# Method for determining sweat resistance of skin

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves placing 10x10 cm large sample of material under test into measuring device for determining elasticity modulus E_{el1} or super- elasticity modulus E_{sl1} of the sample. Then, the sample is kept in artificial sweat solution at room temperature during 3 days and then dried under natural conditions during 22-24 h and elasticity modulus E_{el2} or super- elasticity modulus E_{sl2 }are determined with the device. Sweat resistance value is calculated as P=(E_{el2}/E_{el1})*100 or (E_{sl2}/E_{sl1})*100, where E_{el1} is the elasticity modulus of a sample in initial condition, in MPa; E_{el2} is the elasticity modulus of a sample treated in artificial sweat solution, in MPa; E_{sl1} is the super-elasticity modulus of a sample in initial condition, in MPa; E_{sl2} is the super-elasticity modulus treated in artificial sweat solution in MPa.

EFFECT: high accuracy of obtained results.

The invention relates to light industry and can be used to determine potestati capillary-porous fibrous and film materials, such as natural and artificial leather.

There is a method of determining potestati leather, which consists in the fact that the samples examined incubated in a solution of artificial sweat for 24 hours, dried for 24 hours and this operation is repeated six times. Then determine the physico-mechanical characteristics of samples: ultimate tensile strength, elongation and hardness. To obtain comparable data use control samples, which are treated in the same way, with the only difference that instead of pot use distilled water.

Photoscontact judged by the ratio of the obtained parameters before and after testing, and the performance of the sample before the test is taken for the unit (Bernstein GOT Photoscontact and microbiological stability of leather for Shoe lining: Ref. collection "Leather industry". - M.: Createrepo, 1977. No. 6. - P.8-14).

The disadvantage of this method is its complexity, influence the direction of the cut sample (anisotropy) on the measurement accuracy.

The closest analogue of the proposed technical solution is the method of determining the pot the resistance of the skin, namely, that after six looping prototype in a solution of artificial sweat, and control in distilled water, followed by drying them during the day, determine the moduli of elasticity of the skin, and the value of potestati, expressed as a percentage, calculated by the ratio of the moduli of elasticity of the skin treated with sweat and water. Moreover, the modulus of elasticity E of the test sample and the control are calculated according to the ratio of voltage σ=9.8 MPa to the corresponding relative elongation εobtained at the voltage when tested on a tensile testing machine, according to the formula: E=σ:ε [Vasilkov, Ithuriel. Technical analysis and monitoring of the leather industry. - M: Light industry, 1972. - 232 S.].

The disadvantage of this method is the need for multiple cycles of treatment and drying, the use of distilled water as a medium of comparison, a large variation of values of potestati.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the accuracy of determining the rate of potestati and reducing the complexity of the method.

This result is achieved by a method for determining potestati skin is that the sample of the test material size 10×10 cm is placed in a measuring device for the Relaxation and to define what are the modulus of elasticity E_{
y1}or module viscoelasticity E_{E1}, after which the sample is incubated in a solution of artificial sweat at room temperature for 3 days, then lossimouth in natural conditions for 22-24 hours and on the instrument Relax determine the modulus of elasticity E_{U2}or module viscoelasticity E_{E2}photoscontact skin P in percent are calculated according to the formula P=(E_{U2}:E_{y1})·100 or (E_{E2}:E_{E1})·100, where E_{y1}- the modulus of elasticity of the original sample, MPa; F_{U2}- the modulus of elasticity of the sample after treatment in a solution of artificial sweat, MPa; E_{E1}- module viscoelasticity the original sample, MPa; F_{E2}- module viscoelasticity sample after treatment in a solution of artificial sweat MPa.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that the test samples are incubated in a solution of artificial sweat for 3 days without intermediate drying, determination of modulus of elasticity or viscoelasticity before and after processing is performed on the device Relax on the same sample without its destruction, and the index of potestati determine the percentage of the modulus of elasticity or viscoelasticity sample treated in a solution of artificial sweat, the modulus of elasticity or viscoelasticity the original sample.

Su is the efficiency of the method is as follows.

Sample test material size 10×10 cm is placed in a measuring device for the Relaxation and determine the modulus of elasticity E_{y1}or module viscoelasticity E_{E1}. The same sample after the test is placed in a vessel containing a solution of artificial sweat, with the expectation that it was completely covered with liquid. In the composition of the artificial sweat includes (150 ml): sodium chloride 3.0 g, ammonium carbonate, 0.1 g, centripetal - 0.03 g urea 3.6 g, lactic acid is 0.2, the Sample is incubated in the solution at room temperature for 3 days, after which it is removed, dried in natural conditions for 22-24 hours and re-determine the value of the modulus of elasticity or viscoelasticity on installing Relax. Photoscontact in percent is calculated as the ratio of module E_{U2}or E_{E2}measured after keeping the sample of the skin in a solution of artificial sweat to module E_{y1}or E_{E1}of the original sample, respectively.

The moduli of elasticity and viscoelasticity are one of the main indicators characterizing the elastic-plastic properties of the skin.

Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the instrument Relax.

The instrument Relax for measuring the elastic properties of natural and synthetic materials by nondestructive method consists of mechanical the CSO unit load unloading of the sample 1, the electronic unit conversion signal 2, the system unit of the computer 3, the monitor 4, a keyboard 5, a printer 6.

Measurement accuracy: deformation - 2%, voltage - 3%. The range of stresses in the tension test: 0.2 to 2 MPa.

Tested parameters: the modulus of elasticity, modulus of viscoelasticity; time constants and viscosity coefficients of the fast and slow relaxation processes; the coefficient of plastic viscosity.

Original software includes the following programs:

- to obtain a data file separate trials;

for processing and receipt of results;

for statistical processing of multiple tests of the same sample with automatic compilation of Protocol summary table of indicators and spectrum. Is also determined by the accuracy of the approximation and error experience for each indicator. Dimensions - 275×180×70 mm unit Weight is not more than 3 kg

The device allows without destruction of the sample to investigate the deformation properties of leathers, furs, films, fabrics and other similar materials, as well as their packages by computer analysis of the relaxation process of the sample, to obtain with high precision complex to fifteen indicators of elastic, viscous and plastic properties and spectrum of relaxation times of the material on the basis of which sovershenstvovat the technology, to reliably certify the quality of the material [Burmistrov A.G., Kocherov AV Computer complex "RELAX" to assess the quality of materials // Leather-Shoe industry. - 1998. No. 1. -P.17-19].

To date, testing different materials to photoscontact on the device Relaxation was not conducted.

Figure 2 presents graphs of the variation of the moduli of elasticity of the prototype, the proposed method - B and module viscoelasticity ×10^{-1}In the proposed method, depending on the number of cycles of processing in a solution of artificial sweat.

Figure 3 presents graphs of the variation of the moduli of elasticity of the prototype, the proposed method - B and module viscoelasticity ×10^{-1}In the proposed method, depending on the number of cycles of processing in the water.

As is shown in figure 2 and figure 3 dependencies, changes in the elastic modulus of the samples of the skin under the action of water have larger absolute values than under the action of the artificial sweat. In this regard, the definition of potestati skin in the prototype, as the ratio of the elastic modulus of the sample under the action of sweat to the modulus of elasticity of the sample under the action of water, seems to be incorrect, since the calculated values of potestati in some cases exceed 100%.

Figure 2 and 3 shows that the modulus of elasticity and is Yakobashvili prototype change for 3 test cycles, and then remain almost constant, which allows to limit the processing time of the sample in a solution of artificial sweat three days.

Because changes in the structure of the dermis sample directly affect its elastic-plastic characteristics, more legitimate to evaluate photoscontact as the ratio of the modulus of elasticity or viscoelasticity defined after keeping the sample in a solution of artificial sweat, the modulus of elasticity or viscoelasticity the original sample.

Example 1. A sample of chrome-tanned leather for Shoe uppers size 10×10 cm is placed in a measuring device for the Relaxation and determine the modulus of elasticity E_{y1}. The same sample is placed in a vessel containing a solution of artificial sweat, with the expectation that it was completely covered with liquid. In the composition of the artificial sweat includes (150 ml): sodium chloride 3.0 g, ammonium carbonate, 0.1 g, centripetal - 0.03 g urea 3.6 g, lactic acid is 0.2, the Sample is incubated in the solution at room temperature for 3 days, after which it is removed, dried in natural conditions for 22 hours and re-determine the value of the modulus of elasticity E_{U2}installation Relax. Photoscontact percentage calculated by the formula

P=(E_{y2}:E_{y1}) 100

P is the iMER 2. A sample of the lining of leather from cattle hides, size 10×10 cm are treated in a solution of artificial sweat, as in example 1, but the drying of the sample is carried out for 23 hours. Photoscontact determined according to example 1.

Example 3. A sample of the lining of the skin from leather size 10×10 cm are treated in a solution of artificial sweat, as in example 1, but drying it is carried out within 24 hours. Photoscontact determined according to example 1.

Example 4. A sample of chrome-tanned leather for Shoe uppers size 10×10 cm is placed in a measuring device for the Relaxation and define the module viscoelasticity E_{E1}. The same sample is placed in a vessel containing a solution of artificial sweat, with the expectation that it was completely covered with liquid. In the composition of the artificial sweat includes (150 ml): sodium chloride 3.0 g, ammonium carbonate, 0.1 g, centripetal - 0.03 g urea 3.6 g, lactic acid is 0.2, the Sample is incubated in the solution at room temperature for 3 days, after which it is removed, dried in natural conditions for 22 hours and re-determine the value of the modulus of viscoelasticity E_{E2}installation Relax. Photoscontact percentage calculated by the formula

P=(E_{E2}:E_{E1})·100

Example 5. A sample of the lining of the skin of the earth with the total amount of cattle size 10× 10 cm are treated in a solution of artificial sweat, as in example 4, but the drying of the sample is carried out for 23 hours. Photoscontact determined according to example 4.

Example 6. A sample of the lining of the skin from leather size 10×10 cm are treated in a solution of artificial sweat, as in example 4, but drying it is carried out within 24 hours. Photoscontact determined according to example 4.

The test results of samples by the proposed method and the prototype presented in the table.

Analysis of the obtained data shows that the proposed method of determining potestati skin enables you to improve the accuracy of measuring 2.7-3 times, to reduce the duration of the method 3 times and the consumption of 5 times.

Table | |||||||

Indicators | Examples | ||||||

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | The placeholder | |

The modulus of elasticity E _{y1}, MPa | 30,0 | 56,9 | 56,6 | 30,6 (sweat) | |||

The modulus of elasticity E _{U2}, MPa | 21,1 | 38,4 | 46,6 | &x0200A; | 32,7 (water) | ||

Photoscontact, % P=(E_{U2}:E_{N1})·100 | 70,3 | 67,5 | 82,3 | 93,6 | |||

Module viscoelasticity E_{E1}, MPa | 160 | 275 | 274 | - | |||

Module viscoelasticity E_{E2}, MPa | 109 | 179 | 218 | - | |||

Photoscontact, % P=(E_{E2}:E_{E1})100 | 68,1 | 65,1 | 79,6 | 93,6 | |||

Error definition, % | 5,2 | 6,0 | 5,8 | 5,2 | 6,0 | 5,8 | 16,2 |

The duration of the preparatory process, d | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 12 |

The duration of the measurement modules of elasticity, min | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 60 |

The number of test specimen is in, PCs | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 4 |

The area of the sample, cm^{2} | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 500 |

How to determine potestati skin, which consists in the fact that the sample of the test material size 10×10 cm is placed in a measuring device for measuring the elastic-plastic properties of materials by nondestructive method to determine the modulus of elasticity E_{y1}or module viscoelasticity E_{E1}, after which the sample is incubated in a solution of artificial sweat at room temperature for 3 days, then dried in natural conditions for 22-24 h and a device for measuring the elastic-plastic properties of materials by nondestructive method to determine the modulus of elasticity E_{y2}or module viscoelasticity E_{E2}photoscontact skin P percentage calculated by the formula

P=(E_{y2}:E_{y1})·100 or (E_{E2}:E_{E1})·100,

where E_{y1}- the modulus of elasticity of the original sample, MPa;

E_{y2}- the modulus of elasticity of the sample after treatment in a solution of artificial sweat, MPa;

E_{E1}- module viscoelasticity the original sample, MPa;

E_{E2}- module viscoelasticity sample after treatment in a solution of artificial sweat MPa.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: the invention refers to the mode of manufacturing of technical rubber articles for vacuum systems namely of rubber with reduced humidity permeability resistant to fluoride elements and fluoric hydrogen applied in a gas centrifuge.

SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing and quality control of technical rubber articles for a gas centrifuge and a cascade of communications for gas centrifuges is in shaping of articles out of rubber mixture, vulcanization of technical rubber articles, drying and control. The drying is fulfilled in the conditions of high temperature vacuum at temperature of 0,6-1 from the maximum permissible temperature of exploitation and at pressure of no more then 0,08 mm of the mercury column (10 Pa) during 1-4 days for removal of volatile components of the mixture. The quality control is conducted in relation of a mass of products of gassing collected in a low temperature trap cooled by liquid nitrogen to the total mass of technical rubber articles.

EFFECT: the mode provides reduction of quantity of volatile admixtures removed from technical rubber articles in the process of exploitation of a gas centrifuge and provides quality control of the material of technical articles out of rubber.

5 cl

FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary conditioning of rubber specimens in paraffin hydrocarbon with 12-16 atoms of carbon in the atmosphere of neutral gas and in the fuel to be tested at a temperature of 130-150°C for 3-5 hours.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating threshold capabilities of the multi-layer polymeric material and determining maximum permeability of oil product and time period required for reaching the maximum permeability.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: light industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording response of the material to be tested that represents an amplitude-frequency characteristic, calculating deformation characteristics, and determining the value of distributed mass of the vibrating part of the material. The response representing two amplitude-frequency characteristics is recorded for the same part of the material to be tested for various masses of two bodies that cause deformation. The deformation characteristics are calculated from equations of vibration theory for viscoelastic bodies.

EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.

FIELD: weighing equipment; chemical mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring content of binder in reel-up composite material produced by preliminary soaked thread. Method is based upon weighing. The constant values are determined according to the method as length of thread for specific type of items and value of linear density averaged for any reel before and after soaking by binder and reeling it up onto frame. Weighing is performed for item before reeling it up with soaked thread and after reeling-up and final polymerization of composite material to determine mass of composite. Basing upon the data received, content of thread is determined which value is subsequently used for finding mass content of binder in composite from relation of C=(M-LxT/M)x100%, where C is content of binder in composite, in mass percent; M is mass of composite, g; L is length of thread consumed for item, km; T is average arithmetic meaning of values of linear density of thread and its rests at any reel before and after impregnation, g/km.

EFFECT: higher stability of performance measures.

1 ex

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing specimens of polymeric materials of specified mass, exposing the specimens to the hostile fluid at a given temperature, and determining informative characteristic from a formula proposed.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

2 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: technologies for researching durability properties of packing washer materials for collapsible oil pipelines.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining remaining resource of rubber compacting curves utilized in oil pipeline junctions, preparation of samples of given geometrical shape is performed, measurement of source hardness conditions for stretching, relative elongation during tearing, Shore hardness, temperature fragility limit, comparison of aforementioned values to given values, culling of washers, sample coefficients of which do not correspond to given values. Remaining samples are exposed to oil product after extraction from oil product samples are thermostatted, cooled down to normal room temperature, and then the same physical-mechanical coefficients are measured again with limit values. Before preparation of samples with given geometrical shape, washers are organized in batches of same manufacturing plant and production year, additionally measured are external d_{1} and internal d_{2} washer diameters for each batch, relative compression E_{cp} deformation of same washers. Their deviation from standard is calculated and culling of aforementioned washer batches is performed on basis of allowed values Δd_{1}, Δd_{2} and E_{cp}, while as allowed values Δd_{1}, Δd_{2} ≤ 3%; 25% ≤ E_{cp} ≤ 70%. After that remaining rings with least values of relative compression deformation E_{cp} are utilized to prepare geometrical samples of given geometrical shape. Remaining resource ΔT is determined from following formula: years, where k_{i} - coefficient, characterizing alteration of remaining resource ΔT dependently on climatic zone input of operation of rubber packing washers, is taken as i - climatic zones I_{1} - II_{12}, additional information, T - average lifetime of rubber packing washers until removal from operation in accordance to technological characteristics provided by manufacturing plant and/or operation instructions, in years, T_{n} - period of operation of rubber packing washers since production year - marking of manufacturing plant, until moment of determining ΔT, years, f_{pδ}=9,4 MPa - minimally allowed value of conditional hardness for stretching after thermostatting of sample, MPa.

EFFECT: reliable trustworthiness of results of estimation of remaining resource under dynamic conditions of rubber packing washers in oil pipeline junctions with simultaneous increase of ecological safety due to decreased risk of emergency spilling of oil products.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy farming.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining tightening of teat cup liner before it is inserted into teat cup; acting upon teat cup liner by suspending weight for determining tightening of teat cup liner; providing expansion by introducing internal gauge into teat cup liner which is positioned within teat cup casing. Method allows extent of teat cup liner tightening to be visually detected at any time of machine milking process. Tightening of teat cup liner manufactured integral with milk pipe as well as separately therefrom is determined during operation of milking units.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced milking time.

1 dwg

FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.

12 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.

EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.

EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.

EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.

12 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy farming.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining tightening of teat cup liner before it is inserted into teat cup; acting upon teat cup liner by suspending weight for determining tightening of teat cup liner; providing expansion by introducing internal gauge into teat cup liner which is positioned within teat cup casing. Method allows extent of teat cup liner tightening to be visually detected at any time of machine milking process. Tightening of teat cup liner manufactured integral with milk pipe as well as separately therefrom is determined during operation of milking units.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced milking time.

1 dwg

FIELD: technologies for researching durability properties of packing washer materials for collapsible oil pipelines.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining remaining resource of rubber compacting curves utilized in oil pipeline junctions, preparation of samples of given geometrical shape is performed, measurement of source hardness conditions for stretching, relative elongation during tearing, Shore hardness, temperature fragility limit, comparison of aforementioned values to given values, culling of washers, sample coefficients of which do not correspond to given values. Remaining samples are exposed to oil product after extraction from oil product samples are thermostatted, cooled down to normal room temperature, and then the same physical-mechanical coefficients are measured again with limit values. Before preparation of samples with given geometrical shape, washers are organized in batches of same manufacturing plant and production year, additionally measured are external d_{1} and internal d_{2} washer diameters for each batch, relative compression E_{cp} deformation of same washers. Their deviation from standard is calculated and culling of aforementioned washer batches is performed on basis of allowed values Δd_{1}, Δd_{2} and E_{cp}, while as allowed values Δd_{1}, Δd_{2} ≤ 3%; 25% ≤ E_{cp} ≤ 70%. After that remaining rings with least values of relative compression deformation E_{cp} are utilized to prepare geometrical samples of given geometrical shape. Remaining resource ΔT is determined from following formula: years, where k_{i} - coefficient, characterizing alteration of remaining resource ΔT dependently on climatic zone input of operation of rubber packing washers, is taken as i - climatic zones I_{1} - II_{12}, additional information, T - average lifetime of rubber packing washers until removal from operation in accordance to technological characteristics provided by manufacturing plant and/or operation instructions, in years, T_{n} - period of operation of rubber packing washers since production year - marking of manufacturing plant, until moment of determining ΔT, years, f_{pδ}=9,4 MPa - minimally allowed value of conditional hardness for stretching after thermostatting of sample, MPa.

EFFECT: reliable trustworthiness of results of estimation of remaining resource under dynamic conditions of rubber packing washers in oil pipeline junctions with simultaneous increase of ecological safety due to decreased risk of emergency spilling of oil products.

4 dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing specimens of polymeric materials of specified mass, exposing the specimens to the hostile fluid at a given temperature, and determining informative characteristic from a formula proposed.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

2 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: weighing equipment; chemical mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring content of binder in reel-up composite material produced by preliminary soaked thread. Method is based upon weighing. The constant values are determined according to the method as length of thread for specific type of items and value of linear density averaged for any reel before and after soaking by binder and reeling it up onto frame. Weighing is performed for item before reeling it up with soaked thread and after reeling-up and final polymerization of composite material to determine mass of composite. Basing upon the data received, content of thread is determined which value is subsequently used for finding mass content of binder in composite from relation of C=(M-LxT/M)x100%, where C is content of binder in composite, in mass percent; M is mass of composite, g; L is length of thread consumed for item, km; T is average arithmetic meaning of values of linear density of thread and its rests at any reel before and after impregnation, g/km.

EFFECT: higher stability of performance measures.

1 ex

FIELD: light industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording response of the material to be tested that represents an amplitude-frequency characteristic, calculating deformation characteristics, and determining the value of distributed mass of the vibrating part of the material. The response representing two amplitude-frequency characteristics is recorded for the same part of the material to be tested for various masses of two bodies that cause deformation. The deformation characteristics are calculated from equations of vibration theory for viscoelastic bodies.

EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.

FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating threshold capabilities of the multi-layer polymeric material and determining maximum permeability of oil product and time period required for reaching the maximum permeability.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary conditioning of rubber specimens in paraffin hydrocarbon with 12-16 atoms of carbon in the atmosphere of neutral gas and in the fuel to be tested at a temperature of 130-150°C for 3-5 hours.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex