Method to control vulcanisation

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method relates to production of rubber-containing products, namely, to methods designed to control vulcanisation. Proposed method consists in correcting vulcanisation time depending upon that required for producing maximum modulus of rubber mix shear in vulcanising the specimens at flow metre and departure of rubber extension modulus in finished products from preset magnitudes. This allows processing disturbing effects on vulcanisation in compliance with tuber mix production and vulcanisation.

EFFECT: higher stability of mechanical characteristics of rubber-containing products.

5 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the manufacture of rubber products, namely, to methods of management vulcanization process.

The production process of rubber products includes the stage of obtaining a rubber composition and vulcanizing. Vulcanization is one of the most important processes in the technology of rubber [1]. Vulcanization is performed by keeping the rubber in presses, special boilers or presses at a temperature of 130-160°C for a specified time. When this happens the connection macromolecules rubber cross-linked chemical bonds break in the spatial grid, resulting plastic rubber compound becomes highly elastic rubber [2]. The spatial grid is formed by heat activated chemical reactions between the molecules of rubber and vulcanizing components (vulcanizers, accelerators, activators) [2].

The main factors that influence the vulcanization process and the quality of finished products, are the nature of the vulcanizing medium, the temperature of vulcanization, the duration of vulcanization, pressure on the surface of the vulcanized product, the conditions of heating [3, str].

With existing technology, the mode of cure is usually developed in advance of the calculated and experimental the different methods and sets the program vulcanization process during the production process [4, page 195, 5, str]. For the punctual execution of the prescribed mode is the equipping process control and automation, as accurately implement the prescribed rigid holding mode vulcanization [4, str-7, 5, SCR-331]. The disadvantages of the method are the instability characteristics of the manufactured products due to the inability ensure reproducibility of the process, due to the accuracy limitations of automation and the possibility of bias modes [4, str, 5, SCR-331], as well as changes in the characteristics of rubber compounds over time.

The known method of vulcanization temperature control in steam-boilers, stoves, or shirts forms by changing the flow rate of fluids [4, str-212, RIS]. The disadvantages of this method are the large scatter of the characteristics of the products obtained as a result of displacement of the operating modes, and changes the reactivity of the rubber mixture.

A known method of controlling the vulcanization process through the continuous monitoring of the process parameters that determine its course: coolant temperature, the temperature of the surface of a vulcanized product [4, str]. The disadvantage of this method is the instability characteristics of the products obtained due to the instability of the reactivity, p is stepping on the rubber molding of the mixture, and obtaining various characteristics of the product during vulcanization in the same temperature conditions.

There is a method of correcting mode vulcanization, including the definition of controlled external temperature conditions for vulcanizing the surfaces of articles by computation of the temperature field in a vulcanized product, the definition of non-isothermal kinetics of vulcanization laboratory thin plates dynamic module harmonic shift found in non-isothermal conditions, the duration of the vulcanization process, in which an optimum set of essential properties of rubber, the determination of the temperature field for standard multilayer samples, simulating element of the tires on the composition and geometry, obtaining non-isothermal kinetics of vulcanization of laminated plates and determination of the equivalent time of vulcanization on the previously selected optimum properties, vulcanization multilayer samples on a laboratory press at a constant temperature in for the equivalent time of vulcanization and analysis of the obtained characteristics [4, str-192]. This method is essentially the exact used in industry methods of calculation of effects and equivalent time of vulcanization, but it is more bulky and does not take into account changing nestabil the STI reactivity entering the vulcanization of the rubber mixture.

There is a method of regulation of the vulcanization process in which the temperature is controlled by limiting the vulcanization process areas of the product, these data are calculated degree of vulcanization, while achieving equality given and calculated the degree of vulcanization of the vulcanization cycle stops [4, str]. The advantage of this system is the adjustment time of vulcanization when changing fluctuations of temperature vulcanization process. The disadvantage of this method is a large variation in characteristics of the products obtained due to the heterogeneity of the rubber mixture reactivity to vulcanization and deviations used in calculating the constants of the kinetics of vulcanization from the real constants of the kinetics of recycled rubber mixture.

A known method of controlling the vulcanization process, which consists in the calculation of the R-C grid temperature controlled in the shoulder area using boundary conditions based on the measurement of the surface temperature of the mold and the cavity of the diaphragm temperatures, the calculation of the equivalent time of vulcanization, determining the degree of vulcanization in a controlled area during the implementation of the equivalent time of vulcanization in a real process, the process stops. The disadvantages of the method are its complexity and wide dispersion characteristics obtained the products due to changes in reactivity to vulcanization (activation energy, preexponential factor constants of the kinetics of the rubber mixture.

Closest to the present invention is a method of controlling the vulcanization process, in which simultaneously the actual curing process on the boundary conditions on the basis of temperature measurements on the surface of the metal mold calculated temperature vulcanized products on a grid electromodel, the estimated value of the temperature displayed on vulcameter, which is in parallel with the main curing process is investigated kinetics of non-isothermal cure of a sample of the processed batch of rubber compound, while achieving a given level of vulcanization on vulcameter generated control commands to the unit vulcanization products [AC USSR №467835]. The disadvantages of the method are the greater complexity of the implementation process and the limited scope [5, str].

The objective of the invention is the improved stability characteristics of manufactured products.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the time of vulcanization of rubber products on the production line adjust depending on the time of receiving the maximum shear modulus of the rubber during vulcanization of images processed rubber compounds in laboratory conditions on the rheometer and rejection module is asthenia rubber manufactured products from the specified value.

The proposed solution is illustrated in figure 1-5.

Figure 1 shows a functional diagram of a control system that implements the proposed method of control.

Figure 2 shows the structural diagram of the control system that implements the proposed method of control.

Figure 3 shows the time series of the bursting tensile strength of the coupling Juba, produced by JSC "Balakovorezinotekhnika".

Figure 4 shows typical kinetic curves for the time shift of the images of the rubber mixture.

Figure 5 shows the time series of changes in the duration of the vulcanization of rubber compound samples up to 90-percent level achievable shear modulus of the vulcanizate.

In the block diagram of a system that implements the proposed method (see figure 1), presents the stage of preparation of rubber mixtures 1, stage vulcanization 2, rheometer 3 to study the kinetics of vulcanization of the rubber compound samples, instrument dynamic mechanical analysis 4 [6, 7] (or breaking machine) to determine the module stretching rubber finished products or samples satellites, the control device 5.

The control method is implemented as follows. Samples from a batch of rubber compound is analyzed on the rheometer and time values of vulcanization at which point shift rubber has a maximum value, proceed to have rawsome device 5. When changing the reactivity of the rubber mixture control device adjusts the time of vulcanization products. Thus, the areas of disturbance on the characteristics of the original components that affect the reactivity of the resulting rubber mixture. The modulus in tension of the rubber in the finished product is measured by dynamic mechanical analysis, or on a tensile testing machine and is also supplied to the control unit. The inaccuracy of the received adjustments, and changes of temperature, heat exchange conditions and other disturbing influences on the vulcanization process practiced by adjusting the time of vulcanization, depending on the deflection module stretching rubber manufactured products from the specified value.

Block diagram of the control system that implements this method of control and presents no 2, includes a control device channel direct control 6, the controller of the feedback channel 7, the object of controlling the vulcanization process 8, the link of the transport lag 9 to account for the length of time characterization rubber finished products, the comparison element of the feedback channel 10, an adder 11 to summarize the adjustments to the time of vulcanization under a direct control channel and the channel of the military communications the adder 12 to account for the effects of uncontrolled disturbing effects on the curing process.

When you change the reactivity of the rubber modified assessment τmaxand control device for the direct channel control unit 1 corrects the time of vulcanization on the technological process on the value of Δτ1.

On the real process of vulcanization conditions differ from the conditions in the rheometer, so vulcanization time required for obtaining the maximum value of the torque on the real process also differs from the one received on the device, and this difference varies in time due to the instability conditions of vulcanization. Testing of these perturbations f is the feedback channel by introducing amendments Δτ2control device 7 of the feedback loop depending on the deflection module rubber manufactured products from the given values of Eass.

Link transportation lag 9 when analyzing the dynamics of the system takes into account the influence of time required for analysis of the characteristics of rubber finished products.

Exceeding the recommended system time of vulcanization τbulksome given value τbulk maxit provides information about the violation of the process of preparing a rubber mixture, the need analysis and q is ctyroky.

Figure 3 shows the time series of conditional disruptive force coupling Juba, produced by JSC "Balakovorezinotekhnika". Data show the presence of a large range of products for this indicator. Time series can be represented as the sum of three components: low frequency x1, mid x2, high frequency x3. The presence of the low-frequency component speaks to the lack of effectiveness of the existing process control system and the possibility of building an effective management system for feedback to reduce variation in the finished product characteristics.

Figure 4 shows typical experimental kinetic curves torque shift when vulcanization images rubber mixture obtained in the rheometer MDR2000 "Alfa Technologies". Data show heterogeneity rubber compound on the reactivity of the curing process. The variation in time of the output at the maximum torque is 6.5 min (curves 1,2) up to 12 min (curves 3,4). The variation in completion of the vulcanization process is not reached the maximum value of the torque (curves 3,4) to process prevalently (curves 1,5).

Figure 5 shows the time series of the time to cure up to 90 percent of maximum moment, shear, polucen the th in the study of vulcanization images rubber compound on the rheometer MDR2000 "Alfa Technologies". The data show the presence of low-frequency changes in time of vulcanization to obtain a maximum time shift of the vulcanizate.

The large scatter of the mechanical characteristics of the coupling Juba (figure 3) speaks of the urgency of the task of increasing the stability of the characteristics of rubber products to increase their operational reliability and competitiveness. The presence of instability of the reactivity of the rubber to vulcanization process (figure 4,5) speaks of the need to change the time in the vulcanization process of the products from this rubber mixture. The presence of low-frequency components in the time series of conditional disruptive force of finished products (figure 3) and time of vulcanization to obtain a maximum time shift of the vulcanizate (figure 5) suggests the possibility of improvement of quality indicators of the finished product by adjusting the time of vulcanization.

Reviewed confirms the presence of the proposed technical solution:

- technical result, i.e. the proposed solution is aimed at improving the stability of the mechanical characteristics of rubber products, reducing the number of defective products and accordingly to reduce the consumption norms of the source components and power;

- essential features, make the s to adjust the duration of the vulcanization process, depending on the reactivity of the rubber to vulcanization process and depending on the deflection module rubber in tension in the finished products from the set value;

- feasibility, due to the presence of low-frequency components in the time series of bursting strength of commercially available coupling Juba and time of vulcanization to the maximum shear modulus of recycled vulcanizate of the rubber, as well as the results of mathematical modeling of the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

Bibliography

1. Vulcanization of elastomers. Edited Galliera, Isleton. M.: Chemistry, 1967, - 428 S.

2. Koshelev FF, A. Korneev, Klimov NS General technology of rubber. M.: Chemistry, 1968, at 560 C.

3. Belozerov NV Technology of rubber. M.: Chemistry, 1964, - 660 S.

4. The lukomlsky A.I. Calculations and the prediction modes of the vulcanization of rubber articles / Aiyaa, Pradenas, Lmira. - M.: Nauka, - 1995, - 351 S.

5. The lukomlsky A.I., Badenkov PF, Capere PM fundamentals of Heat vulcanization of rubber mixtures. - M.: Chemistry - 1972, - 359 S.

6. Dynamic mechanical analysis sets new standards. The prospectus of the company METTLER TOLEDO. 2002 representative Office in the CIS. By Mettler-Toledo East. Moscow. (495) 021-92-11.

7. Popkov V.I., Bezyazychnaya CENTURIES, Kislov T.B. and other complex Dimension of the moduli of elasticity and loss coefficients vibration-absorbing polymeric materials in a wide range of frequencies. // Technical acoustics. 1999 .V. VIP (15-16). P.42.

The method of controlling the vulcanization process of rubber products by controlling the time of vulcanization, characterized in that the time of vulcanization of rubber products adjust depending on the time of receiving the maximum shear modulus of the rubber when the rubber samples processed rubber compounds in laboratory conditions on the rheometer and rejection module stretching rubber manufactured products from the setpoint.



 

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30 cl, 4 tbl, 23 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, polymers, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to new high-molecular cross-linked polyvinyl butyrals, to a method for their synthesis and to their applying also. Invention describes high-molecular cross-linked polyvinyl butyrals prepared by cross-linking polyvinyl butyral with diethyl- and/or dimethyl oxalate. Method for preparing indicated polyvinyl butyrals involves addition of a cross-linking agent and, if necessary, a plasticizing agent to the parent polyvinyl butyral, homogenization of the mixture and thermal cross-linking at temperature from 80°C to 280°C. Polyvinyl butyrals prepared by such method are components of films useful for manufacturing the triplex. Films made by using such polyvinyl butyrals show the rupture strength value at the level 29 N/mm2 and glasses made of such films show stability against the impact in F- and Sn-directions as 8 and 4, respectively.

EFFECT: improved preparing method, improved and valuable properties of films.

9 cl, 2 dwg, 13 ex

FIELD: polymer materials.

SUBSTANCE: composition comprises polyolefin A, containing anhydride function and having viscosity at least 20 g/10 min measured at 190°C and loading 2,16 kg, and epoxy function-containing product B destined for cross-linking polyolefin A. Relative proportions of A and B are such that for each epoxy function there are from 0.1 to 1.5 anhydride functions. Composition can be used in slush molding process, in thermal molding of sheets, or in on-rod casting process.

EFFECT: increased flowability resistance and wear resistance.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

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