

Temperature has a significant influence on the multilayer polymeric materials: with increasing temperature the degree and rate of change of physical and mechanical properties of multilayered polymeric materials in contact with petroleum products increases.

One of the issues for the effective implementation of multilayered polymeric materials for the manufacture of technical means supply is forecast reliability in specific climatic conditions.

There is a method of determining the stability of polymeric materials (plastics) to chemical environments, including the preparation of standard samples of plastics, specimens, reagents: gecikmesi substances, solutions of solid chemicals and technical liquid media (fuel, oil, etc. of the required quality and definition under prescribed conditions of temperature and time of their resistance to the specified effect by changing the values of one or several parameters: mass, linear dimensions and mechanical properties in a relaxed and stress-strain state [GOST 12020-72 Plastic. Methods for the determination of resistance to chemical environments, Moscow, Publishing house of standards, 1980, p.1].

A disadvantage of the known method for determining the resistance of polymeric materials to chemical environments is low confidence in the assessment of changes in physical-mechanical properties of polymeric materials after exposure to an aggressive environment that does not reflect the real operating conditions, due to the nature of the contact (body immersion) test samples in a hostile environment.

There is a method of assessing the influence of light oil products from polymeric materials, including the preparation of samples of polymeric materials of a given mass, the interaction of these samples with an aggressive environment at a given temperature for a specified time, and then identify the informative rate calculation formula. Ask coefficient ratio of specific products specified capacity light is on oil, used as an aggressive environment, prepare the sample light oil with a given concentration of actual pitches and divide it into two equal mass parts, the mass ratio of one part of the sample to the specified ratio ratio determine the mass of the sample polymer material, which is placed in one part of the sample light oil is kept in an airtight container both parts of the sample light oil at a temperature of from 20 to 50°and the exposure light oil with a sample of polymeric material is carried out to achieve this sample equilibrium swelling, which is set on the sample reaches a constant weight, cooled both parts of the sample light oil to room temperature and determine the actual concentration of resins in both parts of this sample, and as an informative indicator use the difference between these concentrations, for which a polymeric material, applicable storage this light oil is for aviation gasoline and jet fuels from 0.1 to 3 mg/100 cm3for gasoline from 0.1 to 5 mg/100 cm3for diesel fuels from 0.1 to 10 mg/100 cm3[application No. 2005123851/04 (026855) from 27.07.2005,, IPC 7 G01N 33/44, the decision to grant a patent dated 12 may 2006].

Insufficient the AMI known method are:

low reliability performance assessment after exposure to an aggressive environment that does not reflect the real operating conditions, due to the nature of the contact (surround immersion of specimens tested in aggressive environment;

contact sample of multilayered polymeric material with an aggressive environment is carried out without consideration of barrier properties (maximum permeability of oil through the test material) teplostojkogo layer;

assessing the impact of oil products from polymeric materials by changing the hydrocarbon composition is a necessary but insufficient condition for a decision on the admission of polymeric material for use in the technical means of lling requires research of physical and mechanical properties of the polymer material after contact with the oil.

The closest in technical essence and taken for the prototype is the method of determining the resistance of polymer materials (rubbers) in an unstressed condition to the effects of liquid aggressive media, including the preparation of samples of polymeric material of a given geometric shape, the impact on these samples liquid aggressive media specified quality at specified temperature and duration and subsequent determination of their resistance to specified the th impact on changing the values of one or more indicators of physico-mechanical properties, calculated by mathematical dependences [GOST 9.030-74 "ISSCR. The rubber. Test method for resistance in the relaxed condition to the effects of liquid aggressive media", a method In s.43].

The disadvantages of this method taken for the prototype are:

low confidence in the assessment of changes in physical-mechanical properties of polymeric materials after exposure to aggressive environments that do not reflect real operating conditions, due to the nature of the contact (surround immersion of specimens tested in aggressive environment;

the use of standard liquids a, B, C, G, D, E [GOST 9.030-74 "ISSCR. The rubber. Test method for resistance in the relaxed condition to the effects of liquid aggressive media" method p.45, Appendix 1, table 3] as the working environment simulates real conditions of maintenance of hardware product that does not allow to reliably estimate the change of physico-mechanical properties of the tested polymeric materials in contact with oil.

Given the above, we can conclude that the known method does not allow to correctly evaluate the possibility of using multi-layer polymeric materials for the manufacture of technical product without some refinement on the specifics of their operation (the tempo is attornye the operational area specific technical tools for specific products).

The technical result of the invention is to improve the accuracy and reliability of results due to the proximity of the test conditions to field conditions.

This technical result is achieved due to the fact that the way of evaluating the possibility of using multi-layer polymeric material for the manufacture of technical equipment supply, including the preparation of initial samples of multilayered polymeric material of a specified geometric shapes, measurement of initial breaking loads of material F seam and FW, elongation l at break, adhesion σpbetween the layers when the delamination resistance tear Fpand-brittle transition temperature TXP, comparing them with predetermined values and a rejection of the material when the deviation of at least one of these indicators, and in the absence of mismatch - interaction of the samples with mineral oil at a temperature of (70±2)°With within the specified time, the definition of the same performance after exposure to oil and evaluation by the deviation of the physical-mechanical indicators from the original possibility of using the tested multi-layer polymer material in the technical tool product according to the invention prior to the preparation of samples of a given geometry the shape determines the maximum permeability P maxg/m2day specific oil through the investigated multilayer polymeric material at a temperature of proposed use of technical means, fixed period of time TPMOmaximum permeability and Pmax≤35 g/m2day determine physical and mechanical properties of samples of a given geometric shape, in the absence of the error values from the normative set the ratio of the capacity of specific technical tools for a specific product, the weight of which is determined by multiplying the ratio of the capacity of specific technical tools to the square footprint of the pressurized container in which carried out with the mixture of oil unilateral contact multi-layer polymeric material from teplostojkogo layer at a temperature of proposed use of technical means during the time interval TPMOmaximum permeability, after which this multilayer polymer material is made identical to the original samples of a given geometric shape, divide them into parties, determine the physical and mechanical properties of one batch of samples and when the deviation of the obtained values from the source less than 20% sleduushuu the batch of samples in addition is maintained at a temperature of (70± 2)°for (72±2) h, cooled to room temperature, determine the same physico-mechanical parameters and the deviation of each of the identified parameters is less than 20% from the original make a conclusion about the use of the multi-layer polymeric material for the manufacture of specific technical means of supply.

The technical essence of the invention lies in the fact that the authors, having handled a large number of statistical data on technology supply (stretchy tanks, pipes, barrels, cans with internal polymer coating; plastic pipes, sleeves, polymer packaging, and others) for storage and transportation of petroleum products obtained according to the area of the inner surface of the specific technical means of the mass of the stored oil. Fragments of the results of statistical processing of the results of a study of the operational characteristics of technical means of supply are presented in table. 1-5:

table 1 - the results of a study of the operational characteristics of elastic reservoirs;

table 2 - results of the operational characteristics of the drums (barrels) of polymeric materials;

table 3 - results of operational characteristics Kahn the page from polymeric materials;

table 4 - results of the operational characteristics of the rubber sleeves pressure-suction;

table 5 - results of a study of the operational characteristics of GRP pipes for collapsible pipelines.

On the basis of the study obtained the capacity Toinrepresenting the ratio of the weight of the oil to the area in contact with him the inner surface of the specific technical means (see table 1-5, line 6, 7, 8).

Given that samples of a given geometric shape should be made of multi-layer polymeric material, which is previously subjected to unilateral contact with oil from teplostojkogo layer, the authors demonstrated experimentally that the contact area (area seats) must be greater than the total area of all samples of a given geometric shape. Based on this requirement, it is experimentally proved that to assess the quality teplostojkogo layer in a multilayer polymeric material is necessary and sufficient specific weight of the oil, which is proposed to define as the product of the coefficient of capacity and square seats. For ease of implementation research in the implementation of the unilateral contact, you can use zvezdnye sealed containers with square seats ≈ 490 cm2(3-6 samples of a given geometric shape).

Maximum Pmaxthe permeability and the length of time TPMOmaximum permeability of petroleum products through a multi-layer polymeric material determine the known method [GOST 27896-88 "Rubber, polymer elastic material, rubberized fabric and fabric with elastic polymer coating. Methods for determining toplivopriemniki" p.8] when the temperature of the intended area of use.

Container for unilateral contact multilayer polymeric materials with oil from teplostojkogo layer is made of a material resistant to the action of petroleum products (of alloy aluminum, alloy or stainless steel), and consists of a cylindrical metal Cup with the intermediate ring and the clamping sleeve. In the upper part of the glass has an internal thread which is screwed on the clamping sleeve, ensuring tightness.

The volume of the container is selected to meet the maximum weight of oil required for unilateral contact with a sample multi-layer polymeric material from teplostojkogo layer, while the dimensions of the container are selected from the conditions of possibility of its placement in the unit.

Researching various multilayer polymer the x materials the authors experimentally obtained predelnogo permissible maximum permeability Pmax(35 g/m2day) of oil through a multi-layer polymeric material, and the mismatch of the initial values of physical and mechanical parameters (F, l, FWthat σpFpTXPand these same indicators of the models manufactured after unilateral contact with oil multilayer polymeric material from teplostojkogo layer at a temperature of proposed use for a period of time TPMOmaximum permeability (less than 20% of the original).

So, it was found that the multilayer polymeric material can be recommended for the manufacture of specific technical tools product under the following conditions:

the maximum permeability Pmaxoil is not more than 35 g/m2day;

deviation of the values of the physico-mechanical (Fn, lnFEEthat σpHFpHThrn) multilayer polymeric material after the unilateral contact by teplostojkogo layer with oil at a temperature of proposed use for a period of time TPMOis less than 20% of the original (F, l, FWthat σp FpTXP);

deviation of the values of the physico-mechanical (Fand, landFChithat σriFriTHRIafter additional exposure of samples of multilayer polymer material at a temperature of (70±2)°for (72±2) h is less than 20% of the original (F, l, FWthat σpFpTXP).

For each of the identified parameters can be estimated physical state of hardware product with a sufficient degree of reliability.

So, the breaking load F of the multilayer polymeric material and the resistance of the Fptear is characterized by its extreme resistance to mechanical failure deformations of stretch and tear, respectively.

The breaking load FWseam determines the strength of the weld (weld, adhesive, etc.) multilayer polymeric material and technical resources in General.

The bond strength σpbetween the layers when the stratification determines the strength of coupling of polymeric material with power shell and the ability to multi-layer polymeric material to withstand a variety of deformations without bundles.

Elongation l at break allows, directly or indirectly, to evaluate highly elastic and elastic properties of the material under the action of tensile deformations, SG is ment, bending, shear and other

Temperature TXPfragility characterizes the resistance of multilayered polymeric material, maintenance of hardware product in different climatic zones.

Thus, the essence of the method lies in the fact that prior to the preparation of samples of a given geometric shape of the investigated multilayer polymeric material to define the initial physico-mechanical parameters (F, l, FWthat σpFp, Txp) pre investigate the barrier properties of the multilayered polymer material, determining the maximum of the Pmaxthe permeability of a petroleum product and period TPMOtime at a temperature of proposed use of technical means. When smax>35 g/m2day reject material, and when smax>35 g/m2day as in the prototype prepare samples of a given geometric shape and determine the source of physico-mechanical properties, when the mismatch with the normative values of >20% of the reject material, and ≤20% exercise unilateral contact the multilayer polymeric material from teplostojkogo layer with oil, the weight of which is determined by the coefficient of capacity Toinspecific technical means, is received from the at experimentally, and the area of contact of multilayered polymeric material (area seats). After the unilateral contact multi-layer polymeric material with oil at a temperature of proposed use of technical means during the time TPMOprepare samples of a given geometric shape.

The method is implemented as follows.

Example 1. It is necessary to evaluate the possibility of using multi-layer polymeric material brand TPOUR THE 405831-2005, produced by JSC "Tula plant RTI for making stretchy tank with a capacity of 25 m3(R-25) for the storage of gasoline [GOST R 51105-97 Fuel for internal combustion engines. Unleaded gasoline. Specifications, Moscow, Publishing house of standards, 1999] in the climatic area II12(very hot and dry with average monthly temperature in July is higher than 30°C.

As oil for testing used widely used brand of high-octane gasoline Regular-92 GOST R 51105-97, having in its composition of aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing anti-knock (actinopodidae) additives.

The temperature of the intended area of use take the temperature (70±2)° - the maximum operating temperature of elastic what's tanks in extreme conditions [Swivelin. Soft tanks for storage and transportation of petroleum products, part II, Moscow, Publishing house "Tsniiteneftehim", 1993, p.24]).

In accordance with the algorithm (see drawing) the implementation of a method for evaluating the possibility of using multi-layer polymeric material for the manufacture of technical product determines the maximum permeability Pmax(stage 3) gasoline Regular-92 through the test material, fixed period of TPMOtime (stage 4) maximum permeability at a temperature of (70±2)°With the known method according to GOST 27896-88. Test results determined that 48 hours Pmaxgasoline Regular-92 through the multilayer material brand TOER amounted to 449 g/m2day.

The obtained value of the maximum permeability ˜13 times higher than the permissible (Pmax≤35 g/m2d). The reject material (step 14).

Conclusion: multi-layer polymeric material brand TPOUR THE 405831-2005, produced by JSC "Tula plant RTI cannot be used in the design stretchy tank with a capacity of 25 m3(R-25) for storing gasoline in a very hot dry climate area.

Example 2. It is necessary to evaluate the possibility of using multi-layer polymeric material brand "Polishd WITH(30) 140" THE 2245-001-52186250-2005 production About What About "Technopack" as structural material for the manufacture of elastic reservoir with a capacity of 4 m 3(ER-4) for storage and transportation of fuels for jet engines [GOST 10227-86 Fuel for jet engines. Specifications, Moscow, Publishing house of standards, 1998] in the climatic area II12(very hot and dry with average monthly temperature in July is higher than 30°C.

As oil for testing used widely used brand of jet fuel TS-1 according to GOST 10227-86.

The temperature of the intended area of use take the temperature (70±2)° - the maximum operating temperature elastic reservoirs in extreme conditions.

Determine the maximum permeability Pmax(step 3 of the algorithm) fuel TS-1 through the test material, fixed period of TPMOtime (step 4 of the algorithm) maximum permeability at a temperature of (70±2)°With the known method according to GOST 27896-88. Test results determined that over 9 days Pmaxfuel TS-1 through multilayer material brand "Polishd With(30)amounted to 8 g/m2day., less than the maximum permissible values (Pmax≤35 g/m2d).

From the test material is prepared samples (step 5 of the algorithm) specified geometric shape and determine the source of physico-mechanical parameters (step 6 of the algorithm) of the known methods is.

In accordance with the requirements of materials for the elastic reservoirs are defined by the following characteristics: a tensile load F (step 7 of the algorithm), FW(step 9 of the algorithm) seam and elongation (step 8 of the algorithm) at break according to GOST 30303-95 temperature TXP(step 12 of the algorithm) fragility according to GOST 16783-71.

We obtained the following values of parameters: F on the basis and duck - 415 N 405 N, respectively; l on the basis and duck - 437% 492%, respectively; FW- 350 N; TXP- below minus 58°C.

Compare (step 13 of algorithm) the results obtained with the set (see table 6).

Table 6
The results of the tests multilayer polymeric material brand "Polishd WITH(30) 140" THE 2245-001-52186250-2005 production LLC "Technopack", Saint-Petersburg
IndexSpecified (maximum)Actually
baseducks
The permeability, Pmax, g/m2dayNot more than 358
The breaking load, Nsource FAt least 400415405
after unilateral contact with fuel TS-1, FnAt least 320402385
after evaporation of the fuel TS-1, Fand408394
Elongation at break, %source, lAt least 300437492
after unilateral contact with fuel TS-1, lnNot less than 240441486
after evaporation of the fuel TS-1, land433460
The breaking load of the weld, N.the source, FEEAt least 340350
after contact with the fuel TC-1 FWNo less than 272280
after evaporation of the fuel TS-1,FChi325
Low temperature brittleness, °source, TXPDo not above - 50Below - 58
after contact with the fuel TC-1, ThrnNot higher than - 40Below - 60
after evaporation of the fuel TS-1, THRI- 52

Su the values match. Continue research.

Ask for ER-4 coefficient of capacity (step 15 of algorithm)in=MTC-1/Spower -4=3200/267800=11.9 g/cm2(see table 1).

Area (Spower-4the inner surface in cm2reservoir ER-4, having the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped, is calculated by the formula [Wagosi, Agimatic. Math. Reference materials, Moscow, Education, 1988, s]:

Spower-4=2(ab+bc+ac),

where a is the length, cm; b - width, cm; - height in the filled condition, see

Spower-4=(360×260+260×65+360×65)=267800 cm2

Mass MTS-1stored fuel TS-1 with densityis 3200 kg

Mass (mTS-1fuel TS-1, is required for unilateral contact with a sample multi-layer polymeric material is determined by the formula mTS-1=SpowerKin=490,6×11,9=5855 g or table 1 (step 16 of algorithm).

For determination of physical and mechanical properties of multilayered polymeric material need three containers: two for discontinuous Fnload and elongation lnat break in the warp and weft and one for the discontinuous FEEload the joint. Samples for the determination of brittle transition temperature have a relatively small geometrical dimensions (6,5×25 mm) and do not require additional container.

In which each container with a graduated cylinder pour calculated m TS-1the mass of fuel TS-1 (5855 g), installed in each seat of the sample (Spower=490 cm2) multilayer polymeric material toplevelitem layer inside. The container Assembly overturn a sample of multilayered polymeric material down and verify their integrity in a known manner (for example, no visible leaking fuel).

Then sealed containers are placed in pre-heated to the maximum temperature climatic region II12(70±2)°With thermostats (step 17 of algorithm) and incubated for time TPMO=9 days. (step 4 of the algorithm).

After the expiration of 9 days the containers removed from thermostat and cooled at a temperature of (23±2)°With at least 0.5 h to room temperature (step 18 of the algorithm), apart the containers one at a time, prepare this multi-layered polymeric material samples given (in the form of strips - 6 PCs) geometric shapes (stage 19 of the algorithm), divide them into two equal parties (steps 20 and 21 of algorithm), one of which (step 20 of algorithm) is placed in the desiccator and not later than 30 define physico-mechanical parameters (step 22 algorithm) samples of Fn=402 N and 385 N, ln=441% 486% in the warp and weft, respectively, FEE=280 N, Thrn=below minus 60°With (6) and compare with the original (steps 7, 8, 9, 12 algorithm).

The test results show that the change of physico-mechanical properties of the sample material "Polishd With(30) 140" after unilateral contact with fuel TS-1 does not exceed 20% from the original values.

Go to the next stage of testing. The second batch of samples of a given geometric shape in addition is maintained as in the prototype at a temperature of (70±2)°C for 72 h (step 23 algorithm) and after cooling to room temperature (step 24 algorithm) determine the known methods, the values of the same physical-mechanical indicators (stage 25 of the algorithm) Fand=408 N 394 N, land=433% and 460% in the warp and weft, respectively, FChi=325 N, THRI=minus 52°With (see table 6) and compare with the original (steps 7, 8, 9, 12 algorithm).

As shown by the results, the variance values of the physical-mechanical indicators does not exceed 20% of the original.

Conclusion: multi-layer polymeric material brand "Polishd WITH(30) 140" THE 2245-001-52186250-2005 production LLC "Technopack" can be used as a construction material is stretchy tank with a capacity of 4 m3(ER-4) for storage and transportation of fuels for jet engines in a very hot dry climate area (steps 26 and 27 of the algorithm).

Example 3. It is necessary to evaluate the possibility of using multilayer polymannuronate brand 2-1000 production company "kurskrezinotehnika" for the manufacture of pressure-suction hoses with a diameter of ⊘ 100 length of 6 m TU 38 105620-86 "rubber Hoses for pumping Aviatorov and aviamail oil-based" for pumping gasoline in the climatic area II4(moderately cold) with an average monthly temperature in July to 25°C.

As oil for testing used widely used brand of high-octane gasoline Regular-92 GOST R 51105-97, having in its composition of aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing anti-knock (actinopodidae) additives.

The temperature of the intended area of use take the temperature (23±2)°C.

Determine the maximum permeability Pmax(step 3 of the algorithm) gasoline Regular-92 through the test material, fixed period of TPMOtime (step 4 of the algorithm) maximum permeability at a temperature of (23±2)°With the known method according to GOST 27896-88. Test results determined that in 7 days Pmaxgasoline Regular-92 through the multilayer material brand 2-1000 was 34 g/m2day, which is less than the maximum allowable values (Pmax≤35 g/m2d).

From the test material is prepared samples (step 5 of the algorithm) specified geometric shape and determine the source of physico-mechanical parameters (step 6 of the algorithm) known the diversified methods.

In accordance with the requirements of materials for pressure-suction hoses, define the following parameters: tensile load F (step 7 of the algorithm) of the material and the elongation l at break (step 8 of the algorithm) according to GOST 30303-95, strength σpbetween the layers when the bundle (step 10 of the algorithm) according to GOST 6768-75, the resistance of the Fptear (step 11 of the algorithm) according to GOST 30304-95 temperature TXP(step 12 of the algorithm) fragility according to GOST 16783-71.

We obtained the following values of parameters: F on the basis and duck - 1015 N 1005 N, respectively; l on the basis and duck - 237% and 298%, respectively; σp=25 N/cm; Fpon the basis of and duck - 56 H and 53 H, respectively; TXPminus 52°C.

Compare (step 13 of algorithm) the results obtained with the set (see table 7).

Table 7
The results of the tests multilayer polymeric material brand 2-1000 production company "kurskrezinotehnika" for the manufacture of pressure-suction hoses with a diameter of ⊘100 length of 6 m TU 38 105620-86
IndexSpecified (maximum)Actually
baseducks
Pronic is resistant, Pmax, g/m2dayNot more than 3534
The breaking load, Nsource FAt least 100010151005
after unilateral contact with fuel TS-1, FnAt least 800902890
Elongation at break,%source, lNot less than 200237298
after unilateral contact with fuel TS-1, lnAt least 160240285
The bonding strength between the layers, N/cmsource. σpNot less than 20,025
after unilateral contact with fuel TS-1, σpHNot less than 16,010
Tear resistance, Nthe source, FpAt least 505653
after unilateral contact with fuel TS-1, FpHAt least 404541
Low temperature brittleness, °source, TxpDo not above - 50- 52
after unilateral contact with fuel TS-1, ThrnNot higher than - 40Below - 60

All values match. Continue research.

Ask for pressure-suction hoses with a diameter of ⊘100 mm length 6 m capacity factor (step 15 of algorithm).

Toin=MRegular-92/Sstand.⊘100=18997/34,4=1.8 g/cm2(see table 4).

Area (Sstand.⊘100the inner surface in cm2sleeve having the form of a cylinder is calculated by the formula [Wagosi, Agimatic. Math. Reference materials, Moscow, Education, 1988, s].

Sstand.⊘100=2πRH+2πR2,

where R is the base radius of the cylinder, cm;

H - the height of the cylinder, cm;

Sstand.⊘100=2×3,14×5×600+2×3,14×52=18997 cm2

The mass of gasoline Regular-92 in the sleeve diameter ⊘100 mm length 6 m with densityis 34,4 kg

Mass (mregular-92) gasoline Regular-92 required for unilateral contact with a sample multi-layer polymeric material is determined by the formula mRegular-92=SpowerToin=490,6×1,8=882 or table 1 (step 16 of algorithm).

For determination of physical and mechanical properties of multilayered polymeric material need seven to the of nteynery: two for discontinuous F load and elongation l at break in the warp and weft and one for the bond strength σpand four for resistance Fptear in the warp and weft. Samples for the determination of brittle transition temperature have a relatively small geometrical dimensions (6,5×25 mm) and do not require additional container.

In each container with a graduated cylinder pour calculated mregular-92a lot of gasoline Regular-92 (882), installed in each seat of the sample (Spower=490 cm2) multilayer polymeric material toplevelitem layer inside. The container Assembly overturn a sample of multilayered polymeric material down and verify their integrity in a known manner (for example, no visible leakage of gasoline).

Then sealed containers maintained at a temperature climatic region II4(23±2)°C (step 17 of algorithm) for time TPMO=7 days (stage 4 of the algorithm).

After 7 days apart the containers one at a time, prepare this multi-layered polymeric material samples given (in the form of strips) geometric shapes (stage 19 of the algorithm), divide them into two equal parties (steps 20 and 21 of algorithm), one of which (step 20 of algorithm) is placed in the desiccator and not later than 30 to determine the physico-m is a mechanical indicators (step 22 algorithm) samples of F n=902 N. and 890 N, ln=240% and 285% in the warp and weft respectively, σpH=10 N/cm; FpHon the basis of and duck - 45 N and 41 H, respectively; Thrn- below minus 60°With (table 7) and compare with the original (steps 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 of the algorithm).

The test results show that the change in the bond strength σpHbetween layers exfoliated specimens 2-1000 after unilateral contact with gasoline Regular-92 amounted to 37.5% compared to the original value that exceeds 20%. The reject material (step 14 of algorithm), testing ceased.

Conclusion: multi-layer polymeric material brand 2-1000 production company "kurskrezinotehnika" cannot be used for the manufacture of pressure-suction hoses with a diameter of ⊘100 length of 6 m TU 38 105620-86 "rubber Hoses for pumping Aviatorov and aviamail oil-based" for pumping gasoline in a moderately cold climate area.

Thus, a method of evaluating the possibility of using multi-layer polymeric material for the manufacture of technical product allows you to:

to increase the reliability of research results due to the proximity of the test conditions to the conditions specific technique of multilayer polymeric materials in different climatic regions;

to ensure the reliability and ecological safety of operation of the technical facilities of the multilayer polymeric materials (obtained maximum value of the permeability of oil products through a multi-layer polymeric material, and the maximum allowable change its physical and mechanical properties after exposure to oil in relation to the original).

The invention can be used in the development (modernization), production, operation and repair of hardware product.

Table 1
The results of the study of the operational characteristics of elastic tanks
No. p.pName of indicatorNumeric values
123456
1Capacity, m3461025
2The area of Srotthe inner surface, cm2267800280800421200938800
3Mass MRegular-92stored gasoline Regular-92 kg, 29004400730018300
4Mass MTS-1stored fuel TS-1, kg, when32004800800020000
5Mass MDT-Lstored fuel DT-L, kg, when34005000840021000
6The capacity factor Kregular-92, g/cm210,82915,67017,33119,493
7The capacity factor Kthe PTS-1, g/cm211,94917,09418,99321,3
8The capacity factor KVDT-L, g/cm212,69617,80619,94322,369
9The area of Spowerseats container for sample multi-layer polymeric material, cm2490490490490
10Mass mRegular-92gasoline Regular-92 test, g5306767884929552
11Mass mThe s-1 fuel TS-1 testing, g58558376930710437
12Mass mDT-Lfuel DT-L test, g62218725977210961

Table 2
The results of the study of the operational characteristics of the drums (barrels) of polymeric materials
No. p.pName of indicatorNumeric values
1234567891011
1Capacity, l3241485165105127227250
2The area of Srotthe inner surface, cm27904 is logged7756891887701061314553160822254824492
3Mass MRegular-92stored gasoline Regular-92 kg, when 23303537487793166183
4Mass MTS-1stored fuel TS-1, kg, when263338415284102182200
5Mass MDT-Lstored fuel DT-L, kg, when273541435589108193213
6The capacity factor Kregular-92, g/cm22,9a 3.9a 3.94,24,55,35,87,47,5
7The capacity factor Kthe PTS-1g/cm23,34,34,3the 4.7a 4.95,86,38,18,2
8The capacity factor KVDT-L, g/cm23,44,54,6a 4.95,26,16,78,68,7
9The area of Spowerseats container for sample multi-layer polymeric material, cm2490490490490490490490490490
10Mass mRegular-92gasoline Regular-92 test, g142119111911205822052597284236263675
11Mass mTS-1fuel TS-1 testing, g161721072107230324012842308739694018
12Mass mDT-Lfuel DT-L test, g166622052254240125482989328342144263

Table 3
The results of the study of the operational characteristics of containers made of polymeric materials
No. p.pName of indicatorNumerical testing is recommended reading
12345678
1Capacity, l3511213163
2The area of Srotthe inner surface, cm21721238136005559701211882
3Mass MRegular-92stored gasoline Regular-92 kg, when2,23,78,015,322,646,0
4Mass MTS-1stored fuel TS-1, kg, when2,44,08,816,824,850,4
5Mass MDT-Lstored fuel DT-L, kg, when2,64,39,417,926,453,6
6The capacity factor Kregular-92, g/cm21.31,62,22,83,2a 3.9
7CoE is the rate of capacity K the PTS-1, g/cm21,41,72,43,03,54,2
8The capacity factor KVDT-L, g/cm21,51,82,63,2the 3.84,5
9The area of Spowerseats container for sample multi-layer polymeric material, cm2490490490490490490
10Mass mRegular-92gasoline Regular-92 test, g6377841078137215681911
11Mass mTS-1fuel TS-1 testing, g6868331176147017152058
12Mass mDT-Lfuel DT-L test, g7358821274156818622205

Table 4
The results of the study of the operational characteristics of the rubber sleeves pressure-suction/td>
No. p.pName of indicatorNumeric values
12345678
1Length 6 m diameter, mm⊘32⊘38⊘50⊘65⊘75⊘100
2The area of Srotthe inner surface, cm2604571829459123121421818997
3Mass MRegular-92stored gasoline Regular-92 kg, when3,504,968.6014,5019,5of 34.40
4Mass MTS-1stored fuel TS-1, kg, when3,905,449,4215,90of 21.237,70
5Mass MDT-Lstored fuel DT-L, kg, when4,105,8010,0016,9022,540,0
6The capacity factor Ktime is of Ular-92 , g/cm20,60,70,91,21,41,8
7The capacity factor Kthe PTS-1, g/cm20,70,81,01,31,52,0
8The capacity factor KVDT-L, g/cm20,70,81,11,41,62,1
9The area of Spowerseats container for sample multi-layer polymeric material, cm2490490490490490490
10Mass mRegular-92gasoline Regular-92 test, g294343441588686882
11Mass mTS-1fuel TS-1 testing, g343392490637735980
12Mass mDT-Lfuel DT-L test, g3433925396867841029

Table 5
The results of the study of the operational characteristics of GRP pipes for collapsible pipelines
No. p.pName of indicatorNumeric values
123456
1Length 6 m diameter, mm⊘75⊘100⊘150⊘200
2The area of Srotthe inner surface, cm214218189972861338308
3Mass MRegular-92stored gasoline Regular-92 kg, when19,334,477,4137,5
4Mass MTS-1stored fuel TS-1, kg, whenof 21.237,784,8to 150.7
5Mass MDTLstored fuel DT-L, kg, when22,540,090,1160,1
6The capacity factor Kregular-92, g/cm2 1,41,82,73,6
7The capacity factor Kthe PTS-1, g/cm21,52,03,0a 3.9
8The capacity factor KVDT-L, g/cm21,62,13,14,2
9The area of Spowerseats container for sample multi-layer polymeric material, cm2490490490490
10Mass mRegular-92gasoline Regular-92 test, g68688213231764
11Mass mTS-1fuel TS-1 testing, g73598014701911
12Mass mDT-Lfuel DT-L test, g784102915192058

A method of evaluating the possibility of using multi-layer polymeric material for the manufacture of technical equipment supply, including the preparation of initial samples of multilayered polymeric material of a given geometric shape, dimension to the operation of the physical-mechanical characteristics of the initial breaking loads of material F seam and F W, elongation l at break, adhesion σpbetween the layers when the delamination resistance tear Fpand-brittle transition temperature TXP, comparing them with predetermined values and a rejection of the material when the deviation of at least one of these indicators, and in the absence of mismatch - interaction of the samples with mineral oil at a temperature of (70±2)°With within the specified time, the definition of the same performance after exposure to oil and evaluation by the deviation of the physical-mechanical indicators from the original possibility of using the tested multi-layer polymer material in the technical tool supply, characterized in that prior to the preparation of samples of a given geometric shape determines the maximum permeability Pmax, g/m2day specific oil through the investigated multilayer polymeric material at a temperature of proposed use of technical means, fixed period of timemaximum permeability and Pmax≤35 g/m2day determine physical and mechanical properties of samples of a given geometric shape, in the absence of the error values from the normative set the ratio of the capacity bound is to maintain the technical equipment for a specific product, a lot of which is determined by multiplying the ratio of the capacity of specific technical tools to the square footprint of the pressurized container in which carried out with the mixture of oil unilateral contact multi-layer polymeric material from teplostojkogo layer at a temperature of proposed use of technical means during the time intervalmaximum permeability, after which this multilayer polymer material is made identical to the original samples of a given geometric shape, divide them into parties, determine the physical and mechanical properties of one batch of samples and when the deviation of the obtained values from the source less than 20% of the next batch of samples in addition is maintained at a temperature of (70±2)°for (72±2) h, cooled to room temperature, determine the same physico-mechanical parameters and the deviation of each of the identified parameters is less than 20% from the original make a conclusion about the use of the multi-layer polymeric material for the manufacture of specific technical means of supply.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: light industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording response of the material to be tested that represents an amplitude-frequency characteristic, calculating deformation characteristics, and determining the value of distributed mass of the vibrating part of the material. The response representing two amplitude-frequency characteristics is recorded for the same part of the material to be tested for various masses of two bodies that cause deformation. The deformation characteristics are calculated from equations of vibration theory for viscoelastic bodies.

EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.

FIELD: weighing equipment; chemical mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring content of binder in reel-up composite material produced by preliminary soaked thread. Method is based upon weighing. The constant values are determined according to the method as length of thread for specific type of items and value of linear density averaged for any reel before and after soaking by binder and reeling it up onto frame. Weighing is performed for item before reeling it up with soaked thread and after reeling-up and final polymerization of composite material to determine mass of composite. Basing upon the data received, content of thread is determined which value is subsequently used for finding mass content of binder in composite from relation of C=(M-LxT/M)x100%, where C is content of binder in composite, in mass percent; M is mass of composite, g; L is length of thread consumed for item, km; T is average arithmetic meaning of values of linear density of thread and its rests at any reel before and after impregnation, g/km.

EFFECT: higher stability of performance measures.

1 ex

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing specimens of polymeric materials of specified mass, exposing the specimens to the hostile fluid at a given temperature, and determining informative characteristic from a formula proposed.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

2 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: technologies for researching durability properties of packing washer materials for collapsible oil pipelines.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining remaining resource of rubber compacting curves utilized in oil pipeline junctions, preparation of samples of given geometrical shape is performed, measurement of source hardness conditions for stretching, relative elongation during tearing, Shore hardness, temperature fragility limit, comparison of aforementioned values to given values, culling of washers, sample coefficients of which do not correspond to given values. Remaining samples are exposed to oil product after extraction from oil product samples are thermostatted, cooled down to normal room temperature, and then the same physical-mechanical coefficients are measured again with limit values. Before preparation of samples with given geometrical shape, washers are organized in batches of same manufacturing plant and production year, additionally measured are external d1 and internal d2 washer diameters for each batch, relative compression Ecp deformation of same washers. Their deviation from standard is calculated and culling of aforementioned washer batches is performed on basis of allowed values Δd1, Δd2 and Ecp, while as allowed values Δd1, Δd2 ≤ 3%; 25% ≤ Ecp ≤ 70%. After that remaining rings with least values of relative compression deformation Ecp are utilized to prepare geometrical samples of given geometrical shape. Remaining resource ΔT is determined from following formula: years, where ki - coefficient, characterizing alteration of remaining resource ΔT dependently on climatic zone input of operation of rubber packing washers, is taken as i - climatic zones I1 - II12, additional information, T - average lifetime of rubber packing washers until removal from operation in accordance to technological characteristics provided by manufacturing plant and/or operation instructions, in years, Tn - period of operation of rubber packing washers since production year - marking of manufacturing plant, until moment of determining ΔT, years, f=9,4 MPa - minimally allowed value of conditional hardness for stretching after thermostatting of sample, MPa.

EFFECT: reliable trustworthiness of results of estimation of remaining resource under dynamic conditions of rubber packing washers in oil pipeline junctions with simultaneous increase of ecological safety due to decreased risk of emergency spilling of oil products.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy farming.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining tightening of teat cup liner before it is inserted into teat cup; acting upon teat cup liner by suspending weight for determining tightening of teat cup liner; providing expansion by introducing internal gauge into teat cup liner which is positioned within teat cup casing. Method allows extent of teat cup liner tightening to be visually detected at any time of machine milking process. Tightening of teat cup liner manufactured integral with milk pipe as well as separately therefrom is determined during operation of milking units.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced milking time.

1 dwg

FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.

12 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.

EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.

EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

2 tbl, 2 ex

The invention relates to methods for the study of strength properties of materials o-rings pipe connections, for example, type “Socket” and can be used to determine the timing of replacement of sealing pipe joints

The invention relates to the field of fur industry, textile, garment industry, and agriculture and is used for determining the density of hair natural and artificial fur when research on the stages of sorting, quality assessment

FIELD: chemical technological processes for producing solid fuel, possibly in coal-tar chemical industry for selecting coal charges for coking.

SUBSTANCE: method for determining optimal composition of stable type coal charge for coking comprises steps of receiving reference charge; calculating and determining optimal composition of charge; preparing charge with optimal content of its components for further coking while performing all investigation processes in industrial coke ovens; taking as reference charge several types of charge with different composition; preliminarily selecting large number of reference basic types and admissible relations of components for each type of charge; according to data of passive or active experiments plotting inlet-outlet model of fluctuations of coking process for each type of charge; adjusting relay- exponential predicting device; effectively measuring coal masses present in silos and towers of coal-tar chemical production; measuring current properties of coal charge components for coking, current parameters of coking mode, type and content of charge of previous day, selected for usage type and components of charge for future operation period of coke batteries. If both types of charge are matched, according to history data for selected type of charge, finding sampled variations of percentage content of each component of charge; ranging found row of variations; in said ranged row selecting stable components of charge with less value of variations among non-stable components with high value of variations in order to provide realization of relation 2 ≥ nc/ni≤ 1 where nc - number of stable components; ni - number of non-stable components that is to be no less than 2; setting mass values of stable components of charge according to levels of previous operation period of coke ovens; predicting coke quality by means of relay-exponential predicting device; finding deviation of predicted value of coke quality factor from predetermined one; in inlet-outlet mathematical model of coking process with use of regular or irregular searching procedures, optimizing relations of non-stable components in order to provide equality of both values (predicted and predetermined ones); combining found relations of non-stable components with predetermined relations of stable components in order to provide optimal composition of charge.

EFFECT: possibility for obtaining results of optimization of coal charge composition almost equal to parameters of actual production process, improved reliability of accelerated optimizing process, possibility for predicting coke quality.

1 note, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: investigation of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of mixing sample of analyzed fuel composition with distillate component till viscosity (2.0 ± 0.1)mm2/s at 100°C; dividing prepared mixture by two parts; heating them till temperature (100-110)°C; then cooling first part till 20°C; soaking at such temperature for 24 h and subjecting it to centrifuge processing at temperature (30±2)°C for 60 min; determining value of separated deposit; cooling second part till temperature (60±2)°C; subjecting it to centrifuge processing at such temperature for 45 min; determining value of deposit and calculating factor of fuel stability.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of calculating stability factor of fuel systems.

4 tbl

FIELD: analyzing or investigating materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring density of gasoline, dielectric permeability of gasoline at the first frequency, measuring absorbing of acoustical energy in gasoline, measuring specific conductivity of gasoline and dielectric permeability at the second frequency, determining the ratio of the values of dielectric permeability for two different frequencies, temperature correcting of the parameters measured, and calculating the octane number with the use of a calibration model.

EFFECT: enhanced precision.

2 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: the system of marking of hydrocarbon fluid medium running from the source to the designated place has at least one sensor for definition of at least one property of the flowing medium, at least one regulator of consumption of the marker for intake of the prescribed quantity of the marker into the flowing medium at least from one source of the marker. The property of the flowing medium is chosen out of the group including temperature, consumption, viscosity, density and concentration. A processor is switched at least to one sensor and at least to one regulator. The processor defines the prescribed quantity of the added marker (diluted in this case) in correspondence with the property of the flowing medium and the prescribed concentration of the marker in the flowing medium and controls the regulator of at least of one marker. The invention allows to identify oil. petrol, kerosene, different kinds of fuel for evaluation of conservation of the initial quality(dilution, falsifications) of the spill or leakage of liquid hydrocarbons from pipe-tubes, tankers or storehouses.

EFFECT: identifies different kinds of liquid hydrocarbons.

70 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: explosives and mine-torpedo weapon charges.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in modeling of the processes of detonation and energy liberation occurring at a burst of various composite charges, according to the affecting factors of an underwater burst of a composite charge, comparative analysis of their quantitative characteristics. At modeling of the processes of detonation and energy liberation the interaction of the underwater burst with the environment and the protective structure multichamber in depth is modeled, the gauge pressure, pressure pulse, density of the energy flux and hydroflux are used as characteristics of the affecting factors of an underwater burst.

EFFECT: provided determination of the most effective crater effect of the charge composition of the up-to-date mine-torpedo weapon intended for accomplishment of a short-range contact and non-contact burst.

3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: analytical methods in petroleum processing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended as a means for metrological provision of measurement procedures in determination of iodine number of light petroleum products. Standard sample involved is a mixture containing 0.04-4.0% liquid olefinic hydrocarbon and 99.96-96.0% aliphatic alcohol. Iodine number range in above analyses is between 0.1 and 6 g I2/100 g.

EFFECT: enabled reliable evaluation of quality of light petroleum products wherein quantitative content of unsaturated hydrocarbons is determined according to requirements of normative-technical documents.

FIELD: gas metering methods and devices.

SUBSTANCE: gas meter includes heat flow rate pickup for determining mass flow rate and heat quality pickup for determining type of gas. Heat gas flow rate pickup and(or) heat gas quality pickup are in the form of CMOS -anemometers having heating member and temperature pickups arranged upstream or downstream from heating member relative to gas flow direction; they may be in the form of single pickup. In variants of invention it is possible to measure heat conductance, heat capacity, diffusion capability or viscosity of gas or gas mixture for determining type of gas. At presence of combustible gas or gas mixture counter operates with calibration in units of mass or volume in standard condition. At presence fuel gas and or gas mixture said counter operates with calibration in units energy.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of metering consumed energy due to automatic identification of gas type, of trials of manipulations with counter, possibility for automatic tracking heat capacity without its direct measuring.

14 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: explosives.

SUBSTANCE: group of invention relates to marking explosives and can be used to identify explosives and manufacturing place. To that end, a method for revealing an explosive and a marker to reveal explosive. Method comprises preparation of explosive with a marker uniformly distributed therein. Marker is made in a manner to have information field enabling further reveal and identification of explosive or explosive and manufacturing place thereof during its storage period or during its storage period and after blast of explosive. Marker is made from material having hardness no higher than that of explosive and information field is of holographic nature.

EFFECT: increased information value of marker without deterioration of explosive characteristics.

28 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: petroleum product test methods.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to petroleum product testing area and mainly to evaluation of chemical stability of motor gasolines to provide methods applicable in research institutions, in refinery laboratories, and at enterprises dealing with development and application of motor fuels as well as with problems concerning preservation of automobile gasolines during storage and transportation periods. In a method of evaluating induction period of motor gasolines from sample oxidation time at 100°C calculated in terms of a mathematic relationship using an informational parameter of the sample, the latter is content of unsaturated hydrocarbons Cn, which is preliminarily determined in the sample, and sample oxidation time at 100°C (τ100) is calculated in terms of following relationship: τ100 = k1Ln(Cn)+k2, where k1 and k2 are empirical constants.

EFFECT: accelerated motor gasoline induction period evaluation without reduction in requirements to accuracy and reliability and increased determination safety.

1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves 1) measuring n physical properties φi of given gas mixture at temperature T and/or single physical property φi at n different temperature values; 2) determining gas composition comprising n+1 ingredients on basis of mentioned physical properties, that is to be equivalent to the given gas mixture; 3) deducing power properties of the given mixture from given known composition of the equivalent gas.

EFFECT: simplified method; higher information capacity of property definition.

12 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the values of the inform-parameter for various reference petrols, plotting calibration dependence of the inform-parameter on the octane number, determining the value of the inform-parameter of a sample of petrol to be analyzed, determining octane number of the petrol to be analyzed from the calibration curve, and measuring density and temperature of the sample. The value of the inform-parameter is determined from measuring the surface tension of the sample. The octane number is calculated within temperature range 10-40oC.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.

1 tbl cl, dwg

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