A system for laser marking and method of establishing the authenticity of the marking
The invention relates to the field of reception of inscriptions on gems. A laser system for performing mikroneesia includes a laser crystal Nd:YLF q-switched and Converter harmonics, generating output radiation with a wavelength of approximately 530 nm, the optical system comprising a focusing lens, a holder for mounting a gemstone, movable along three axes to move the workpiece relative to the optical system to place the laser energy on the necessary parts, the system of forming an image for observation gemstone from many observation points. The system includes upper CCD camera and side CCD camera, a processor that controls the position of the holder on the basis of commands marking and the specified program, and system for storing information related to images of many of the blanks. A rigid frame supports the laser, optical system and a holder for increasing the stability to misalignments caused by vibration. The authenticity of the marking set marking the workpiece with ablative picture, save the picture and then reproduced on the certificate samisen is Vania and subsequent authentication of the workpiece, it will also prevent inadvertent or unwanted duplicate marking. The system is universal. 4 C. and 92 C.p. f-crystals, 1 tab., 21 Il. The present invention relates to the field of reception of inscriptions in the form of marks on the surface of precious stones, and more specifically to a system that uses a pulsed laser with a q-switched for forming the marks on the plot of the precious stone.The known system described in U.S. patent 4392476 designed to produce inscriptions on diamonds, contains the laser crystal of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) with neodymium (1.06 µm, with a doubling of the frequency) q-switched, which allows you to mark diamonds by graphitization of the surface in the focal point of the laser. The beam position is controlled using the computer to create zones that are processed in the overlap. Precision machining in the known solutions the implementation of this system is limited by the vibration and accuracy of the control system of the laser radiation.In U.S. patent 4467172 described system to perform inscriptions on diamonds with a laser beam, which uses the laser crystal YAG (1.06 µm, with a doubling of the frequency) with mod is rnym running for applying labels consisting of alphanumeric characters. (See the U.S. patents 2351932, 3407364, 3527198, 3622739, 3775586 and 4048515 and the Japan patent 00-48489 and 00-77989).In U.S. patent 5410125 and 5149938 described system to effect marking of precious stones with the use of excimer laser (193 nm) with masking image labeling. In this case, does not require re-positioning for receipt of completed characters or graphic images. Diamond selectively absorbs radiation of an excimer laser and subjected to partial allotropical transformation without violating the structure of its crystal lattice. (See the U.S. patents 3527198 and 4401876). U.S. patent 5410125 based on the application submitted in partial continuation application 595861, which granted patent 5149938.Questions engravable in the form of serial numbers or markings also discussed in Gemstone News, 11/2/95, "Serial Numbers are Laser Inscribed and Jeweler's Keystone-Circular, June 1996, pp. 76.U.S. patent 3537198 relates to a method for processing diamonds with the use of laser energy. U.S. patent 5190024 relates to a method of cutting diamonds. The laser can be used for marking and cutting in one operation. (See the U.S. patents 671830, 671831, 694215, 732118, 732119, 3527198 and 4392476 and pateman, using high energy, high repetition rate pulses, fashion inferior laser beam. (See the U.S. patents 3440388, 3527198 and 3700850 and patents BE 877326, DE 130138, DE 133023, GB 1057127, GB 1059249, GB 1094367, GB 1254120, GB 1265241, GB 1292981, GB 1324903, GB 1326775, GB 137 7131, GB 1405487, GB 1446806, GB 2052369, and the following sources: the Laser Institute of America, "Guide for Material Processing by Lasers 1978; "Industrial Diamond Review, Mar. 1980, pp. 90-91; "Laser Application Notes", 1(1) Feb. 1979; "New Hyperyag" and "Diamonds", N. A. G. Press LTD, Chapter 11, pp. 235, 239-242.U.S. patent 4799786 relates to a method of identification of diamond and provides a way to identify diamonds, in which the sample is intended to identify, is placed in a beam of monochromatic laser radiation with a given wavelength. Scattered Raman radiation emerging from the sample passes through the filter is arranged to pass only the scattered Raman radiation with a frequency characteristic of a diamond. Radiation that has passed through the filter, and then is detected by the human eye or the device type of the photodetector. (See the U.S. patents 4397556 and 4693377, patents great Britain 2140555 and Melles Griot, Optics Guid 3, 1985, pp. 1, 333, 350, 351; Solin et al., Physical Review B, 1(4): 1687-1698, Feb. 15, 1970).U.S. patent 4875771 relates to a method for assessing the quality of a diamond based na known and previously evaluated the qualitative characteristics of, for example, using subjective well-known procedures. Diamonds with unknown quality characteristics then place in the spectrometer and irradiated by laser radiation. The intensity of the scattered Raman signal that comes out of the diamond, is monitored for one or more orientations of the diamond, with the resulting signal represents the characteristic of a diamond and testifies to the quality of the diamond. (See the U.S. patents 3414354, 3989379, 4259011, 4394580, 4397556 and 4620284, patents FR 643142, FR 2496888, JP 01-58544, GB 1384813, GB 1416568, GB 2010474, GB 0041348 and GB 2140555 and A. S. Solin and K. A. Ramdas, Raman Spectrum of Diamond, Physical Review, vol. 1(4), pp.1687-1698.The above-mentioned documents describe in detail the components, methods and systems that can be used in the design and operation of the present invention.The present invention relates to a system having a pulsed laser, such as laser crystal Nd:YLF q-switched and pumped by laser diodes, which allows you to get a number of ablative or graphitized spots on the surface of the workpiece, such as a precious stone type diamond. To perform focusing and beam positioning a workpiece mounted on a floating platformer the computer can also be used to control processing and image acquisition, as well as for other functions.In the process according to the present invention, generally achieves a positioning accuracy of approximately1 micron. The laser and move the platform on which set the workpiece, compact and preferably rigidly mounted on a common platform, which provides sufficient protection against vibration common types of vibrations, so you can use the standard damping vibration instead of abnormal damping. So mostly use simple small holders with passive vibration isolation platform or chassis, instead of systems which require the use of active vibration suppression, as in known systems.Optical feedback process can be performed using one or more cameras, for example, two imaging devices on the CCD placed at right angles, and their field of view includes the focal point of the laser. Thus, a correct positioning of the precious stone can be guaranteed by proper adjustment of the imaging devices relative to the workpiece. One imaging unit is directed to robocuprescue feedback through the imagers can also be used for process control markings, therefore, it can be used to configure the positioning of the workpiece, the speed of the inscription, as well as the number, intensity and/or pulse repetition rate in a given location, and to verify the marking process. One imaging unit is guided to the top view of the workpiece, for example, perpendicular to the surface face of the diamond, providing the identification of the profile of the Equatorial plane, while the second imaging unit is focused on the observation side of the workpiece, such as a profile, thus providing a direct observation of the Equatorial plane of the gemstone. Thus, the second imaging unit can be used to monitor the process of marking in real time.Optical feedback also allows the operator to design the label, place the label on the workpiece, to check the marking process and to archive or save an image of the workpiece and made markings.The actual marking can be invariant inscription, the inscription that runs fully automatically, for example the serial number, the words performed semi-automatically, for example with neesmu implementation inscription for a gemstone is determined in conjunction with a bar code, which accompanies the package of precious stone or pre-printed sheet. For the operator is provided a device for reading a barcode, which allows you to type the barcode into the computer without having to reprint the data and with a lower probability of error. Thus, the label can include constant part, such as a logo or trademark, in part the variable part, such as a rating or grading of a gemstone, and a highly variable part, for example the serial number. In this case, for example, a logo or trademark is programmed in advance and the corresponding label is applied to each workpiece in the series. The rating or grading of a gemstone can be scanned as a barcode printed on the sheet, which refers to the respective precious stone, for example, on the label or the label. The serial number can be determined automatically, for example, be printed on the label or a label; it can be used as a unique identifier of the stone. Melee characters should not necessarily be limited to alphanumeric characters and is agenia.The workpiece can be linked to the data stored on the medium physically associated with the workpiece or on a remote media available through the identification of the workpiece. For example, the respective associated memory may be a nonvolatile memory, such as memory, random access and emergency battery powered, electrically erasable non-volatile memory, ferroelectric memory, or other storage medium, such as magnetic strips, rotating magnetic media, optical storage devices, and printed material.A personalized inscription can be performed on the workpiece in the form of custom labels or semi-custom labels, and it may be in the form of computer text, graphics or computer scanned image. The marking system can be used for marking parts of a gemstone other than Equatorial plane, for example, faces. Therefore, in the case of such nominal inscriptions, may seek to perform a visually observable labels, increasing the expressiveness of the object represented by the workpiece, rather than providing invisible microscopic markings associated with identifitsiruemosti each of the blanks with the words. This can be done through a unique marking on the stone or the unique combination of marking and easily identifiable characteristics of the workpiece, such as weight, shape, type, etc., In one of the embodiments themselves markings form a code, such as alphanumeric or barcode that can be read electronically or by automated means or to be installed as a result of inspection of the workpiece.The image of the workpiece with the marking can be formed or printed on the certificate accompanying the workpiece and providing the ability to verify compliance with the procurement of the certificate as a result of analysis of the image when compared with the actual workpiece. Image mainly includes all or part of the labeling, as well as the identifiable characteristics of the workpiece, such as the contour of the Equatorial plane, marks, corners, faces, etc. Thus, the image includes, for example, labelling and environmental Equatorial plane, can be used as identification of the working piece on "fingerprint". The image on the certificate may be formed by photographic or electronic means.Thus, the CCD or marking systems and it can be formed on a separate stage.Mainly, the image is completed marking or bitmap program labels stored in the database and therefore available for comparison and subsequent authentication of the workpiece, and also to prevent inadvertent or unwanted duplicate labels. Memorization can be done electronically or photographically, and thus the database can be placed on a magnetic or magneto-optical media, microfilm, paper or film, holographic crystals, magnetic or optical tape or other known carriers.In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the function of preventing duplication is implemented in an integrated manner with the labeling device that cannot be ignored by the user, for example, to prevent inadvertent or intentional use of the system for other purposes. In this case, a laser system may include a locking scheme that prevents the excitation of positioning systems and laser control in terms of unauthorized access. This lock allows you to lock in the power supply or other principles the message using the system, the computer/controller. As the inscription is a raster ablative image, such a message may mainly include a programmable inscription, such as a graphical printout, or an image taken from the system imaging with optical feedback, for example, video cameras. As mentioned above, the message may also include or be associated with a certificate of authenticity, for example, including a facsimile image of the workpiece with the marking. Known authentication scheme image is described in U.S. patent 5499294.Harvesting whole set usually on a floating platform, which provides accurate positioning. Thus, for compact designs in the holder can accommodate workpieces with a size of less than about 30 mm for the large size, although the floating platform has a positioning accuracy at greater distances. The platform is typically moved along the three coordinate axes X, Y and Z of a Cartesian coordinate system, but may also provide other axis, such as axis of rotation. For example, the brilliant cut diamond is radially symmetric. Therefore, where you want the label or the motion along the Z axis, the position of the label set by moving along the axes X and Z during pulsed laser generation. On the other hand, to obtain the label diamond can be initially positioned respectively along the axes X, Y and Z, and rotate around the axis and to move sequentially along the axis Y. In this case, the Z-axis and possibly the X-axis can also be used to maintain conditions of focus. If X, Y and Z are used for automatic control, manual control of rotation is preferably performed with fixation intervals.Positioning system, designed to move the workpiece relative to the focal point of the laser radiation, may also include a control beam, such as mirrors, electro-optic elements, spatial light modulators, the type of device with digital control of the mirror position ("DMD", also known 7 as the processor of the digital processing light signals, "DLP") of the company Texas Instruments, holographic or diffractive elements or other optical system. However, a floating platform is the preferred means for directing the focused laser energy onto a desired portion of the workpiece.d removal. Thus, the workpiece can be suitably set in the holder outside of the device, while another workpiece is inscription. These holders allow you to increase the versatility of the device by providing adaptation to workpieces of different sizes and shapes. Every form of diamond, such as round, oval, heart, Marquis, and others, can be performed using a separate optimized holders; in addition, diamonds with different ranges if necessary, can be placed with different holders.According to another variant implementation, installed on the workpiece, such as the diamond in the installation device, you can perform the inscription on free parts. For example, in the installation device which has projections can be irradiated part of the Equatorial plane, and, thus, can be provided available for marking. In this case mnogoseriynyy holder or holder kit can be provided for proper placement of the workpiece in the chamber of the device to perform the labels. The holders may be provided for placing the gems set in rings, sereiko, chains and all sorts of braet user interface, providing different functionality available to users, and also may limit the use and operation of safe and/or necessary action. Therefore, the computer control system can be programmed to limit the actions that could damage the workpiece, to violate security procedures or treatments authentication or other undesirable actions. Therefore, the computer control system may require user authentication, use the recognition of the video image of the workpiece, especially marking on the workpiece, as well as operations related to the management of the laser system, to avoid damage to system components or of a particular workpiece. The system may also receive an image, a fingerprint, an image of the retina or to carry out other guaranteed recognition of the operator.The system may also include system analysis of a diamond or gemstone to perform the labels characterizing the quality and/or characteristics of the workpiece. This analysis can be used by the system to optimize the process of marking, generating data for marking the EMA can be operated in automatic or semiautomatic mode.It should be noted that the application of the automated system of classification of gemstones will be used a reliable classification scheme, which provides for manual classification or a preliminary classification. Thus, the risk of erroneous marking or erroneous classification will be reduced due to redundancy. Characteristics of the workpiece can be used to control process parameters marking.Where it is necessary to mark the diamond that has a polished Equatorial plane, is usually enough labels to be performed in one pass, and automatic optical feedback can reliably operate. However, the absorption of light smooth surface Equatorial plane of the diamond is low, so on the surface you must have coloring or ink coating in order to ensure the absorption of laser energy. Where the surface of the Equatorial plane is rough, may require multiple passes of the device performing the labels in order to obtain the necessary markings. The absorption of light rough Equatorial plane is usually sufficient is repeated operations can be automated, it may be desirable control of the user, implemented through the use of cameras, which is directed to the workpiece and which allow to obtain images in real time on the computer monitor.You can also use system imaging comprising the device and stored image of the workpiece for precise alignment of the workpiece in accordance with the desired coordinate system after its removal from the system, for example, after the initial procedure of the label. Thus, inherent in the workpiece marks or markings made in the form of inscriptions on preparation, provide reference points required for alignment or re-alignment. The system therefore allows you to reinstall the workpiece when the label you want to edit or execute it immutable. In addition, as may be necessary to re-position the workpiece in accordance with its original orientation during execution inscriptions and images, you can use the same or similar device in order to verify that the marking and/or inscription are true, for example, when sravanabelagola is manually operated and can for example, to manually adjust the position of the workpiece, adding additional controlled axes of the positioning system of the workpiece with computer control allows you to automatically positioning the workpiece on the basis of the optical recognition pattern of natural or inflicted marks is compared with stored data that describe these natural and applied marks. The disadvantage associated with the achievement of such a re-alignment is causing the error relative to the original image. To facilitate alignment, you can use the video coming from the two imaging devices such as CCD camera, and for this purpose one can in fact provide surveillance along three axes.Although the exact alignment of the workpiece is not strictly necessary in the authentication process due to the possibility of mathematical compensation of the image data related error, such precise alignment is generally considered necessary when restoring or changing previously made labels and will create a simpler basis for the permit or determination of the correlation.The dyes or inks that absorb light, can be applied to the workpiece manually, for example, using a marking pen, or automatically, using a dye that is applied to the surface of the workpiece intended in the future for marking, for example, using porous marking tip. Mostly, these inks or dyes that absorb light, remain on the surface of the workpiece and presumably will not penetrate. In principle, the selected dye, which can be easily removed after the marking operation using a solvent, such as alcohol. The dye can be removed manually or through an automated process, for example, by wiping with solvent-soaked soft pillow.In another embodiment, provides relief inscriptions through the modulation of the laser pulses or selective multiple ablation or graphitization of the workpiece in the required locations. This embossed marking is usually not required for simple alphanumeric labels or labels with a digital code, but may be suitable for logos, graphic works, antimalaria bitmaps, binary optics or optics type bronirovannogo copy or other means.In systems with two cameras it is possible to perform videoperformance piece, which can be used to determine the optimum position of the workpiece for marking without requiring validation of the focal length in each specific location. Dual cameras allow positioning and observation on the same screen, each image of the camera is represented as boxes with separate images. Cameras useful for determining the proper location of the marking, providing focusing of the laser beam, the alignment of the stone and control procedures labeling.The computer control system provides versatility of design, selection and implementation of font and graphic labels. In a preferred embodiment, the fonts are used Borland (Borland). However, you can also use other fonts or combination of fonts, such as Borland, postscript, True Type, plotter, or other standard fonts or typefaces. In addition, the marking system can be installed in such a mode that it worked in accordance with Adobe Postscript, Microsoft Windows GDI, Macintosh, QuickDraw, HP-GL or other graphics standards.The preferred laser system to provide the with Savostyanova, and intracavity frequency doubling.Such a system avoids the disadvantages associated with the relatively large size of the YAG laser and power supply, sophisticated control of environmental parameters, external frequency doubler, water cooling system, large size and weight, the inherent instability and a large optical path length.At the output of the laser provides a green filter for selective filtering of the laser diode, which allows to pass only the laser radiation in the green region of the spectrum (530-540 nm). The light coming from the laser diode, it is undesirable because it leads to saturation of the image on the screen vertical (Z-axis) of the camera in the field of laser spots and prevents the observation of the Equatorial plane and labels.The preferred implementation of the roaming platform allows you to overcome typical drawback is the limited range of optical displacement control systems laser that requires operations the inscription through multiple segments, and provides good repeatability of absolute positioning. However, according to some variants of the implementation of the om.Marking can be done on stone, with a number of conditions. First, it is desirable to identify the stone itself, as it may get lost or mixed with other stones. The marking can also be used in case of identification of the source or place of origin. In this case, you can choose the marking on the significance of the face.However, in some cases, the risk of counterfeiting or imitation requires additional security measures. It is therefore necessary to have a guarantee that the marks of the stone corresponds to its essence, or that the stone matches printed on the label. This leads to at least one of the two possible schemes. First, this characteristic stone must be unique and very difficult to play. For example, certain sizes or proportions for a gemstone are to some extent random changes and therefore have the appropriate degree unmanaged range of values.Natural defects and other characteristics are in General also random in nature and therefore difficult to reproduce. Therefore, it is unlikely that one stone was consistent with another stone, and it is unlikely that another stone can boatema, according to one aspect of the invention, these are difficult to reproduce the characteristics are used as an integrity check for the encoded message. These characteristics can be measured or record and save. Mostly, these dimensions and specifications can be obtained from the image of the stone, imprinted together with the marking process. Indeed, keeping such images and providing pointers to images, for example, the serial number, dimensions, or characteristics, intended for comparison, is not necessary to determine in advance. Therefore, according to this scheme, the stone should only contain a pointer to a record in a database, which contains data for stone, the authenticity of which is established. This allows you to save information related to the characteristics of the stone, it is difficult for a re-determination or to some extent subjective, together with stone or with the identification of the stone. As stated above, the image of the stone on the certificate of authenticity can be used to confirm that the stone is genuine, while providing real recording the identification of the stone.Another scheme is based on the difficulty ideacarbon beam with the stone. Thus, the labeling indicates its authenticity. Try copying the marks are likely to be unsuccessful because of technological limitations inherent in the methods of laser marking and/or insufficient information necessary to determine all of the coded information.Thus, in order to establish the authenticity of the stone, analyze or only labeling or marking together with characteristics or physical properties of stone. In one scheme marks made in the form of inscriptions on stone, include information related to characteristics of stone, which are difficult to duplicate and are rarely repeated, allowing you to automatically authenticate. In other schemes the marking made in the form of inscriptions on stone, identifies the record in the database, which is stored in the information Bank that require communication with an information Bank to get authentic information. The process of hand-cut precious stones makes it difficult or impossible to identical duplicate of all characteristics of the stone, which can be measured, especially when combined with other physical characteristics, such as natural defects. Such fisich locations. This location can be identified, for example, using obtained in the form of inscriptions marking or by offsets relative to the marking, which is not obvious from the analysis of only one stone. For any of the precious stone can remember one or more of such locations, further complicating the playing dimension. In addition, such measurements are usually easy to obtain or determine from the images or the implementation of the label.Known more sophisticated methods, for example, the analysis based on Raman scattering, which provide unique information about the specific structure of the natural diamond. Although in the preferred embodiment, the system is not used in the analysis based on Raman scattering, such analysis can be used in conjunction with other variants of implementation of the present invention.According to a preferred variant implementation, determine the authenticity of the stone, which can be defined with a jeweler's loupe, when comparing this actual stone with the stone image, which you can get on the certificate of authenticity or together with him. As each stone is different to the characteristics of the RA Equatorial plane in the image and/or marking the signs of stone, the image serves as a fingerprint, making each stone is essentially unique.The certificate, in addition to the image of the stone may also include other information, such as encrypted code, as described below. Thus, as a stone, and the accompanying certificate may include identifying information.Thus, the present invention also relates to certificates of protection, i.e. documents that are protected against tampering and copy and have a picture bulleted stone, the secret of the features and characteristics of authenticity. Known protected documents and methods of making security documents and/or labeling are described in U.S. patents 5393099, 5380047, 5370763, 5367319, 5243641, 5193853, 5018767, 4514085, 4507349, 4247318, 4199615, 4059471, 4178404 and 4121003. In U.S. patent 4414967 described a method of printing a latent image that can be used to obtain an image of the workpiece. U.S. patents 5464690 and 4913858 refer to the certificate, which has holographic means of protection.In another schema, you can establish the authenticity of the stone without a certificate of authenticity, for example, using a conventional jeweler, using simple tools, such as jewelry loupe what I alphanumeric labels, indistinguishable to the naked eye, gemstone. Alphanumeric label or part of it includes identifying information about a gemstone, such as the serial number, which is entered in the system authentication, for example, by using the phone keypad. Characteristics of stone identified during the marking or around that time, then restore from the database. Usually these stored characteristics may include gradation, size, identification and location of defects and the stone image, which includes a unique or nearly unique features. Thus, for example, you can save the image marking and stone or pieces of stone, for example, located on a circle marks the stone, for example the contour of the Equatorial plane. Some or all of these characteristics can then provide the jeweler, for example, using speech synthesis, telefacsimile image transmission, etc., If you are using certificate authentication, certificate, you can restore and faxing jeweler, providing the ability to verify all information contained in it. The jeweler then the latter the stone is probably true. If, on the other hand, the stone does not match the stored information, it is possible that the stone is fake.The database stores identification information for procurement, may include, for example, information of marks or labels, image information related to the workpiece, which includes, for example, the image labeling and contour surrounding the Equatorial plane, the information containing physical characteristics, subjective grading, property rights and representation for analysis. Such information can be used to guarantee the completeness of the analysis.In another embodiment, system for authentication queries the number of measurements made by a jeweler that can be obtained by using a micrometer or grid provided on Lupe, without providing nominal values jeweler in order that the explanation is not performed in case of failure of authentication, making forgery more difficult. Of course, the system can also be used more sophisticated equipment for measuring characteristics of the stone and to communicate, including the use of fully avtomatizirovannoj is the proof of its authenticity. Thus, instead of comparing with the data metrics that are stored in the system database, marking, made in the form of inscriptions on the stone itself includes an encrypted message that contains data related to the characteristics of the stone. You can use a number of different message types. For example, the so-called Protocol encryption using public key/private key, for example, provided by RSA, Redwood CA, can be used for marking the workpiece with "digital signature" (See"A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public Key Cryptosystems", R. L. Rivest, A. Shamir and L. Adelmann, Communications of the ACM 21(2): 120-126 (Febpuary 1978). In this case, the encoding side encodes the data using an appropriate algorithm using the so-called individual code. To decode the message, you need to have a second code, which is called the public key provided to the public and associated with the coding side. After using this public key encrypted message decrypt and verify the identity of the coding side. The data in the decrypted message includes a set of unique or nearly unique characteristics of a gemstone. So you need only compare the place of origin of a gemstone and its authenticity. In this scheme, the coding side is not necessarily informed about the testing procedure.Known modifications of this scheme allow private communication channels between the parties or assigned keys to ensure data security, except in exceptional verification.Typical schemes for encryption and encoding of documents, which may include in whole or in part in a system or method according to the invention to obtain a secure certificate and/or marking described in U.S. patent 5426700 (and 07/979081), 5422954, 5420924, 5388158, 5384846, 5375170, 5337362, 5263085, 5191613, 5166978, 5163091, 5142577, 5113445, 5073935, 4981370, 4853961, 4893338, 4995081, 4879747, 4868877, 4853961, 4816655, 4812965, 4637051, 4507744 and 4405829.Cm. also work W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "New directions in cryptography", IEEE Trans. Information Theory., Vol. IT-22, pp. 644-654, November 1976; R. C. Merkle and M. E. Hellman, "Hiding information and signatures in trapdoor knapsacks", IEEE Trans. Information Theory, Vol. IT-24, pp. 525-530, September 1978); Fiat and Shamir, "How to prove yourself: practical solutions to identification and signatere problems", Proc. Crypto 86, pp. 186-194 (August 1986)); DSS: specifications of a digital signature algorithm". National Institute of Standards and Technology, Draft, August 1991; H. Fell and W. Diffie, "Analysis of a public key approach based on polynomial substitution", Proc. Crypto. (1985), pp. 340-349).In another encoding scheme uses an encryption system such as DES, which is not possible to decode the message to outsiders, obespechivaetsya code. Therefore, attendance is required the coding side when decoding messages, and establishing the authenticity of the stone.In order to ensure reliable procedure for authentication, it is necessary that numerous codes that contain a variety of information in various schemes were coded on a precious stone, so that in the event of a threat or breach of secrecy of one code to another, in General the more complex the code, could be used to establish authenticity. For example, the main code can be executed in the form of an alphanumeric sequence consisting of 14 digits. In addition, the linear barcode can be done in the form of inscriptions, consisting of 128-512 characters. You can perform the inscription in the form of additional two-dimensional array of points, for example in the form of a sample placed on an alphanumeric sequence, with the help of a small change in the location of centres ablation, double ablation, modulation of the laser power and other complex schemes, which provide the ability to encode approximately 1-4 kbit characters or above using a multivalue modulation. Each of these codes is extremely difficult, in turn, more difficult to read and decrypt.Abstracti stone. Thus, even using the code, which itself establishes its authenticity, it is usually necessary to store information about the image, which refers to the stone in the database after completion of the marking process. This database can then be used for additional verification or authentication by comparing an image or selection of signs.Thus, it is possible to simultaneously use a number of authentication schemes. Preferably, different information was coded using each method, and simpler information is encoded in less complex encoding schemes. Complex information can include spectrophotometric data, image information and the topology of the geometric dimensions. Thus, based on the assumption that the decoding more complex codes in General will need in later time periods, the equipment to verify the information can only be used as needed.Known methods use identification numbers (ID) and/or encryption methods to prevent tampering prohibited certificates or labels are described in U.S. patents 5367148, 5283422, 4494381, 4814589, 463201 and 4463250.
Fig. 9 is a block diagram of a device corresponding to the first variant implementation of the present invention;
Fig. 10 is a block diagram of a device corresponding to the second variant of implementation of the present invention;
Fig. 11 is a block diagram of the sequence of operations in the procedure of automatic performance labelling in accordance with the present invention;
Fig.12 is a block diagram of the sequence of operations in the process of authentication in accordance with the present invention;
Fig.13A, 13B, 13C of modulated pixels and a detailed view of a bulleted diamond according to the present invention; and
Fig. 14 is a schematic view of the fixing frame, illustrating the damper for attenuating vibration located at the corners of the frame.The preferred implementation of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the drawings.System corresponding to the present invention, can be used to perform mikroneesia in the form of alphanumeric characters on the Equatorial plane of the diamond 13. The system is implemented on the basis of the pulsed laser 1, preferably in the solid-state laser, q-switched and pumped with laser diodes to provide the minimum requirements in terms of volume and installation, as well as optimal compatibility with any office equipment.The preferred system based on laser designed to run mikroneesia, according to the present invention, includes the following main elements.In vibroisolating frame 140 with shock dampers 141 located at the points of support:
(1) Laser 1 pumped by laser diodes, and a programmable power source 14 with the spreader beam 5.(2) the Optical node containing the optical means in the direction 8 and the optical cf is edenia X, Y, Z (with lifting mechanism of the platform along the Z axis), including encoders 145, limiters and stepper motors, DC.(4) the Holder 144 diamond and AIDS.(5) the Casing 142 with lock 143 security to prevent open case and to protect against accidental or scattered laser radiation.(6) Computer system 52 to control:
(a) PC (Pentium 100 MHz bus PC1, VGA monitor with a resolution of 1024768;
(b) capture mechanism frame 56 (Matrox graphics graphics);
(c) charge controller 60 controls the movement of the three coordinates;
(d) cables, power supplies;
(e) software operating system (Windows);
(t) application software.In Fig. 1 shows a laser 1 (QD321) on the crystal Nd:YLF for generating the second harmonic, which emits a beam 2 having a wavelength of approximately 525 nm. The filter 3 with the operating wavelength of 1047 nm provides attenuation of any residual laser energy at the fundamental frequency and generates a filtered laser beam 3. The filtered beam is then expanded ten times using the expander 5 beam in order to reduce the energy density. On the way extended beam 6 filter 7 sireny, the filtered beam 9 in the direction of the lens 10 of the microscope with a tenfold increase. The lens 10 of the microscope focuses the beam on the workpiece 11, for example, on the Equatorial plane 12 diamond 13 cut.In Fig. 2 depicts the system top illumination and imaging. The radiation of the light-emitting diode (LED) 20 or LED grille with an operating wavelength of approximate 650 nm is passed through the collimator lens 21 for forming a collimated beam 22 of the backlight. Collimated beam illumination falls on the beam splitter 23 beam, which reflects the collimated beam 22 of the backlight in the direction of the reflecting mirror 24. The reflected collimated beam 25 of the backlight passes through the dichroic mirror 8, which is located parallel to the filtered beam 9, and through the lens 10 of the microscope gets on the workpiece 11. The workpiece 11 reflects back part of the beam of illumination that passes back through the lens 10 of the microscope and the dichroic mirror 8, and reaches the reflecting mirror 24, thus ensuring the passage of the collimated beam 25 of the illumination in the opposite direction. However, part of the reflected beam 27 of the backlight passes through the beam splitter beam 23 toward the upper CCD camera 28. So Poluchenie the resulting image 29 on 14-inch (35.5 cm) monitor 159 has increased by approximately 200 times.System side illumination and image formation is depicted in Fig. 3, is somewhat simpler than the system top illumination and imaging, shown in Fig.2. A set of spatially separated LED 30 with an operating wavelength of 650 nm provides the backlight 31 at angles converging from the upper part toward the workpiece 11. Side CCD camera 32, which is observed workpiece 11 through two lens 33 and the window 34 is at right angles to the upper CCD camera 28. Obtained using the side of the CCD camera 32 by 14-inch (35.5 cm) the video image 35 has also increased by approximately 200 times. When the workpiece 11 is a diamond 13 cut with the Equatorial plane 12, the image side 35 includes a profile of the Equatorial plane 12'.Lower illumination system depicted in Fig.14, includes a set of miniature arc lamps 40, which are located below the workpiece 11, providing illumination along the optical paths 41, which converge in an upward direction.In Fig.5 shows the control system and positioning platform. The workpiece is mounted on a three-dimensional platform 50 to the encoder is rpusa 142 laser system separately from the control computer 52. Computer control 52 communicates through the system 60 positioning control (Galil), which represents the cost of the bus 1SA. Junction box 54 is made inside the housing 142 of the laser system, which is associated with a set of cables 55 system 60 positioning control.As shown in Fig.6 (prior art), a well-known system described in U.S. patent 4392476, includes scanner 61 on the X-axis and the scanner 63 Z-axis, which is controlled by a laser beam directed on the diamond 13. This known system has a limitation related to the reproducibility. In addition, the system is relatively bulky and susceptible to vibration.In Fig.7A - 7E depict the holder of the diamond from the top, side, more detail - side mounted holder stone and unmounted the holder of the stone, respectively. Guide 116 provides accurate positioning relative to the slit, located inside the enclosure. Guide 116 is positioned with a set of solid metal balls and a spring-loaded balls which position the holder 118 when it enters into the slit. Set manual adjustments provides coarse 106 104 and accurate rotation control with the controls in the Chuck 109 with two round rods, positioning the workpiece, which is held in place by a pin 110.As shown in Fig.7D, the mounted workpiece holder allows high accuracy to maintain the workpiece 111. Spring latch 112 is under load, made with the possibility of installation and removal of workpiece.Mode
The system contains a device with a static laser beam, for example, the device generating a laser beam, which does not move. System 50 of the positioning of the three coordinates XYZ moves the workpiece 11 and performs an inscription with repeatability and resolution of about 1.0 μm. The size of the beam in the focal point approximately more than 1 μm, and the accuracy of the system 50, the positioning is not the limiting factor when placing markings.Depending on the symmetry axis of the workpiece 11, which, for example, is a diamond 13 located horizontally, the Equatorial plane 12 see horizontally (profile) and vertically (labels) using two CCD cameras 28, 32. The vertical axis thus corresponds to the axis of the laser 1. You can include a third chamber, for example, with the optical channel, usually obrashau beam, perform this way, to protect it from damage during operation. By focusing of the laser 1, and filtering optics 8, 23, 34, is the possibility of damage by laser radiation CCD camera 28, 32 small. The user can observe the choice of using one or more cameras. If there are multiple images, they can be arranged in a mosaic pattern with a reduced size on the screen 159 computer monitor. When using a mouse 161, which is used as a pointing device, the Equatorial plane 12 center and set the focus while watching the screen, 159 using, in particular, the profile view. Diamond 13 can be manually rotated in its holder 144, setting the appropriate part of the Equatorial plane 12 in the center of the window display on the screen 159.The images are increasing approximately 200 times, although there may be other or different values increase. The increase is determined in this case as the ratio of the size of the label, which is measured on the screen 159, to the amount of the actual label. Usually use the monitor with the size of the diagonal of 14 or 15 inches (35.5 and 38,1 cm) and a resolution of 1024768 pixels.Part of matiwane 149 barcode into the computer. Of course, the input data can also be performed by voice through the microphone 150, designed for speech recognition, through the reading device 151 magnetic strips or through the operation indication-and-click using the mouse 161 computer. Put the lettering and logo are displayed on the screen 159 and applied to the region corresponding to the Equatorial plane 12 diamond 13.Using the mouse 161 and the keyboard 160, the user can change all specifications of the label for correct match it with the Equatorial plane 12. Although the preferred user interface is a graphical user interface with a pointing device (mouse 161), however, can use the keyboard 160 and the display screen 159, if the user's hands are busy, and also the recognition system voice-command, for example, by a microphone 150, a confirmation of all the input information and the start of the working sequence using a specific sequence of user actions using precautions, for example, random noise is not caused harmful interference.On the screen a horizontal chamber 32, the user can measure the profile of aquatory is installed then used to hold the focal point of laser output continuously on the surface of the Equatorial plane 12. Profile data and outline the Equatorial plane 12 can be automatically retrieved from images, or you can use step to enter the manual for delineating the contour of the profile and/or the boundaries of the Equatorial plane 12. Typically, the positioning of the labels on the Equatorial plane 12 do manually, although you can use the fully automatic mode, especially for low-value small stones, known as scattering. When these procedures are completed, produced a so-called file G-code that contains all the data labels. This file is passed to the controller 51 of the positioning platform to carry a valid label.File code labels can be automatically generated and authorized on the basis of the algorithm, which protects against unauthorized or fraudulent execution of inscriptions (Fig.11). The validation process, according to one variant of the invention, includes the steps of obtaining or searching the image of the workpiece (step 171), image analysis for the characterization of the workpiece (step 172), the transmission characteristics together with the data that belong to the stone, mobile, through, for example, telecommunication channel 152, which may be raspolirovka, you can perform a remote location or locally, and if the features and labels are not unique, it is proposed to amend the labeling (step 174) and then re-confirm the revised proposed labeling using the authenticator. After the approved labeling, marking encrypts (step 175), and the encrypted code is transmitted to the control (step 176) marking. Thus, only if the authenticator approves labeling system starts marking.Characteristics of the workpiece can be determined on the eye 146 and can also be determined using a sensor 147 of the appropriate type. For example, you can measure the size, weight, optical transfer characteristics, the angles of the faces and the like. During the initial process of marking define the characteristics and preferably stored together with information labelling in the database 156. For example, the database may store images, compressed images or types of images obtained from the imaging devices on the CCD 28, 32. Preferably, after performing marking the top shaper image on the CCD 28 is used to capture the image of the marking, which is then stored.Coz stone, can be encrypted using a secure encryption method by the processor 157 encryption, reducing the risk of forgery. In addition, labeling can be, in particular, made with samostalna his or her identity, including identification of the marked characteristics of the workpiece. Of course, the encryption processor may be the same as the system 155 control, and does not have to be a separate physical device.The controller provides all the operations I/o, such as turning on/off of the laser, the output power of laser radiation from a specified range, limit switches, control with the mouse and so on, as well as the execution of the move. Thus, the control system can easily improve regardless of the technical means of a marking system.The operator can see the diamond before, during and after the process of marking labels. If the application of the label is not completed, the operator can select the repetition of all or selected parts of the text in the second or subsequent operation of the marking.In Fig.8 shows a block diagram of the sequence of operations in the process control system when vypolneny interrupt respond to state laser systems and can also initialize the action in automatic mode on the basis of these conditions 121. Inputs to the module 121 determine the status of the laser system are emergency shutdown 122, willingness 123 laser achieved by mechanical limitations 124 and opening the door 125. Of course, can be determined and other state laser that can be controlled using the module 121.The main screen interface 126 allows the operator to access and control the basic functional blocks of the laser system run labels. The screen 126 interface initially controls the heating laser and positioned in the initial position 127. After gemstone is introduced into the laser system run labels, she slowly moves to reach a state of alignment (Step 128) in accordance with the top and side views displayed on the video monitor. Then the label is entered or edited using input devices such as a keyboard 148 or reader 149 barcode, and the label is positioned relative to the workpiece on the top view (Step 129). If the workpiece has a rough surface, the mean 130. The host computer 52 sends commands to the controller 60 run labels using laser radiation, determining the figure of the inscription, by determining the three-dimensional XYZ positioning of the workpiece (step 131) and the structure of the laser modulation (step 133) in order to determine the figure labels, for example the structure of a font or logo. After all or part of the inscription is made, the label is checked in order to guarantee the completion of the inscriptions, and all or part of the label, if necessary (step 132) can be repeated. After completion of the inscription can be initiated applying new labels (step 134).Also, is the mode of maintenance of the system, in which the adjustment parameters 135 system diagnostics 136 of the moving system and a final report on data 137 labels.Specification labels
The length of the label depends on the size of the symbols and intervals between them. The relevant dimensions are shown in the table.The total length of the label = number of characters in the X-axis (width + spacing) + length of the logo.The system allows to realize the maximum length of a single label approximately 2 mm In average 80 microns per character (including interval) gives 25 characters,sequential labels without removing the diamond. In this case, there is no limit on the number of characters in addition to the used surface area. Each emblem + 14 characters considered as a single process labels. Running the label with a large number of characters can normally be placed without any problems. It should be noted that symbols can represent alphanumeric characters, line drawings, multilingual fonts, custom bitmaps or other graphic images, and can be fully programmable.Software management systems also take into account any number of characters, made in the form of inscriptions. You can also easily rotate the stone itself and position the part of the inscription that it was or seemed to be a continuation of the first label. You can get any size of the symbol within the constraints on the width of lines and surfaces on which to perform the inscription. For example, for the red beam is the lower limit of the size of the symbol is approximately 30 μm. For the green beam is the lower limit of the size of the symbol is approximately 15-20 microns.The depth of the label is less than approximately 10 microns.The width of the line (green beam) is less than about 9 microns on the polished Equatorial plane and less than Holocene thinner line width of the label, compared to that which you can perform by using a red laser standard type. Preparing to work is about 15 min, which mainly depends on the time of stabilization of the parameters of the laser, after which the system is fully operational, which is an advantage compared with other types of lasers. In the preferred method of marking the overlap of the irradiated areas ensures the continuity of the appearance of marks.The radiation output of the laser corresponds to the radiation of the laser with a q-switched, which can be obtained in the wavelength range of approximately 1200 to 200 nm by using a frequency doubler or generator of harmonics in the case when you want to receive output radiation with a wavelength less than about 600 nm. A preferred variant of the laser 1 is a solid-state neodymium laser with a q-switched, for example, laser crystal Nd:YLF pumped by laser diodes operating wavelength of 1.06 µm and a frequency doubler, which allows you to receive output radiation with a wavelength of 530 nm.During system operation, as described above, the net run time labels (laser) on tannich Equatorial planes.On polished Equatorial planes labels are usually obtained satisfactory after the first pass. Raw Equatorial plane, on the other hand, may require multiple passes depending on the surface to achieve the required quality of marking. To save time, many passages perform only those characters that require additional passes. These symbols can be marked with the mouse. Of course, repeated passes can be performed automatically based on a specified criterion or based on optical feedback from the cameras.The Assembly and disassembly of the stone is performed using a modular holder 144 with quick-release Chuck and therefore is carried out at the time about 20-30 C. Other operations, such as finding the optimal place for the inscription, picture, etc. depends on the skill of the operator and may take approximately 30-40 C. Therefore, using the device according to the present invention, it is possible the output 40 of stones per hour.In system 50 a floating platform used stepper motors DC. They are using a standard drive systems. electroded as the platform along the Z axis uses the encoder rotation for screw positioning mechanism.Fonts and symbols
The choice of characters can be performed using any system, such as a set of ASC11 fonts containing 26 letters and 10 digits, business characters, such as (TM), (SM),and logo. This set of fonts, for example, can be fonts Borland. Additional fonts such as Japanese or Jewish and emblems can also be used, for example, in addition to the system using removable magnetic media, smart cards, or using a digital telecommunication. The font may also include customized or edited characters, and provides complete freedom to define bitmap bitmap array is represented by an identification code of the character. Thus, any drawing that can be made in the form of lines or the bit array can be used for labeling.Data labels can be entered in three ways:
Manually - alphanumeric characters that are entered from the keyboard 148 and a logo that is selected from a library of logos;
semi-automatically - part alphanumeric characters of the barcode 149 or keyboard 148 and a part of the characters that are automatically selected with the help of nativesa through the device, after entering the identification of the barcode or similar system.Using the method of applying the graphic video, you can easily adjust the label position and its size.The system controller also provides protection for upper and lower power limits. When the laser power is beyond the scope of restrictions, the system stops and a warning message is issued, eliminating the possibility of destruction of the diamond or the workpiece.At the base of the frame 140 of the laser system provided by the dampers 141 vibration. Thus, due to the compact size of the system and relatively small components, the frame 140 may have sufficient stiffness to provide isolation from vibration effects. Therefore, it is possible to work in a normal office environment at normal room temperature, without performing any measurements of the exceptional nature, such as careful control of environmental conditions or active damping of vibrations.The computer 52 is a personal computer and usually has a separate body with respect to the housing 142 of the laser system to perform label. Usually two cables 55 connect the controller 60 of the computer with the capture frame. Therefore, the user can place the screen 159 and keypad 160, with a mouse 161 in the most convenient location.Observation of the procedure of the label
The system includes two miniature CCD camera with high resolution backlit and filter system for
effective monitoring of the entire implementation process inscriptions on the video screen, as described below.The full inscription logo projected on the image Equatorial plane 12, obtained from a vertically oriented chamber 28, providing the user the ability to interactively change the length of the label, the height of the characters, removal and alignment of the entire label. The area of the Equatorial plane 12 may be defined by the user using a mouse 161 and determined using image analysis in the computer system 52.Thus, the operator can observe the procedure for applying labels to begin the process of marking, to observe the actual process of marking and then observe the results and make decisions, complete inscription or not. Protective housing 142 protects the operator's eye from scattered radiation. Filters and such optical elements can also be provided to protect the camera from damage reflected is adesi with the possibility of making labels before operating the laser. Cursors on the screen help to carry out the centering of the label. The system also has a side chamber 32 to display the profile of the Equatorial plane 12 and observations faces.The operator marks the required number of points on the profile, then providing the system with the possibility to adjust (the location of the focal point along the Z axis) in automatic mode for matching with the profile of the Equatorial plane when marking. Switching to manual mode is performed in the case where no automatic control of the depth of the label.Side camera 32 can accurately determine the position of the Equatorial plane 12 precious stone 11 so that the laser beam 1 was able to focus on the surface of a precious stone 11 with high accuracy. To ensure the effective ablation over a small area of the surface of a precious stone 11 without destroying the deeper parts, or without significant undesirable thermal stress around labels, laser 1 is made with a very narrow depth of field, for example 30 μm. In addition, shallow depth of field required to obtain a maximum power density of the relatively low power of the laser 1. Thus, when you try focuser the sale of contrast and sharpness of borders requires attentiveness of the user, but with limited accuracy. On the other hand, using the side view profile of the stone combined with a given focal plane, ensuring the accuracy of about7 μm. In practice, with magnification of 200 times, the scatter7 μm corresponds to2 pixels camera video.Thus, after determining empirically the exact location of the focal plane of the laser 1 that plane, you can choose as a reference for the control system, and the workpiece is relatively easy to move manually or automatically in the desired location. Reference plane can be performed, for example, in the form of a line on a computer monitor showing the video image of the workpiece. The operator slowly controls the Z-axis up until the image profile of the workpiece 11 is aligned with the reference line.Vibration and/or shock, for example, during transportation can change the focal plane of the laser relative to the holder 144 of the workpiece. In this case, the method of empirical research or by the method of "trial and error" is repeated determination of the exact location of the focal plane, then it's using, for example, at a relatively inexpensive diamond or other test object, in which consecutive ablation procedures are performed under different conditions, for example, in various positions along the Z axis when you move in the X-y plane After a series of ablaze test object is tested to determine the optimal conditions of orientation, for example, the smallest spot size. Conditions for optimal orientation are then used to determine the focal plane and, therefore, for calibration reference plane.The user can fully control the sizes of the symbols. As the cursors are placed on the Equatorial plane (in accordance with the size of the Equatorial plane), the computer will display the first option, which the user can change.Z-axis by an electric motor performs the focusing of the laser radiation on the surface of the workpiece. The Z-axis movement is controlled by computer, allowing the operator to focus the radiation on the Equatorial plane 12 diamond 13 through the keyboard of the computer and direct entry position in a system of numerical control (CNC). the Noah plane, and so the Z-axis to control for any coordinates. The system can also be equipped with micrometer screws for focus when manually adjusting, for example, in the case when long labels require the use of segmented mode run labels.Process parameters run the label, including the laser power, q-switched and speed labels can be controlled by optimizing the parameters of interaction of laser radiation with matter when changing the substrate and the differences in the surface quality.Thus, the present invention allows to perform a different sequence of ablation procedures to account for required labels and characteristics of the workpiece. Often the characteristics of the workpiece is known and entered into the control system, for example, by using barcode, magnetic stripe, manual key entry, database searches, or other way. However, the system according to the present invention may also contain a system for self-determining characteristic or set of characteristics of the workpiece and perform the inscription on the basis of the entered or obtained characteristics and desirable foolee to analyze the existing label and execute the modified label. Thus, if it is desirable to use signs in accordance with the method of the labels, they can be superimposed or added to existing labels. In addition, the old inscription can be analyzed and saved according to the ways, without any change in them, for example, in order to ensure security and authentication.Software
The controller computer preferably runs on Windows, although you can use Windows 95 or NT, Macintosh, derivatives UNIX X-terminal or another operating system, which supports various components of the systems. The optical feedback and the preview image labels mostly use graphical user interface.All features of the equipment are controlled via the software, except for the power of the laser pulse and the frequency of the pulse, which are installed with the panel power supply. Of course, the control system of the laser light can be fully automated and controlled by computer using software tools for power control and castolite software, preferably representing a graphical user interface, usually performed with a mouse 161 and keyboard 160. When the input information of the workpiece is possible to use other input devices such as a microphone, an optical scanner or barcode scanner, sensor characteristics gemstone, magnetic disk or a magnetic strip and/or other known input devices.The software can generate various messages that meet the required specifications and formats, based on the procedures of individual labels or row labels. Software tools you can use to obtain the certificate of authenticity with means of protection against forgery and fraud, and the image of the workpiece.Images obtained using a CCD camera, can be stored, for example, on magnetic disks or optical media, locally or in remote position. Such stored information can be used, for example, for identification and inventory of parts or to ensure the operation of the system.The computer can also be connected to a standard computer network and communication systems. For example, the communication channel Ethernet, IEEE 802 3 you can use is using a standard analog modem, for example, v. 34, ICDN, Frame Relay, the Internet (using TCP/1P), or through other types of private networks. The data is preferably encrypted, especially on unprotected channels for General use.Logo and graphic editors also provided for creating logos and graphics. Provides font editor for editing bitmap images of the characters in the font. Since the bitmap corresponding to each code is programmable or changeable, it is possible to apply the complex characters as easily as letters or numbers, if the symbol is defined as a symbol font. According to one aspect of the invention, on the stone engrave graphic art image, thereby creating a stone artwork. Artistic image may be identical or different for each stone, and may include encoded information. The logo may differ from the character having large dimensions, with potentially higher density of halftone dots. Thus, the characters are usually defined as a raster bitmap arrays, although the logo can be further optimized or made using the control parameters of the laser sluchae in itself fixed base, which is in a fixed position relative to the frame 140 with a removable holder 118 (Fig.7A-7E). The holder 118 can be easily removed or detached from the fixed base without changing the orientation of the diamond. The holder 118 is chosen based on the size of the diamond, which will be processed in the plant, and there are a variety of holders for stones of various sizes. The diamond can be easily installed in the holder or removed from the holder, with possible external adjustment to bring the corresponding plot of the Equatorial plane in a position in which he is facing to the camera.The holder of the diamond is made on the basis of the standard holder, which is known in the diamond industry. The center diamond is set in a concave recess that fits the size of the diamond. A spring-loaded metal strip 110 presses on the face to securely hold the diamond in the Cup 108, while ensuring that the line will be parallel to the axis of the holder 118. If the Equatorial plane is not parallel to the face or the surface of the Equatorial plane is not parallel to the axis of symmetry of the diamond holder has two handles 105, 117 adjustment for correction in those cases, to enom position and all relevant surface is in focus. Additionally, there are adjustments for coarse 106 104 and accurate rotation of the diamond 13 in the holder 118. Therefore, the rotation about the Central axis of the diamond 13 performs manually, although rotation can be done automatically or through mechanisms. Coarse adjustment 106 is carried out in 16 stages of rotation, while the fine adjustment 104 is continuous.All of the above adjustment of the diamond in the holder 118 can be performed external to the device, run the label, and diamond 13 it is therefore possible to pre-align before placing in the installation. The holder 118 is designed so that access is provided to all adjustment knobs with one hand, when the holder 118 is placed in the installation. In addition, you can easily perform corrective feedback 159, forming a visual image on the screen.For the user there are a number of means of illumination with controlled intensity. The axis of the laser, for example, highlighted in red LED 20, which is used for observation of polished Equatorial plane 12 by means of a vertically oriented (Z-axis) of the camera 28. To obtain a high contrast between the profile of procurement is toron. Each group 30 side illumination can have, for example, three LEDs. In addition, two miniature arc lamp 40 is provided for illumination of the workpiece 11 from the bottom side. This lower illumination is used, for example, to monitor the raw Equatorial planes 12 diamond 13 by means of a vertically oriented (Z-axis) of the camera 28.The holder 118 assembled very easily fits in the installation. The installation has a fixed base with a slot. Guide holder 116 118 slides in the slot like a credit card or cassette tapes and is used for precise stopping. Spring plungers with balls on the ends to facilitate sliding and protects the holder from any movement during the operation of the unit by gearing for recessed ledges 103. The holder 118 can be easily removed and put back, and the diamond 13 will be in the same place as before.The General design of the holder shown in Fig.7A-7E. The operator can hold the device with one hand, for example the left hand, and enter the holder into the slot. With one hand the operator can, therefore, make all adjustments while monitoring the screen and working with mouse or keyboard with your right hand. Palm 13, and the holder 118 is back in the same position. After removing the holder 118 has its "output" position when it is still supported using the guide 116, and the stone is at a distance of 40 mm from the installation. In this position the stone can apply the label, inspect, clean, and so on, without requiring the user to hold the device with one hand.Stone 11 is positioned by the holder 118 and is mounted so that the Central axis was horizontal and perpendicular to the laser beam. The holder 118 is made of steel. Contact points are concave Cup 108, which supports the center of the diamond. Spring strip 110 presses on the face toward the Cup 108 in such a way that ensures parallelism of the faces relative to the axis of symmetry of the holder 118 and ensures proper positioning relative to the laser beam. In the preferred unit is provided with holders 118 with three sizes to cover a range of sizes diamond 13. The holder 118 can support any stone that has a Central portion and a face. In addition, holders 118 can also be constructed so as to place the jewelry with a special form.and, to install to run the label has always been in working condition. Thus, additional improvements affecting the time of fixing the workpiece will not improve throughput. Therefore, we provide a set of holders. The user is provided with sufficient number of holders prepared to run the label, and this means that the installation will perform the labels almost continuously.The procedure is as follows.Stones preliminary level in the holders. The operator at the end of the inscription relieves the holder inscribed with stone and inserts the prepared holder with stone on which will perform the inscription. May require a minor adjustment of the diamond or holder that can be performed using the video. In addition, the operator must enter or define the inscription. Then begins the process of inscription. In the process of inscription, the operator can remove the stone from the previously used holder to ensure reusability. Usually do not require a large number of holders to ensure the continued employment of the system for performing a label, expressdiagnostic one operator maximum, the second statement can help when setting stones into the holder and/or the procedure definition the inscription.The anchor stones are held by the holder 119, which has a structure made taking into account the fact that some of Equatorial planes 12 must be left open during execution of the inscription. Therefore, the holder 119 is made with three thin "legs" 120, which can be opened and closed by pressing the "latch" 112. The tabs 120 are biased in the closed position. Tabs 120 cover the Equatorial plane 12 (between the teeth of the rim) and press the edge to a flat surface 138 after tripping of latch 112. Flat surface 138 is perpendicular to the Central axis of the gemstone. Thus, the design of the holder 119 ensures that the precious stone 111 centered and held properly and provides the ability to turn stone to the required position during execution of the inscription.Since fixed the stone is held opposite to the loose stone, the direction of the label preferably is reversed. This reversal is implemented, for example, by means of software control. In this case, the inscription can investment the tracking procedure of the label operator inscription preferably do from the very beginning, and the reverse direction is selected using the on-screen "buttons" graphics user interface. In addition, the processed video image of the stone can also selectively invert, so that the apparent orientation of the stone in the processed image operations with the inscription " for fixed and loose stone was the same.The statement will always execute the command confirmation ("OK") process prior to the operation of the laser. He will either see complete caption on the screen with text or video directly in the Equatorial plane.In the case when the label is complete, the operator can determine (before cleaning) whether the inscription successful. Even after cleaning, while the stone remains in the boarding status of the holder, the stone can return exactly to the same position. The operator can choose to repeat the entire label or part of it any number of times as desired. Checking labels is performed to remove the diamond from the holder, so if necessary you can repeat the process. The inscription clearly observed on the screen even before cleaning ink/graphite stone. Preferred 200-fold increase in the inscription will be extremely long and not is, you can optionally determine whether the marking is true, for example, as shown in the block diagram of the sequence of operations in Fig.12. Harvesting occurs in a larger view to read the marking (step 181). The procedure of authentication provides at least two options. First, the marking can be encrypted and therefore are processed using a key (step 183), for example the public key. If the actual characteristics of the stone to form an encrypted message, a decrypted message is compared with the actual characteristics of the workpiece (step 184). Thus it is possible to determine the authenticity. On the other hand, the marking may include code that identifies the workpiece, which allows you to recover information related to the workpiece, from the database. The database thus stores information characterizing the workpiece.In the second embodiment, as shown in Fig.12, the process of authentication involves the use of a remote system. Therefore labeling is transmitted to the Central system 182. Features billet read or allocate (step 185) and also transmitted to the Central is, for example, against a stored database of characteristics bulleted blanks. The result of the authentication is then transmitted to the remote position (step 188).Encryption
Diamond 200 (Fig. 13A), shown in more detail in the enlarged view of Fig. 13D with identification number and signs, which provides protection. For example, diamond 200 is a stone F color, weight 0,78 Carat, VS2 grade with two identified defects 207. Diamond 200 has a set of markings printed on the Equatorial plane 201. Markings include the logo 202 "LKI", made in the form of symbols, registration symbol 203 trademark, serial number in Arabic numerals 204, a one-dimensional barcode 205, a two-dimensional code 206, the set of visible reference marks 209 and a single ablative spot 208, 210 with a certain location. In most cases, the emblem identifies a number of markings, while the sequence number is used to identify diamond 200. To encode additional information visually observable barcode 205 allows, for example, to encode and recover the binary information received from diamond 200. Two-dimensional code usually requires the use of the reader and allows h the th grid to measure distances, providing additional features diamond 200 that can be used to determine the uniqueness of diamond 200. Single ablative spot 208, 210 less noticeable and may thus require the presence of the key to search for. In other words, establishing the authenticity of these spots may require the transfer of information about their location with confirmation by examination diamond 200. For example, marking 210 has a certain physical relationship with one or both of defects 207, thus very difficult to copy.In Fig. 13B in a more detailed form shows a typical two-dimensional code with a simple binary modulation. Thus, the presence of 213 or absence 214 ablation in the location corresponding to the coordinates 211, 212, determines the picture data. On the other hand in Fig.13C depicts a more complex code. In this case, the areas of ablation are discrete or partially overlap, so that you can identify a path or a partial path of each spot 223. Due to the stochastic nature of the procedure the actual position of the center of section 224 ablation or its contour may vary. However, superimposed picture modulation can be greater than the noise amplitude, and must ispolzovanie, the corresponding coordinates 221, 222, the exact position 225 of which is modulated in accordance with a given circuit 225. In this case, without knowledge of the modulation scheme will be difficult to read the code and, therefore, difficult to copy the code. In addition, given that the amplitude of the noise is close to the apparent amplitude of the signal from the system, you may want to correspondingly very high accuracy.Thus, as shown and described new techniques and new aspects of laser marking systems billets and associated databases that solve all tasks, and provide the benefits disclosed in this regard. However, for professionals should be obvious, many changes, modifications, variations, combinations, subcombinations and other application and use of the present invention, on the basis of the description and illustrative drawings, which describe preferred embodiments of the invention.All such changes, modifications, variations and other uses and that do not go beyond the nature and scope of the invention covered by the invention which is limited only by the claims.
1. System to perform m is providing access optical radiation to a fixed workpiece, an optical system for focusing laser energy incident from a source of laser energy to a workpiece, means for directing mentioned focused laser energy to the desired area of the workpiece, having a control input, an input for receiving commands marking system imaging for visual display of the workpiece and a processor for controlling the said means for direction on the basis of these teams marking for selective formation of marks on the basis of these teams and a predetermined program, wherein the system imaging allows observation of the workpiece from a variety of points, convenient for observation, the processor additionally provides control of the said means for direction on the basis of the system of formation of the image.2. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that said laser energy source contains a neodymium laser with semiconductor pumping.3. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 2, characterized in that said laser is a laser at the Cristal laser power p. 1, characterized in that it further comprises a power source for the above-mentioned laser energy source.5. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that it further comprises a chassis for anchoring the above-mentioned laser energy source, the system of fixing the workpiece mentioned optical system and the means for directions.6. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that it further comprises a power source for the above-mentioned laser energy source and chassis for anchoring the above-mentioned laser energy source, the system of fixing the workpiece mentioned optical system, the means for directing and said power source.7. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that it further comprises a chassis for anchoring the above-mentioned laser energy source, the system of fixing the workpiece mentioned optical system and the means for directions, and the said means for directing provides re-positions the laser power p. 1, characterized in that the fastening system of the workpiece contains a fixed element, a removable element and a clip fastening to ensure the fixing of the workpiece in the above-mentioned removable element.9. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the workpiece is a gem.10. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the workpiece is a faceted diamond.11. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the said optical system includes a beam expander, a dichroic mirror and a focusing lens.12. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the said means for directing includes a floating platform having at least three axes of motion.13. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the said means for directing is made manageable for the formation of a set of partially overlapping areas irradiated by the radiation source of laser energy.14. System for the imp is to be placed is made manageable for the formation of the set of continuous paths, educated partly overlapping areas irradiated by the radiation source of laser energy.15. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the said means for directing executed managed to translate it into a dormant state during the laser pulse from the above-mentioned laser energy source.16. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the forming system image contains an optical channel comprising at least a section of the workpiece and which is aligned with at least part of an axis of the above-mentioned laser energy source, the radiation which impinges on the workpiece.17. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the forming system image contains an optical channel comprising at least a section of the workpiece and which is perpendicular to at least part of the axis of the above-mentioned laser energy source, the radiation which impinges on the workpiece.18. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that as the area of the workpiece, which is coaxial with at least a part of the axis of the above-mentioned laser energy source, the radiation which falls on the workpiece, and the second optical channel, comprising the above-mentioned preparation section, which is perpendicular to the aforementioned axis mentioned laser radiation.19. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the forming system image contains an electronic device imaging for transmitting image information in said processor, and mentioned the processor provides control of the said means for direction on the basis of image information.20. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that the system imaging visualizes the workpiece through the dichroic mirror decreases the radiation output of the laser energy source.21. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that said input means for receiving commands labeling contains a bar code reader.22. System to perform mikroneesia CI contains an optical transducer of the image.23. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that said input means for receiving commands marking contains an input for receiving information relating to the quality of the workpiece.24. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that said input means for receiving commands labeling contains a sensor to automatically detect the characteristics of the workpiece.25. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that it further comprises a telecommunication channel and a data storage system that includes a remote electronic database.26. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that it contains a data storage system that receives image information for storage of the system forming the image.27. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that it contains a data storage system that provides storage of information related to the images of the workpiece together with the information under item otesaga 1, characterized in that it further comprises an input for receiving information relating to the image of the workpiece, and a comparison tool to determine the ratio between the information related to the workpiece, and the stored information from the system to form the image.29. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy on p. 28, characterized in that it further comprises an output to indicate the ratio between the workpiece and the stored information from the system to form the image.30. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy on p. 28, characterized in that the said input is for receiving information from the system to form the image.31. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that it further comprises an input for receiving information from the image related to the image of the workpiece, and means for comparing mentioned the received information and the above-mentioned commands marking with the stored information obtained from the system of image formation during the labeling, DL the th stored information.32. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that it further comprises a means for comparing these teams marking with the stored information from the system imaging, to determine whether the resulting billets, marked in accordance with the commands of the labeling, any saved information.33. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy under item 1, characterized in that said processor analyzes the commands listed marking and saved information from the system forming the image, and based on the analysis of selectively control the said means for directions.34. Perform micronodes on the workpiece with the laser energy emitted from the laser energy source, focused by an optical system on the workpiece, namely, that fix the workpiece in the clamping system, direct the focused laser energy to the desired area of the workpiece to create an image of the workpiece, take command of marking at least one input and control n ovci on the basis of the above commands, characterized in that conduct surveillance of the workpiece from a number of convenient points by using the images and additionally managing by using a processor mentioned direction on the basis of the said image, storing the information related to images of many of the blanks.35. The method according to p. 34, wherein the laser energy source contains a neodymium laser with semiconductor pumping.36. The method according to p. 35, wherein the laser is a laser crystal Nd: YLF with intracavity Converter harmonics.37. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that the system further comprises a chassis for rigid attachment of the laser energy source, a fastening system, an optical system for directing a focused laser energy, while additionally perform the operation of re-positioning the workpiece relative to the chassis.38. The method according to p. 34, wherein the fastening system includes a stationary element, a removable element and a clip fastening to ensure the fixing of the workpiece in a removable element, in addition perform the operation of hard linking removable Alemany stone.40. The method according to p. 34, wherein the workpiece is a faceted diamond.41. The method according to p. 34, wherein the optical system includes a beam expander, a dichroic mirror and a focusing lens, in addition operate the extension of the output radiation of the laser energy source through the beam expander, the selective reflection of at least part of the extended beam using a dichroic mirror and focusing the reflected expanded beam on the workpiece using a focusing lens.42. The method according to p. 34, wherein the optical system includes a beam expander, a dichroic mirror and a focusing lens, in addition operate the extension of the output radiation of the laser energy source through the beam expander, the selective reflection of at least part of the extended beam using a dichroic mirror, focusing the reflected expanded beam on the workpiece using a focusing lens and obtaining electronic image of the workpiece through the dichroic mirror.43. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further receive an electronic image of a portion of the workpiece, a dichroic mirror NII direction of laser energy control movement of the floating platform at least along three axes.45. The method according to p. 34, wherein when controlling the direction of laser energy to form a set of partially overlapping areas irradiated by the radiation source of laser energy.46. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further fix the position of the workpiece relative to the focal point of the source of laser energy during the laser pulse.47. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that when forming the image receiving an image through the optical channel, comprising at least a section of the workpiece and which is coaxial with at least a part of the axis of the laser energy source, the radiation which impinges on the workpiece.48. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that when forming the image receiving an image through the optical channel, comprising at least a section of the workpiece and which is perpendicular to at least part of the axis of the laser energy source, the radiation which impinges on the workpiece.49. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that when forming the image receiving an image through the first optical channel, comprising at least a section of the workpiece and which is coaxially at least an hour the channel, includes the above section of the workpiece and which is perpendicular to the aforementioned axis mentioned laser radiation.50. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further transmit the information about the electronic image in the above-mentioned processor and optional control of direction of laser energy on the basis of information about the image.51. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it additionally accept commands markings from the reader barcode.52. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that additionally take command of the marking of the Converter of the optical image.53. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further mark the workpiece with information related to the quality of the workpiece.54. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further automatically determine the characteristics of the workpiece and use the obtained information for the commands marking.55. The method according to p. 33, characterized in that it further transmit the information related to images, over a telecommunications channel and saves the information in the remote database with the electronic storage of information.56. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that dopolnitelnaya information related to images of the workpieces, together with information relating to commands marking.58. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further receive information related to the image, and determine the ratio between the workpiece and the stored information of the image.59. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further receive information related to the image of the workpiece, and forming an output signal showing the relation between the workpiece and the stored information of the image.60. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further compare the images obtained by the image formation, with the previously stored information about the image.61. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further receive information related to the image of the workpiece, comparing the newly received information and commands marking with previously stored information about the image to determine whether the blanks marked in accordance with the commands of the labeling, any saved information.62. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further compare command marking with previously stored information about the image to determine from the stored information.63. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further analyze team marking and previously stored information from the image and selectively control the marking on the basis of the above analysis.64. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that the labeling contains a set of lines or spots.65. The method according to p. 34, wherein the at least one input for receiving encrypted information.66. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further distinguish the information from the image of the workpiece, encrypt selected information and serves encrypted information to the input to receive.67. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further determine the characteristics of the workpiece, encrypt the expression obtained characteristics of the workpiece using an encryption algorithm using the public key and private key and serves encrypted expression for the login of admission.68. The method according to p. 67, characterized in that it further decode coded using the public key and comparing the decrypted expression characteristic of the workpiece for establishing the authenticity of the marking.69. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further determine the nature of the expression at the entrance to reception remember the information relating to the characteristics, and establish the authenticity of the workpiece on the basis of the description of the marking on the workpiece and the specific characteristics of the workpiece.70. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that it further identify the mark of the workpiece from the images obtained during the formation of the image, perform micronodes in the form of a label position that is determined based on the position identified by the identification mark, and remember the position.71. System to perform mikroneesia using laser energy, containing a laser energy source, a fastening system that provides optical access to secured a precious stone, an optical system for focusing laser energy from the laser energy source to a precious stone, a floating platform to move the system mounting the gemstone relative to that of the optical system to provide the supply referred focused laser energy in the desired position on said gemstone to perform micronodes characterized by minimal accuracy, having a control input, and the system to perform MicroNet, system imaging for monitoring gemstone, characterized in that said laser mentioned optical system and said platform is supported by a rigid frame in a fixed ratio to resist differential movements mentioned laser mentioned optical system and said platform and increase resistance to misalignments caused by vibration, to maintain the specified minimum accuracy.72. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that said laser energy source includes a laser crystal Nd:YLF with semiconductor pump and intracavity Converter harmonics, the output radiation which has a wavelength of approximately 530 nm.73. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that it further comprises an input for receiving commands marking, the processor to control a floating platform on the basis of these teams marking and mentioned the images to selectively perform marking on the basis of these teams and pre-determine the pits of many preparations.74. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that it further comprises a power source for the above-mentioned laser energy source.75. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that it further comprises a chassis for anchoring the above-mentioned laser energy source, the system fastening mentioned optical system and said floating platform.76. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that it further comprises a power source for a laser energy source and chassis for anchoring the above-mentioned laser energy source, the system fastening mentioned optical system, referred to a floating platform and said power source.77. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that it further comprises a chassis for anchoring the above-mentioned laser energy source, the system fastening mentioned optical system and said floating platform, and referred to the roaming platform both the ISIA using laser energy p. 71, characterized in that the fastening system includes a stationary element, a removable element and attachment clip for attaching the workpiece to a removable element.79. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, wherein the workpiece is a gem.80. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, wherein the workpiece is a faceted diamond.81. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that the said optical system includes a beam expander, a dichroic mirror and a focusing lens.82. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that the said movable platform has at least three axes of motion.83. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that the said movable platform is made manageable for the formation of a set of partially overlapping areas irradiated by the laser energy source.84. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that co pulse laser energy source.85. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that the forming system image contains an optical channel including at least the area of the workpiece and which is coaxial with at least a part of the axis of the laser energy source, the radiation which impinges on the workpiece.86. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that the forming system image contains an optical channel including at least the area of the workpiece and which is perpendicular to at least part of the axis of the laser energy source, the radiation which impinges on the workpiece.87. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that the said system forming the image includes the first optical channel, including at least the area of the workpiece and which is coaxial with at least a part of the axis of the laser energy source, the radiation which falls on the workpiece, and the second optical channel, comprising the above section, of the workpiece and which is perpendicular to the aforementioned axis of the above-mentioned laser.88. System to perform a MIC the Oia shows the plot of the workpiece, through dichroic mirror decreases the radiation output of the laser energy source.89. System to perform mikroneesia with laser energy according to p. 71, characterized in that it further comprises means for automatically determining the characteristics of the workpiece.90. The method of establishing the authenticity of the marking on the workpiece, namely, that mark the workpiece with ablative pattern obtained with high accuracy by using a focused laser energy, wherein remember the image of the workpiece, including a detailed elements at least part of the ablation pattern, and reproduce the stored image on the security certificate for the identification of the workpiece on the basis of the reproduced image and the workpiece.91. The method according to p. 90, characterized in that the security certificate includes encrypted information, which itself confirms its authenticity.92. The method according to p. 90, characterized in that the bullet billet is Packed together with a certificate of protection.93. The method according to p. 90, characterized in that in addition put security code on the security certificate.94. The way the I, the image receive electronically.96. The method according to p. 90, characterized in that said image includes part of the ablative pattern and the contour of the Equatorial plane of the workpiece.Priority items:
05.01.1996 on PP.1-14, 16-24, 26, 28, 31-45, 47-54, 56, 58, 60-64, 71, 72, 74-83, 85-89;
30.07.1996 on PP. 15, 25, 27, 29, 30, 46, 55, 57, 59, 65-70, 73, 84, 90-96.
FIELD: systems and methods for laser working, possibly marking, welding, drilling, cutting and heat treatment of different constructions in machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: system includes apparatus for feeding objects and preliminarily arranging them on supporting surface; tray for supporting objects; galvanometric head; laser source and computer. Galvanometric head includes first wide-angle compartment with focusing lens and with first filter arranged at outlet of first compartment, second narrow-beam compartment with focusing lens and with second filter arranged at outlet of second compartment; guiding mirror; galvanometric deflecting mirrors and lens reflecting at least one object placed on tray. Computer is provided with software for identifying shape used for controlling operation of said first and second compartments, laser source and unit regulating motion of galvanometric head.
EFFECT: improved surface roughness (several micrometers) at manufacturing complex objects.
10 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser welding head for welding metal parts with at least one laser beam path of welding beam and appliances for optical registration of welding seam position on the first measurement position. Said welded seam optical registration means allows the position of the first measurement position with advance in direction of welding and at least depending on lateral deviation of welding seam from preset position laser welding beam position correction signal is generated. Invention relates also to laser welding procedure. Welding seam position is determined in using optical means of registration on the first measurement position along with advanced laser beam welding position. Depending upon welded seam position deviation from preset position, correction signal is generated. Distance of the first measurement position 9, given the advanced welding position 8 of welding beam 2, is selected so that correction signal can be used without advance calculation to control aforesaid correction means 7.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and efficiency.
20 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: friction bearing consists of at least one bearing part (25) made out of iron containing basic material. Further, friction bearing consists of insertion (24) on its working surface equipped with coating (26) made in form of a built-up layer and connected to basic material by means of a connecting zone containing FeSn2. Thickness of the connecting zone containing FeSn2 is maximum 10 mcm. It corresponds to depth of diffusion of the Sn layer built-up on iron containing basic material, preferably the layer of babbit. The distinguished feature of the procedure for fabrication of the above said bearing is like follows: during built-up of at least the first layer of coating (26), transfer of power to coated surface and to supplied covering material is controlled so, that only covering material is completely melted, while iron containing basic material is in completely solid state. The claimed here friction bearing is used in metallurgy, particularly for support of rollers in a rolling mill for metal and non-metal strips or profiles.
EFFECT: increased service life, high reliability due to elimination of negative effect to plasticity of bearing; also, simple procedure for bearing fabrication.
31 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to medicine. The method and apparatus for localising an optical system focus with a radiation source, an image forming focusing system, at least partially reflecting a near-focus surface, a digital sensor system for filming an image reflected from the mentioned surface, a calculating unit for evaluating the filmed image, and an optical element arranged along a beam path of the optical system in front of the image forming focusing system and changing the mention image with the focus localisation.
EFFECT: application of this group of inventions enables localising the optical system focus precisely.
12 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes obtaining images of an adjustment laser beam and markers of control elements of the optical system, the centre of which is determined from a pair markers located on both sides of the centre, equidistant therefrom. The method also includes performing random inclination of the control optical elements, controlling change in position of images of the markers and the adjustment laser beam by calculating deviation of the centre of mass of said images from the optical axis of the system, calculating control signals which are transmitted to drives of actuating mechanisms of the control optical elements. The control signals are calculated using a stochastic parallel gradient (SPG) algorithm, the target function of which depends on deviation of the centre of mass of images from the optical axis of the system. A parameter which controls the rate of convergence of the SPG algorithm is defined by the current value of deviation of the centre of mass of the image from the position of the optical axis.
EFFECT: easier and more reliable automated adjustment of the optical system.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for radiation treatment, which is capable of fast and accurate processing of template surface. Device (10) for processing of template surface (W) with a beam (LB) has a source (32) for generating a beam (LB), device (12) for the beam (LB) movement, and several reflectors (14) located on the optical path of the beam (LB) between the device (12) for the beam movement and treated surface. Several reflectors (14) are inclined at a predetermined angle corresponding to the direction of incidence of the beam (LB), the beam (LB) moved by the device (12) for the beam movement passes almost vertically relative to another position of the treated surface.
EFFECT: fast and accurate processing of template surface.
14 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser processing method and devices and can be used for material melting, evaporation or cutting under action of laser radiation. In device unfocused light (A) from light output point (B) is emitted on singlet lens (8). Lens (8) focuses laser light (A) and directs it to part (7) processing point. Distance (ma, mb) between lens (8) and light output point (B) and distance (la, lb) between lens (8) and part (7) processing point and distance between light output point (B) and said processing point may vary.
EFFECT: wherein, achieved are expanded operating performances of device and method, consisting in processing of parts with various thickness, and higher accuracy of laser processing.
40 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: food and light industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of articles and forming of picture inside transparent or semitransparent materials. System includes optical unit to form laser punctures in article material combination of which composes number of symbols of marking picture, unit to feed article to zone of marking and process control unit. Optical unit contains pulse laser set with at least one optical channel connected with unit of article scanning and/or positioning relative to focusing lens of laser set. Process control unit is furnished with device for time synchronization of beginning of marking with position of zone of article marking. Laser pulse frequency index, capacity of conveyor and number of channels are related by mathematical dependence. Invention makes it possible to form pictures by marks inside thin-walled articles with curvilinear surface under conditions of high-speed conveyor production.
EFFECT: improved reliability of marking non-reproducible under other conditions.
5 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: electronic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises processing the blank surface with the concentrated radiation flux. The radiation flux is directed to the surface to be processed and repeatedly moves over the surface thus forming required microrelief. The process is controlled by a computer.
EFFECT: improved quality of the microrelief.
4 cl, 3 dwg