Personalised grown gem diamond
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to artificail gem diamonds identifiable with a certain person or animal. A personalised gem diamond is grown from a charge that includes carbon being a product of carbonisation of the material provided by the customer, powder of spectroscopically pure graphite and a marker for which at least two elements are used that are selected from a lanthanide group and taken in a arbitrarily prescribed ratio to the extent between 0.01 to 10 mcg /g.
EFFECT: improved authenticity of identification of a personalised diamond.
1 ex, 3 dwg
The invention relates to artificial diamond jewelry, which can be correlated (identified with a particular person or animal.
Known precious stone, especially a diamond containing internal channels, made using laser drilling, filled with substrates, formed from the remains of the cremation of human or animal [WO 2004/076058, 2004]. These substrates obtained by mixing the ashes of animal origin with lead oxide, chloride and bromide of sodium, have a glassy structure and a refractive index close to the refractive index of diamond. The resulting diamond is visually indistinguishable from the whole.
However, after fabrication of the diamond, personified as shown in WO 2004/076058, it is impossible to verify and confirm the connection of a diamond with a particular person or animal.
Known locally grown diamond containing carbon, derived from a human or animal. To identify on the verge received a diamond laser put individual numbers assigned to the remains of animal origin [US 2003017932, 2003]. For the synthesis of diamond by US 2003017932 remains of a human or animal kramarow at a temperature of 1000-1800°F, the resulting carbon purified and used for growing diamond.
However, the use of the remains of a deceased person in the image quality is as a source of carbon is not always acceptable from an ethical side; cremation in the conditions necessary for the extraction of carbon and non-conventional technologies, it is not always possible.
The closest to the essential features of the claimed is grown personalized diamond jewelry, including carbon, a product of the carbonization of hair, and tokens representing a set of metals, usually contained in the hair [RU 2282584, 2006, bull. No. 24]. These metals strontium, cadmium, tin, barium, lead and bismuth are part of the hair and are stored in the product of carbonization. Each individual characteristic of a certain content of these metals. It can be defined in the hair, which is the starting material for producing personalized diamond, the product of its carbonation and in the grown diamond. Thus, the personification of the diamond in EN 2282584 can be controlled both at the stage of its manufacture, and the finished product.
However, it is known that the coefficient of capture various impurities surface of a growing crystal is significantly different from one another and depends on the quality of the material used and on the conditions of crystallization.
Accordingly, the occurrence of these metals in the crystal diamond may not be proportional to their content in the initial product of the carbonization of the hair, i.e. the ratio of their concentration is in the initial charge, include the product of carbonization hair, and grown from her diamond might not be preserved. As mentioned above, the metals contained in the hair of each individual, the identification of the grown diamond on this marker becomes difficult.
Technical result achieved in the present invention is to improve the accuracy of the identification of personalized diamond.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that personalized jewelry diamond grown from a mixture comprising carbon, a product of the carbonization of the material provided by the customer, powder spectral pure graphite and marker, as a token contains at least two elements selected from the group of lanthanides, introduced in the grown diamond arbitrarily set the ratio in the amount of from 0.01 to 10 mcg/g
The group of lanthanides has 15 elements having from 1 to 7 isotopes, with atomic weight of 138 (lanthanum) to 176 (lutetium). Except promethium, they are not radioactive. Physico-chemical properties of lanthanides are similar, and these items are available as individual substances and compounds.
As a token of personalized diamond can be taken any combination of pairs of the lanthanides, for example a pair of erbium (Er) and dysprosium (Dy), dysprosium and holmium (Ho), holmium is ytterbium (Yb), etc. you can also use combinations of the three lanthanides, such as Gd, Dy, and But four, five, etc.
These markers can be introduced into the mixture for the growth of synthetic diamonds in any predetermined ratio of nitric acid solutions of salts of these elements.
As the source material provided by the customer can be found in hair, nail human hair or claws of an animal, part of the other tissues (e.g., umbilical cord), the ashes after the cremation of human or animal and the like.
Carbonation hair (or other parts) of a person or animal is carried out by thermolysis in the absence of oxygen at a temperature of 400-600°C, followed by overheating up to 700-800°C. the Product of carbonization contains up to 99% of carbon.
Diamond jewelry has grown in the growth cell of the high-pressure apparatus as described in the book Chepurov A.I., Fedorov A.I., V.M. Sanin, "Experimental modeling of processes of alasoorituse", Novosibirsk, 1997, pp.8-20. Spent growing single-crystal diamond jewelry purity up to 3 carats.
Organic material provided by the customer, in the form of strands of hair weighing about 1 g was carbonizable by thermolysis when raising the temperature of 400-600°C in the absence of oxygen. The product of thermolysis overheat (progulivali) in the absence of oxygen to 750°C. From the product of the carbonization, containing 98-99% of carbon, took about 5 mg, was mixed with powder of spectral pure graphite in a ratio of 1:40. The mixture of powders was Ngapali 0.01 ml of a mixture of nitric acid solutions introduced lanthanides markers. The resulting suspension was dried under an infrared lamp to dryness at a temperature of 80±1°C.
The dried mixture of graphite powder with the product of carbonization and put lanthanide-markers were placed in cell growth and has grown diamond single crystal from the melt by way of recrystallization on the seed as described in the monograph Aigebra and other
Got jewelry faux diamond weighing approximately one carat (0.2 g).
Content markers in diamond were determined by mass spectrometry with laser sampling. The determination results are presented in the table and on the spectra (Fig.1-3).
|The number of typed markers and their contents in artificial diamonds|
|Experience||Markers||Eg||Gd||Dy||But||Er||Yb||Lu||1 counter.||Introduced in SE*.%||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|2||Introduced in the SE.%||-||-||-||-||0,05||0,05||-|
|Found, µg/g||<0,002||<0,001||<0,001||<0,001||of 5.4||5,2||<0,001|
|3||Introduced in DPP,%||-||0,005%||0,01%||0,01%||-||0,005%||0,01%|
|* GP - graphite powder mixed with carbonization organic material.|
As can be seen from the table, in the case where the markers are not added (control experiment 1), the diamond contains a background (natural) number of lanthanide (not over 0.002 µg/g). With the introduction of markers (experiments 2 and 3) their content in diamond is determined by the spectral; it is at least two orders of magnitude higher than background.
Figure 1-3 shows the spectra of artificial diamonds that do not contain markers (figure 1), and two diamonds obtained in experiment 2 (figure 2) and in experiment 3 (figure 3).
Mass spectrometric identification of the requested diamond possible at any moment of its existence. In addition, to obtain the inventive diamond any suitable material provided by the customer.
Personalized diamond jewelry, grown from a mixture comprising carbon, a product of the carbonization of the material provided by the customer, powder spectral pure graphite and marker, ex is different, however, as a token it contains at least two elements selected from the group of lanthanides, taken arbitrarily set the ratio in the amount of from 0.01 to 10 μg/year
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to the method and system for laser marking precious stones and, particularly to the method and system for engraving authentication codes. In the system for laser marking precious stones such as diamonds, marks consist of several microscopic dots, increase of which can be initiated upon effect on natural internal defects or impurities inside the precious stone of a strictly focused laser pulse sequence. The marks are inscribed by laser pulses, carrying significantly less energy than threshold energy required for inscription inside ideal material of precious stone. The method of laser marking and encryption takes into account random spatial distribution of defects, present in natural precious stones, as well as their much localised character. Authentication data are encrypted in the precious stone in the relative spatial arrangement of dots which form a mark. Dots, engraved under the surface of the precious stone, can be made undetectable to the naked eye and a magnifier through limiting their individual size to several micrometres. The mark can be detected using a special optical reading device.
EFFECT: laser inscription of permanent point marks inside precious stones.
40 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: laser machine for analysis, grading and marking-out of untreated diamond.
SUBSTANCE: the machine has a laser scanning device, three-dimensional scanning system, matrix, masking device, electronic unit and a computer program for analysis of the diamond weight and characteristics of the brilliant or brilliants that can be obtained from an untreated diamond.
EFFECT: saved material and time, and enhanced capacity.
30 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: visual scope of mark onto face of precious stone.
SUBSTANCE: device for observing information mark on face 7 of precious stone 6 is made in form of casing 1 for jewelry. Casing 1 for jewelry has substrate 2 to keep ring 5 with precious stone 6 on top of it and rotating cap 3. Rotating cap 3 has opening 15 in its top part; opening has 10x lens 16, that's why when cap 3 is open and turned by 30° angle, face of 7 of precious stone can be seen through lens 18. Moreover precious stone is illuminated by light that enters casing through slot formed when cap is opened. Light falls onto face slantwise and is regularly reflected through lens 16. Scope can be used for internal and external observation.
EFFECT: simplicity at use; improved comfort.
38 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: to determine if green-blue was subject ct to artificial irradiation or to ion bombardment, it is irradiated with light at wavelength of 633 nm for stimulation of luminescence emission, and luminescence is detected within range of 680 to 800 nm by using confocal microscope and spectrometer. Focal plane is canned in vertical along diamond. Quick reduction in luminescence accompanied with increase in depth points at natural illumination while even quicker reduction points at ion bombardment. Alternatively, to determine if diamond has to be natural/synthetic doublet, diamond is subject to irradiation at wavelength of 325 nm to stimulate emission of luminescence and luminescence is detected within 330-450 nm range. Sharp change in luminescence at increase of depth points at the fact that the diamond has to be natural/synthetic doublet.
EFFECT: ability of automatic precise evaluation.
44 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: registration of absorption spectra of small luminescent specimens.
SUBSTANCE: the absorption spectrum of small luminescent specimens is determined according to relation of intensities of light fluxes that have passed and not passed through the specimen, the luminescence of the standard specimen is used as the specimen through which the radiation flux has not passed, and the luminescence of the examined is used as the specimen through which the radiation flux has passed, and the absorption spectrum of the examined specimen is calculated according to the respective mathematical formula.
EFFECT: expanded functional potentialities due to the increase of the range of specimens suitable for measurements without special preparation of them.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises housing provided with solid body laser connected with the window in the heat insulating tank filled with liquid nitrogen and provided with the precious stone, semiconductor laser connected with the window, two spectrometers for detecting luminescence in the range of 550-10000 nm, and processor for processing signals from the spectrometers.
EFFECT: reduced sizes and simplified method of testing.
47 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: technology for processing diamonds into brilliants.
SUBSTANCE: in the method, by experimental or calculation-theoretic way in glow images visible to observer optical characteristics of diamond glow are determined, including glow intensiveness, glow glimmer and color saturation of glow, characterized by level of decomposition of white color on rainbow colors, and also relief coefficient of glow, characterized by average number of intensive color spots in glow image, distinctive to human eye, and additionally, by dividing glow image on compound portions, average values of glow intensiveness of compound portions are measured. Optical characteristics of glow are transformed to glow factors. As average coefficient of brilliant glow charm, which is used to estimate brilliant glow charm, charm coefficient is used, calculated as average value of factors of intensiveness, glimmering, color saturation and glow image geometry.
EFFECT: possible objective measurement and numeric estimation of brilliants glow charm, and possible certification of them on basis of glow charm.
5 cl, 22 dwg, 11 tbl
FIELD: testing of precious stones.
SUBSTANCE: diamond is fixed onto holder and tested under specified angle for getting image. Then second measurement is made for getting two sets of data calculated by means of computer. The second set of data can be received by means of measurement of depth or due to changing direction of viewing.
EFFECT: improved precision of localization.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes stagewise diamonds treatment in autoclave at increased temperature and pressure under the action of microwave radiation: in the first stage -with mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, in the second stage- with mixture of concentrated nitric, chlorhydric and hydrofluoric acids. The treatment in both stages is carried out in acids gas phase at autoclave filling 45-55%, in the first stage the volume ratio nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide is 4:1 respectively, the treatment is carried out at temperature 215-250°C during 15-60 min. In the second stage the volume ratio nitric acid/chlorhydric acid/hydrofluoric acid is 5:4:1 respectively; the treatment is carried out at the same temperature during 15-150 min. In the third stage the mixture is treated with 5% solution of chlorhydric acid/ during 5-15 min and temperature not more than 160°C.
EFFECT: efficiency enhancing of diamonds purification process along with increase of the used equipment productivity and decrease of reagents consumption.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to chemical engineering, and to high-pressure technology of making diamonds, particularly for growing large crystals, the process of which is long. The high-pressure apparatus has a multiple-punch unit, which is enclosed in a sealed elastic casing 6. In the first version the multiple-punch unit is fitted on a sealed hollow platform 1, which has at least two sealed cavities 10, at least one of which is linked through a valve with the external environment for filling with water when submerged. In the second cavity there is a motor 11, with a pump for pumping water from the first sealed cavity when raising the apparatus. In the second version the sealed cavities can be made in the sealed hollow platform and in one of the punches. In the third version the sealed cavities can be made in at least two punches of the multiple-punch unit.
EFFECT: no use of load-carrying structures and compressors in the apparatus due to the possibility of using natural water column pressure, created by the Earth gravitational field.
15 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: chemistry, technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention allows to obtain memorial diamond from pale-yellow to light-blue tint depending on content of admixture in it, which is identified with exact person and is an object, which reminds of him/her. Method includes processing of biological material belonging to exact individual, and growing on its basis artificial diamond by acting on it with high pressures and temperatures. Processing is performed by mechanical grinding, preliminary drying, chemical processing in hydrochloric acid, chemical processing with complex-former Trilon-B, chemical processing with mixture of mineral acids - hydrofluoric and nitric or sulfuric acids, repeated washing after each chemical processing with said reagents to neutral reaction, filtration and drying until pure highly-dispersive carbon of biological origin is obtained.
EFFECT: obtaining carbon of high purity with characteristic microelements for exact individual.
6 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention claims diamond tool manufactured with monocrystallic diamond, synthesised under high pressure by temperature gradient method, so that the claimed diamond crystal contains not more than 3 parts per million of nitrogen. The tool features a blade with its edge oriented in plane (110), so that Knoop scale hardness at the plane (100) in direction <110> is higher than in direction <100>. Such synthetic monocrystallic diamond is synthesised by temperature gradient method under superhigh pressure and high temperature, and its crystals contain nickel atoms introduced by atomic substitution or boron and nickel atoms introduced by atomic substitution.
EFFECT: obtaining cheap synthetic monocrystallic diamonds with reduced flaw number.
24 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl, 7 dwg
FIELD: technological process.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the technology of obtaining plates made from monocrystalline diamond, grown using a chemical vapour deposition method (CVDM) on a substrate. The grown diamond is divided across the surface of the substrate and the plate is obtained. Its main surfaces are located across the surface of the substrate.
EFFECT: obtaining plates with large area, which do not have natural defects.
41 cl, 4 ex, 6 dwg
FIELD: technological process.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the technology of obtaining monocrystalline diamond material and can be used in optics for making optical and laser windows, optical reflectors and refractors, diffraction grating and calibration devices. The diamond material is obtained using chemical vapour deposition method (CVDM) in the presence of a controlled nitrogen level, which allows for controlling development of crystal defects and therefore obtain diamond material with basic characteristics, necessary for use in optics.
EFFECT: material with basic characteristics, necessary for use in optics.
75 cl, 8 tbl, 15 ex, 9 dwg
FIELD: technological process.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of coloured diamonds preparation, which are used, for instance, in decorative purposes. Method of coloured single crystal diamond transformation into different colour includes stages, at which coloured single crystal diamond is prepared by method of chemical depositing from steam phase (CDSP) and prepared diamond is thermally treated at temperature from 1200 to 2500°C and pressure that stabilises diamond, or in inert or stabilising atmosphere. Prepared single crystal may be shaped as thick layer or fragment of layer, which is cut as precious stone.
EFFECT: allows to prepare diamonds with wide range of colour gamma.
61 cl, 8 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: process of hard monocrystalline diamond preparation compises fixing of inoculating diamond in the holder and its growing by the way of chemical deposition from gaseous phase induced by microwave plasma. The process is implemented at temperature ca 1000°C - 1100°C in medium N2/CH4=0.2-5.0 and CH4/H2=12-20% at total pressure 120-220 torr. Derived monocrystalline diamond has the hardness in the range 50-90GPa and fracture strength 11-20MPa m1/2.
EFFECT: increasing of diamond hardness.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: monocrystalline diamond grown via chemical precipitation from gas phase induced by microwave plasma is subjected to annealing at pressures above 4.0 GPa and heating to temperature above 1500°C. Thus obtained diamonds exhibit hardness higher than 120 GPa and crack growth resistance 6-10 Mpa n1/2.
EFFECT: increased hardness of diamond product.
12 cl, 3 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: crystal growth.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises separating the inoculation from the source of carbon by a metal-dissolver made of an alloy of ferrous, aluminum, and carbon when a 20-30°C temperature gradient is produced between the carbon source and inoculation. The growth zone is heated up to a temperature higher than the melting temperature of the alloy by 10-20°C, and the melt is allowed to stand at this temperature for 20 hours. The temperature then suddenly increases above the initial temperature by 10-25°C and decreases down to the initial value with a rate of 0.2-3 degree per minute.
EFFECT: improved quality of crystal.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modification of properties of superhard materials and can be used in synthesis highly pure ultradisperse diamonds. Detonation carbon is processed in supercritical water or in supercritical water with addition of hydrogen peroxide.
EFFECT: modification of surface of nanoparticles of condensed carbon phase containing ultradisperse diamonds, removal and decomposition of non-diamond carbon structures, environmentally safe non-waste technology.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex