# Method for estimating attractiveness of brilliant glow on basis of charm coefficient

FIELD: technology for processing diamonds into brilliants.

SUBSTANCE: in the method, by experimental or calculation-theoretic way in glow images visible to observer optical characteristics of diamond glow are determined, including glow intensiveness, glow glimmer and color saturation of glow, characterized by level of decomposition of white color on rainbow colors, and also relief coefficient of glow, characterized by average number of intensive color spots in glow image, distinctive to human eye, and additionally, by dividing glow image on compound portions, average values of glow intensiveness of compound portions are measured. Optical characteristics of glow are transformed to glow factors. As average coefficient of brilliant glow charm, which is used to estimate brilliant glow charm, charm coefficient is used, calculated as average value of factors of intensiveness, glimmering, color saturation and glow image geometry.

EFFECT: possible objective measurement and numeric estimation of brilliants glow charm, and possible certification of them on basis of glow charm.

5 cl, 22 dwg, 11 tbl

The invention relates to the manufacture of precious stones, namely, processing technologies diamonds.

There is a way to evaluate diamonds on four "C" factors [1], describing the following values:

- Clarity - purity or presence of internal defects in material diamond (faceted diamond);

- Color - the color or transparency of the material of the diamond (faceted diamond);

- Cut - cut diamond and cut any defects;

- Carat Weight - the weight of a diamond (faceted diamond), expressed in carats.

The disadvantage of this method is that the determination of the value of the diamond is on characteristics that are only indirectly related to the beauty of its luster. Four "C" factor affect the brilliance of a diamond, but expressly not describe.

It is also known that the beauty of the brilliance of a diamond is directly influenced by the optical properties of the stone, such as glitter, sparkling and decomposition of white light into a rainbow (color saturation). Due to the maximum utilization and optimum ratio of optical properties, you can get the most Shine and light the game of the diamond, i.e. beauty Shine.

A known way of defining beauty Shine of the diamond, which calculates averaged over the angles within the upper hemisphere simple the of Christianity weighted average factor intensity of luster of the diamond "WLR", representing the reflectance of incident light, and the weighted average coefficient decomposition diamond white light into a rainbow "DCLR" [2].

The disadvantage of this method is that when evaluating a beauty of luster of the diamond are not taken into account the following optical characteristics of brilliance, which is the physical stimuli that affect the perception system:

- sparkling Shine, characterizing the average number of sparks in the film Shine and intensity Shine when you turn the diamond in space;

- General view of the picture Shine, characterizing the presence in the film Shine visually distinct dark spots which may adversely affect the luster of the diamond.

The disadvantage of this method is the absence of a General appraisal beauty Shine of a diamond, which would take into account all the optical characteristics of brilliance, which is the physical stimuli that affect the perception system[3, 4, 5].

The prototype of the present invention is a method of assessing beauty Shine of the diamond, in which experimental or theoretical way in the visible observer paintings Shine determine the optical characteristics of the brilliance of a diamond, including the intensity of brilliance, dispersion of light (color saturation Shine and shimmer (scintillate is) Shine, characterizing the number and intensity of glare reflected light when turning or tilting of the precious stone. Data of optical characteristics is used in the definition of the generalized coefficient beauty Shine of the diamond, which appreciate the beauty of the luster of the diamond [6].

The disadvantage of this method is that it is not defined by such an optical characteristic of the luster of the diamond, as the relief of glitter, characterized by the average number of intense light spots in the film Shine, spatially distinguishable to the human eye. In addition, not estimated geometry of the picture Shine, characterizing the presence in the film Shine visually distinct dark spots which may adversely affect the luster of the diamond. As a result, when determining the generalized coefficient beauty Shine of a diamond, these characteristics were not taken into account, which makes it impossible to objectively evaluate the beauty of the sparkle of diamonds.

The objective of the invention is to develop a method for evaluating beauty Shine diamond coefficient charm charm, providing the opportunity to objectively measure and quantify the beauty of the glitter of diamonds, as well as the possibility of their certification by the principal for jewelry applications description the beauty of their luster.

This object is achieved in that the proposed method estimates the beauty of luster of the diamond, experimental or theoretical way in the visible observer paintings Shine determine the optical characteristics of the brilliance of a diamond, including the intensity of glitter, shimmer Shine and color saturation Shine, characterized by the degree of decomposition of white light into the colours of the rainbow. The obtained optical characteristics of glitter used in the definition of the generalized coefficient beauty Shine of the diamond, which appreciate the beauty of the luster of the diamond. In addition, the optical characteristics Shine define the appearance of Shine, characterized by the average number of intense light spots in the film Shine, spatially distinguishable to the human eye. Then by dividing the picture Shine on integral part of the measured average values of the intensities of Shine constituent parts of the picture Shine, Express the obtained values of optical characteristics Shine in relative units, where the comparison options accept obtained in the same conditions of illumination and observation optical characteristics of the brilliance of a diamond is selected as the benchmark, using characteristic functions normalization convert the relative optical characteristics of the light in the factors of brilliance, and then determine the factor of iscritti Shine as the average of the accordion is a mini-value factors of relief and twinkling glitter and the geometry factor of the picture Shine, characterizing the uniformity of the intensity pattern Shine as the geometric mean of the factors of the average values of intensities of Shine constituent parts of the picture Shine. As a generalized coefficient beauty Shine diamond factor should be used charm charm, calculated as the average value of the factors of intensity, iscritti, color saturation and geometry of the picture Shine.

As a diamond, taken as a reference, choose diamond round shape cut with 57 facets, category "0" (zero) on the classification of the American Gemological society, with the size of the area 0,57 of the girdle diameter, angle of inclination of the faces of the crowns 34,8°, the angle of the pavilion facets 40,7°height wedges top of 0.75 of the height of the crown, the height of the wedges bottom 0,79 from the height of the pavilion and the girdle thickness of 0.02 from its diameter.

As the characteristic functions of the normalization chosen by rational functions of the form:

f(x)=k_{1}/[k_{2}+(x-k_{3})^{2n}],

where x is the value of some optical properties of brilliance, expressed in relative units;

f(x) is a factor of lustre corresponding to the relative optical characteristic luster;

k_{1}, k_{2}, k_{3}, n are constants that define the particular type of characteristic functions n is miravci.

The coefficient charm charm is calculated as a harmonic mean value of the factors of intensity, iscritti, color saturation and geometry of the picture Shine.

The coefficient charm charm is considered as an additional "C" factor when evaluating diamonds, in conjunction with the known "C" factors in assessing clarity, color, cut, carat weight.

Thus, the technical result consists in the fact that diamond can be calculated coefficient charm charm, which is a fifth "C" factor in the grading of diamonds, quantifying the beauty of their luster. In conjunction with other "C" factors he can more accurately determine the beauty and value of a diamond, to increase their commercial value and to stimulate consumer demand for this type of jewelry products.

The essence of the proposed method of assessing beauty Shine diamond coefficient charm charm is as follows.

The coefficient charm charm is a quantitative generalized coefficient beauty Shine of the diamond, taking into account all the optical characteristics of brilliance, which is the physical stimuli that affect sensory perception system.

The coefficient charm charm can evaluate a single instant picture of the brilliance of a diamond, Shine any the proofs of diamond in a given range of angles of its observations and overall Shine any cut diamond, when averaging characteristics of the brilliance is in all sorts of corners of his observations.

When calculating the coefficient charm diamond carry out the measurement or calculation of the following characteristics Shine, which is the optical-physical stimuli acting on sensory perception system:

- Shine intensity (I), described by the reflection coefficient of light rays after refraction them in the diamond and into the eye of the observer;

- embossed gloss (R), characterized by the average number of intense light spots in the film Shine, spatially distinguishable to the human eye,

- blink magnitude (M), characterized by the change of its intensity when tilting or rotation of a diamond in space;

- colour Shine (Q), characterized by the degree of decomposition of white light into the colours of the rainbow, rays, trapped in the eye of the observer;

- geometry paintings Shine (G)characterizing the presence or absence in the film dark rings or spots, reducing the beauty Shine [7].

As the characteristic function of the normalization f(x)that converts the relative optical properties of brilliance, which in turn are physical stimuli affecting sensory perception system, the factors of Shine, is selected fractional-rational fu the Ktsia:

f(x)=k_{1}/[k_{2}+(x-k_{3})^{2n}]

where x is the value of some optical properties of brilliance, expressed in relative units;

f(x) is a factor of lustre corresponding to the relative optical characteristic luster;

k_{1}, k_{2}, k_{3}, n are constants that define the particular type of characteristic functions of normalization.

As the characteristic function of a standard can be selected functional dependence of the containing function super Gauss in the degree of "2n":

f(x)=(1-exp(-2((x/k_{2})-k_{3})^{2n}))/k_{1}

This constant k_{1}, k_{2}and k_{3}are selected so that when x=1 the characteristic function of the normalization takes the value of 1. When changing x from 0 to 1, the function f(x) increases monotonically from 0 to 1. When x>1 the function f(x) tends monotonically to some maximum value, which characterizes the upper threshold of sensory perception. The degree of n determines the slope of the growth function f(x), describing the transition from lower threshold to upper threshold of sensory perception.

When calculating the coefficient charm charm averaging factors of gloss can be achieved by different mathematical ways [8]:

- as a weighted average arithmetic value of averaged values:

Ch=(kI·F_{I}+kL·F_{}
+kQ·F_{Q}+kG·F_{G})/(kI+kL+kQ+kG)

where Ch is a coefficient charm charm;

F - factors gloss indexes which correspond to the following characteristics: I - intensity, L - iscritti, Q - color saturation, G - geometry paintings Shine;

kI, kL, kQ, kG - influence coefficients of each of the optical parameters on the magnitude of generalized coefficient of enchantment;

- as a weighted geometric average value of averaged values:

where kI, kL, kQ, kG is the degree of influence of each of the optical parameters on the magnitude of generalized coefficient of enchantment;

- as a harmonic mean value of averaged values:

Ch=4/((1/F_{I})+(1/F_{L})+(1/F_{Q})+1/F_{G}))

Specific values of degree n and coecients of the k_{1}, k_{2}, k_{3}used in the characteristic functions of normalization, as well as the methods of averaging factors gloss was determined empirically on the basis of a large dataset obtained from a group of independent experts in evaluating beauty Shine different diamonds.

When selecting specific values of the degree n and coecients of the k_{1}, k_{2}, k_{3}take into account that the luster of the diamond, is selected as a reference and relative to which the evaluation takes place Shine other diamonds, using the characteristic function of n is miravci receives all parameters Shine,
including the coefficient charm charm, evaluation, equal to 1, and this corresponds adebellini evaluation system beauty Shine of the diamond. This takes into account that you can get the best quality cut, in which the ratio of charm may be more ˜10%. On this basis, the k_{1}in accordance with adebellini system should be equal to 1, and k_{2}should be taken equal to 0.9. To avoid fractional values of the coefficients and for more convenient physical interpretation of the calculations of the coefficient of charm, multiplied by 10, so in fractional-rational function normalization accept the following factors: k_{1}=10, k_{2}=9. K_{3}take equal to 2, based on the fact that fractional-rational function normalization in the case when the value of the variable x equal to the value of the standard, which is 1, the expression in brackets (x-k_{3}) must always be equal to 1, hence k_{3}=2.

Degree 2n in fractional-rational characteristic function normalization determines the contrast level of the estimated coefficient charm charm. Degree 2n=12 is chosen by the method of selection, given that this is sufficient contrast between the diamonds with more or less high degree of gloss. At high values of degree 2n>18 missing transitional region from brillian the s with a high degree of luster to diamonds with a low degree of gloss for small values of degree 2n<8 the difference between diamonds with a high degree of brilliance from the diamonds with a low degree of gloss is obtained not very noticeable, so in practice this is unacceptable. Optimal values of degree 2n must be selected in the range of 12<2n<18.

The coefficients and the degree of influence of each of the optical parameters on the magnitude of generalized coefficient of charm kI, kL, kQ, kG also choose considering the fact that the evaluation of different optical characteristics Shine is relative to the values of the relevant optical characteristics of the diamond, is chosen as the standard. Based on the fact that beauty Shine benchmark should be evaluated by the coefficient of charm Ch=1, and the optical characteristics of the diamond, the accepted standard is also taken equal to 1, then the coefficients and the degree of influence of each of the optical parameters on the magnitude of generalized coefficient of charm, respectively, taken equal to: kI=1, kQ=1, kG=1. Based on the fact that sparkling Shine includes a relief pattern of Shine and shimmer Shine, the coefficients and the degree of influence of these parameters on the value of the coefficient charm charm accordingly taken equal to 0.5, and then the value of the coefficient and the degree of influence of iscritti Shine kL in the sum is 1.

Thus, the good agreement of the calculated testing the response coefficient charm charm with estimates of beauty Shine, obtained from a group of independent experts, is obtained when the following conditions are met:

- when selecting the characteristic function normalization in the form of rational functions with coefficients k_{1}=10, k_{2}=9, k_{3}=2 and 2n=12;

- when calculating the geometry factor paintings Shine as geometric mean values of factors of the average values of intensities of Shine constituent parts of the picture Shine;

- when calculating factor iscritti Shine as the harmonic mean of the values of the factors of relief and flicker;

- when calculating the coefficient charm charm as the harmonic mean of the values of the factors of intensity, iscritti, color saturation and geometry of the picture Shine.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

figure 1 shows the optical scheme of the computer model for the calculation of the luster of the diamond, with the diamond side, where β - the polar angle of the diamond; θ - the polar angle of the diamond; 1 - observable diamond; 2 - matrix virtual photodetectors; 3 - upper hemisphere background lighting of the diamond; 4 - ray diffuse background light;

figure 2 - optical scheme of the computer model for the calculation of the luster of the diamond, with the diamond on top, where α - azimuthal angle of the diamond; ϕ - azimuthal angle nab is Eugenia diamond;

figure 3 - graph of the characteristic function of the normalization of the optical characteristics of the light in the form of a fractional-rational function f(x)=10/[9+(x-2)^{12}] with degree 2n=12;

figure 4 presents a picture of the real brilliance of a diamond, is chosen as the standard for calculation of the coefficient charm charm, special illumination, providing Shine in the form of a "hearts and arrows", the view from the top (crown) with a different light;

figure 5 - same, ventral view (pavilion);

figure 6 presents the estimated pattern of the luster of the diamond, is chosen as the standard, special illumination, providing Shine in the form of a "hearts and arrows", the view from the top (crown) with a different light;

7 - same, ventral view (pavilion);

on Fig presents the estimated picture brilliance of a diamond, is chosen as the standard, lighted, close to the natural slope of the diamond θ=0°;

figure 9 is the same, the angle of the diamond θ=15°;

figure 10 is the same, the angle of the diamond θ=30°;

figure 11 presents the estimated picture Shine diamond round shape cut Kr diameter platform 0.55 and the height of the girdle of 0.02, the angle of inclination of the facets of the crown 34°, the angle of the pavilion facets 41°height wedges top of 0.75, the height of the wedges bottom of 0.79, the coefficient of charm Ch=1,00, tilt diamond θ=3°;

on Fig is the same, the ratio of charm Ch=,99, the slope of diamond θ=25°;

on Fig-22 presents the estimated picture Shine diamond round shape cut Kr diameter pad of 0.55, the height of the girdle of 0.02, the height of the wedges top of 0.5, the height of the wedges bottom of 0.8, thus:

on Fig - the angle of the facets of the crown 33°, the angle of the pavilion facets 37°ratio of charm Ch=1,04, tilt diamond θ=3°;

on Fig is the same, the ratio of charm Ch=0,94, tilt diamond θ=25°;

on Fig - the angle of the facets of the crown 13°, the angle of the pavilion facets 38°ratio of charm Ch=0,94, tilt diamond θ=3°;

on Fig is the same, the ratio of charm Ch=0,71, tilt diamond θ=25°;

on Fig - the angle of the facets of the crown 44°, the angle of the pavilion facets 29°ratio of charm Ch=0,88, tilt diamond θ=3°;

on Fig is the same, the ratio of charm Ch=0,76, tilt diamond θ=25°;

on Fig - the angle of the faces of the crowns 15°, the angle of the pavilion facets 43°ratio of charm Ch=0,10, tilt diamond θ=3°;

on Fig is the same, the ratio of charm Ch=0,51, tilt diamond θ=25°;

on Fig - the angle of the facets of the crown 32°, the angle of the pavilion facets 28°ratio of charm Ch=0,00, tilt diamond θ=3°;

on Fig is the same, the coefficient of is arovane Ch=0,61, the slope of diamond θ=25°.

The implementation of the method is demonstrated on the example of calculation of the coefficient charm charm for diamonds round cut CR. The review is carried out on the array of cuts having a diameter pad 0,55 of the girdle diameter, the angle of inclination of the facets of the crown is 11°-45°, the angle of the pavilion facets 24°-50°.

As a diamond, taken as a reference, choose diamond round shape cut with 57 facets, category "0" (zero) on the classification of the American Gemological society, with respect to the size of the area to the girdle diameter of 0.57, the angle of inclination of the faces of the crowns 34,8°, the angle of the pavilion facets 40,7°with respect to the wedges top to the height of the crown of 0.75, the ratio of the height of the wedges bottom to the height of the pavilion is 0.79 and the ratio of the thickness of the girdle and its diameter of 0.02. Under certain lighting conditions the diamonds with this cut have a picture of brilliance in the form of "hearts" (when viewed from the side of the pavilion) and "arrows" (when viewed from the side of the crown).

The brilliance of a diamond is analyzed using a specially designed computer program calculations, numerical methods modeling brilliance gems. The program allows to calculate the instantaneous pictures and videos Shine with their visualization on a PC monitor.

Numerical calculations Shine is carried out in the approximation of geometrical optics, where each of the paintings brilliance of a diamond is represented as a superposition of a multitude of rays reflected from the observed diamond 1 and caught a virtual matrix of photodetectors (IMF) 2, simulating the retina or receiving CCD matrix digital cameras (camera).

The estimated matrix virtual photodetectors can change its size from 2.5·10^{3}for quick calculations up to 10^{6}elements for calculations with high spatial resolution. The program allows you to calculate color in 2 modes, when each of the virtual photodetectors capable of calculating the intensity of 3 beams of light from the red (r), green (g) and blue (b) wavelengths or 10 rays of light with wavelengths uniformly overlying the entire range of visible light. In the first case provides a fast calculation, and the second - more color image quality precious stone.

The initial data for calculation of paintings Shine are the optical characteristics of a diamond (refractive index and absorption coefficient of light at different wavelengths), the geometry of the cut, the geometry of the location of internal defects, the geometry and characteristics of light sources, characteristics, background lighting, geometry relative position of the observer and diamonds.

The numerical results the x calculations are individual frames of the luster of the diamond, the films brilliance of a diamond, while rotating, rocking or other more complex the movement, the numerical values of the optical characteristics Shine.

When calculating the coefficient charm charm the concept of instantaneous optical characteristics of lustre corresponding to a single virtual sensor or a single picture of the luster of the diamond, and the concept of average optical characteristics corresponding to a specific range of angles of the diamond relative to the observer or the diamond as a whole.

The method is implemented as follows.

Calculate the instantaneous light intensity I_{ν}reflected from a diamond 1 and got on a single element of the IMF 2 with index νin accordance with the expression:

where K is the number of spectral segments, which divided the visible range of the spectrum in which light appears to be monochromatic with an average wavelength λ_{t};

I_{λν}- intensity light beam with a wavelength of λ_{I}reflected from a diamond and got on a single element of the IMF's index ν.

Calculate the instantaneous intensity of the color light Q_{ν}reflected from a diamond 1 and got on a single element of the IMF 2 with index νin accordance with the expression:

Calculate the instantaneous angular shimmer Shine M_{ν}as the difference between the instantaneous intensity of light I_{ν}reflected from a diamond 1 and got on a single element of the IMF 2 with index νwhen the tilt angles of the diamond θ relative to the observer, differing by 1°:

M_{ν}=I_{ν}(θ)-I_{ν}(θ+1).

Calculate the average single frame of the instantaneous intensity, color saturation and shimmer Shine as the arithmetic average of the values for the IMF:

where N is the number of elements of the matrix virtual photodetectors;

θ, ϕ respectively, the polar and azimuthal angles of the diamond relative to the observer, when the value which is calculated optical characteristics Shine.

Diamond CR with 8 times the level of symmetry relative to the axial axis, the characteristics of brilliance, averaged over a single frame, practically does not change when the angle ϕ. Therefore, further averaging over this angle was carried out continuously without special instructions this action.

Calculate instant relief Shine R_{θ}expressing the number of maxima in a two-dimensional distribution of I_{ν}form is to be eaten on the IMF and characterizing instantaneous picture Shine.
This takes into account only the "strong" maxima, the intensity of which is more than 2 times higher than the intensity of the nearby areas. Visually, these maxima are seen as the spark that was present in the instant film Shine.

A numerical method to describe the instantaneous geometry of the picture Shine G_{θ}characterizing the degree of uniformity of illumination of the whole picture Shine, and the presence of a Central dark spot, dark rings in the middle part of the picture and a dark edge. To describe the whole picture Shine divided into several smaller parts and each of them determine the average intensity of the Shine. Given that the round diamond dips in the intensity of the gloss are generally axially symmetrical shape, the picture Shine also is divided into several axially symmetric zones. Specifically, when calculating the G_{θ}for diamond CR picture Shine was divided into 5 parts: the Central circle with a radius of 0.06 radius figure r_{0}and 4 rings with a width of 0.2 r_{0}; 0,2 r_{0}; 0,2 r_{0}and 0.3 r_{0}accordingly, from the center to the edge of the picture. The dark center, edge or dark ring in the middle part of the picture Shine determined by the magnitude relationship of the average intensity of these sites to the average intensity of the whole picture. The magnitude of these relations is determined is by the following expressions:

G_{Cθ}=I_{Cθ}/I_{θ}; G_{K1θ}=I_{K1θ}/I_{θ}; G_{K2θ}=I_{K2θ}/I_{θ}; G_{K3θ}=I_{K3θ}/I_{θ}; G_{K4θ}=I_{K4θ}/I_{θ},

where I_{Cθ}, I_{K1θ}, I_{K2θ}, I_{K3θ}, I_{K4θ}- averaged intensity of luster, respectively, of the Central part of the painting and glitter rings K1, K2, K3 and K4;

I_{θ}- the intensity of the radiance, averaged over all picture of splendor.

Calculate the average optical properties of brilliance, describing the diamond is cut in a particular range of angles of slope relative to the observer, as the mean value of the instantaneous characteristics of the paintings Shine calculated in this range of angles of the diamond.

where X is the optical characteristics of glitter (I, R, M, Q, G);

θ1-θ2 - interval of angles, which is averaged optical characteristics Shine;

q - the number of paintings Shine, which is the averaging of the optical characteristics.

For optical characteristics, describing in General, any diamond is cut, the averaging of the optical characteristics of the brilliance is in all corners of the upper hemisphere space 0<θ<90°.

Averaging over random angles brilli the NTA, for example, 0°<θ<0° and 20°<θ<30° allows more detail to find out the features of the luster of the diamond, as this becomes apparent when observing, side or top view, this cut is more attractive.

Calculate the average optical characteristics Shine of the diamond, is chosen as the standard.

Calculate the average optical characteristics Shine in relative units i, r, m, q, g_{i}where as the units of comparison are accepted optical characteristics of the luster of the diamond, taken as a reference.

Determine the characteristic function of a standard of optical characteristics Shine f_{i}f_{R}f_{M}f_{Q}and f_{G}in the form of rational functions of degree 12 with coefficients k_{1}=10, k_{2}=9 and k_{3}=2. Variable these functions are values averaged optical characteristics Shine, expressed in relative units.

Using rational characteristic functions compute the normalization factors of the optical characteristics Shine:

the factor intensity of luster - F_{i}=f_{i}(i)=10/[9+(i-2)^{12}];

factor embossed glitter - F_{R}=f_{R}(r)=10/[9+(r-2)^{12}];

factor twinkling glitter - F_{M}=f_{M}(m)=10/[9+(m-2)^{12}];

the factor intensity of color of the glitter - F_{Q}=f_{
Q}(q)=10/[9+(q-2)^{12}].

Calculate the factor of iscritti paintings Shine as a harmonic mean value of the factors of relief and flickering Shine:

F_{L}=2/((1/F_{R})+(1/F_{M}))

Calculate the geometry factor paintings Shine as the geometric mean of the factors of the average values of intensities of Shine constituent parts of the picture Shine:

F_{G}=(FG_{C}·FG_{K1}·FG_{K2}·FG_{K3}·FG_{K4})^{0,2},

where FG_{C}=10/[9+(g_{C}-2)^{12}] factor intensity of the center of the picture Shine;

FG_{Ki}=10/[9+(g_{Ki}-2)^{12}] factor intensity of the i-th ring of the picture Shine, i=1...4.

Compute the generalized coefficient beauty Shine of the diamond, called the coefficient of charm charm, for observation angles 0°<θ<10° as a harmonic mean value of the factors of intensity, iscritti, color saturation and geometry of the picture Shine:

Ch_{0°-10°}=4/((1/F_{I})+(1/F_{L})+(1/F_{Q})+(1/F_{G}))

Calculate the coefficient of charm charm for a range of angles 20°<θ<30°.

Calculate the coefficient of charm charm, averaged over the range of angles of diamond 0°<θ<30° as a weighted average arithmetic value of Ch_{0°-10°}and Ch_{20°-30°}:

Ch_{0°-30°}=(Ch_{0
-10°}+Ch_{20°-30°}·cos^{2}25°)/(1+cos^{2}25°).

The weight factor cos^{2}θ indicates less relevant optical characteristics Shine while watching the diamond from the side than when observed from above.

View the characteristic function of a standard of optical characteristics Shine f(x)=10/[9+(x-2)^{12}]that was used when implementing the method, and the graph of which is shown in figure 3, defines a metrological scale changes of the coefficient of charm. The brilliance of a diamond is selected as a reference and relative to which the evaluation takes place Shine other diamonds, using this function retrieves all the parameters of brilliance, including the coefficient of charm charm, an assessment equal to 1. When determining the type of this function, an assumption was made that the diamond is chosen as the standard, has a very high optical characteristics Shine close to perfect, and the excellence of its luster over the diamonds other cuts can be no more than ˜10%. This assumption was borne out by the results of the calculations of the coefficient of charm, are presented below in tables.

The degree of the characteristic function of 2n=12 determines the contrast of the measurement scale factor of charm.

Shown in figure 4-5 pictures of real brilliance of a diamond is selected in the image quality is as a reference when determining the ratio of charm charm, have a good agreement with the calculated patterns brilliance of this diamond (Fig.6-10)obtained in the same conditions of illumination and observation. This confirms the high accuracy of the numerical simulation of real brilliance of the gems by using the numerical program, which was used to confirm the availability of the invention.

Figure 11 and 12 shows the picture of the luster of the diamond to the geometry of the cut, very little different from the reference. Optical characteristics of brilliance, expressed in relative units (i, r, m, q), and factors (F_{I}F_{L}F_{Q}F_{G}have in this case, values close to 1, and when viewed from above and a side inspection. Figure 11 - i=to 1.00, r=1.00 m, m=1,01, q=0,98; F_{I}=1,00, F_{L}=1,01, F_{Q}=0,97, F_{G}=1,00; Ch=1,00. On Fig - i=1,01, r=0.99, and m=1,00, q=0,97; F_{I}=1,01, F_{L}=1,00, F_{Q}=0,97, F_{G}=0,98; Ch=0,99.

The total coefficient of charm for angles 0°<θ<30° it also has a value close to 1, Ch=0,99; F_{I}=1,00, F_{L}=1,00, F_{Q}=1,00, F_{G}=1,00.

On Fig and 14 shows a picture of the luster of the diamond with a flattened geometry of the cut, with the angle of the pavilion facets 37°. It is seen that in this case, when viewed from above all the characteristics of the luster of the diamond have values better than the benchmark (Fig): i=1,01, r=1.07, and m=1,31, q=1,51; F_{I}=1,01, F_{L}=1,08, F_{
=1,11, FG=0,97; Ch=1,04. However, when viewed from the side deteriorate characteristics of iscritti and geometry of the picture Shine that appears as a dark Crescent shaped spot in the middle of the picture (Fig): i=1,06, r=0,88, m=0.99, and q=0,97; FI=1,05, FL=0,87, FQ=0.95, and FG=0,92; Ch=0,94. This leads to the decrease of the coefficient of charm as viewed from the side, and the average for all angles: Ch=0,98; FI=1,00, FL=1,00, FQ=1,00, FG=1,00.}

On Fig and 16 shows the picture of the luster of the diamond even more aplodinotus cut, when the angle of inclination of the faces of the crowns is 13°and the angle of the pavilion facets - 38°. Here it is necessary to provide a very high intensity Shine when viewed from above (Fig) and side (Fig), as well as high sparkling and color saturation when viewed from above. On Fig - i=1,21, r=1,23, m=1,45, q=1,40; F_{I}=1,10, F_{L}=1,11, F_{Q}=1,11, P_{G}=0,64; Ch=0,94. Ha Fig - i=1,19, r=0.95, and m=0,85, q=0,96; F_{I}=1,10, F_{L}=0,80, F_{Q}=0,94, F_{G}=0,41; Ch=0,71. The worst value is the geometry of the picture Shine, which is manifested, as in the previous case, in the form of dark spots Crescent shape. The coefficient of charm in this case has a markedly lower value than the standard (for angles of 0<θ<30° Ch=0,84), but because of the high efficiency of use of raw materials, this cut can also be of practical use is.

On Fig and 18 shows the picture of the luster of the diamond, with the angle of the facets of the crown 44° (high crown) and the angle of the pavilion facets 29° (lower pavilion). The brilliance of this diamond is inferior to the standard of the intensity parameter, however, is substantially outweighed by iscritti and color saturation. On Fig - i=0,81, r=1,11, m=1,57, q=1,94; F_{I}=0,59, F_{L}=1,10, F_{Q}=1,11, F_{G}=0,95; Ch=0,88. On Fig - i=0,79, r=0.99, and m=1,11, q=1,02; F_{I}=0,54, F_{L}=1,05, F_{Q}=1,02, F_{G}=0,67; Ch=0,76. The coefficient of charm here, as in the previous case, has an average value (for angles of 0<θ<30° Ch=0,82), due to relatively low intensity Shine. However, due to the specific characteristics of its original Shine and the geometry of the diamond with this cut can also be a commercial success.

On Fig-22 shows the picture of the brilliance of diamonds with cuts having a low coefficient of charm.

On Fig and 20 shows the picture of the luster of the diamond with a combination of cut, with a very high intensity Shine and good geometry of the picture. On Fig - i=1,28, r=0,29, m=0,71, q=0,70; F_{I}=1,11, F_{L}=0,03, F_{Q}=0,13, F_{G}=1,00; Ch=0,10. On Fig - i=1,32, r=0,59, m=0,74, q=0,83; F_{I}=1,11, F_{L}=0,25, F_{Q}=0,63, F_{G}=0,64; Ch=0,51. However, the ratio of charm to a low value due to low iscritti izotovoi saturation Shine (for angles of 0<
θ<30° Ch=0,29), that is, in the glitter of this diamond does not have a property called "Shine".

On Fig and 22 shows the picture of the glitter of a diamond with a cut that has a small coefficient of charm (for angles of 0<θ<30°Ch=0,28) primarily due to the low intensity of luster, although the brilliance of a diamond has a high value of color saturation. On Fig - i=0,53, r=1,99, m=4,25, q=2,16; F_{I}=0,09, F_{L}=0,00, F_{Q}=1,11, F_{G}=0,88; Ch=0,00. Ha Fig - i=0,71, r=1,15, m=1,47, q=1,08; F_{I}=0,34, F_{L}=1,10, F_{Q}=1.07, and F_{G}=0,56; Ch=0,61.

Examples of the brilliance of diamonds with different shapes cut show good agreement coefficient charm with true beauty Shine of the diamond.

The results of the values of the optical characteristics of the luster of the diamond, taken as reference, are shown in table 1. The results of the values of the optical characteristics of a diamond is calculated by the proposed method and expressed in relative units, is given in tables 2-10. Results the values of the coefficient charm charm, averaged over the range of angles of diamond 0°<θ<30°listed in table 11.

From table 11 it is seen that when the diameter of the via pad 0,55 only a small area of geometrical parameters cut at an angle of inclination of the faces of the crowns 3-35° and the tilt angle of the pavilion facets 41° provides beauty Shine diamonds slightly exceeding the parameter charm of the reference cut. The analysis estimates Shine received by the group of independent experts, shows that practical interest can be cut with a coefficient of charm Ch≥0,8.

Table 1 | ||

The optical characteristics of the luster of the diamond CR selected for the benchmark. The angles 0<θ<10° | ||

Name characteristics | Average | δ |

The intensity of light (in % of the intensity of the background) | 64,11 | ±0,08 |

Relief paintings sparkle (sparks) | 14,26 | ±0,22 |

Twinkle Shine ($) | 5,08 | ±0,14 |

Color saturation Shine ($) | 1,91 | ±0,27 |

The intensity of the light in the center (in % from the first background) | 69,19 | ±0,26 |

The intensity of the light in the ring K1 (% I background) | 73,38 | ±0,10 |

The intensity of the light in the ring K2 (% I background) | 58,23 | ±0,07 |

The intensity of the light in the ring K3 (% I background) | 72,02 | ±0,04 |

The intensity of the light in the ring K4 (% I background) | 60,52 | ±0,02 |

δ - scatter characteristics Shine diamonds category "0" on the classification of AGS with geometry cut:

the diameter of the pad is equal to 0,524-0,575;

the angle of inclination of the facets of the crown - 33,7°-35,8°;

the angle of the pavilion facets - 40,16°-41,2°.

Sources of information:

1. Diamond Grading, LAB MANUAL, Copyright 1992 The Gemological Institute of America.

2. Ilene M. Reinitz, Mary L. Johnson, T. Scott Hemphill, Al M. Gilbertson, Ron H. Geurts, Barak D. Green, James E. Shigley Modeling the Appearance of The Round Brilliant Cut Diamond: An Analysis of Fire, and More About Brilliance = Modeling the appearance of the round brilliant: analysis of variance (games) and for more information about Shine//Gems &Gemology. - 2001. - Vol.37, No. 3. - pp.174-197, The Quarterly Journal of the Gemological Institute of America.

3. Encyclopedia of psychology. - P.: "Prime-eurosac", 2003 Great psychological dictionary/edited Begmuradova, Itinera. - Moscow: OLMA-PRESS, 2003.

4. Psychology/edited You. - M.: Prospect, 1999.

5. Shaken, Maken-Krel Mysteries of perception - Synergetics as the key to the brain. - M.: Institute of computer science.

6. Patent RU 2190944, IPC^{7}And 44 With 17/00. Gemstone/Unnebrink, Rielev, Vchebanov, Ammocharis, Aggeliki, Apiname, Wiecko, Itinuturo, Svirepov (RU); the state unitary enterprise "po "Kristall" (RU). - 2001121361/12; Statements. 30.07.2001; Publ. 20.10.2002, bull. No. 29 (prototype).

7. Verena PAGEL-Taisen Evaluation of diamonds: a Guide to the grading of diamonds. - Typography JSC "Symbol", order No. 2436. - 1996.

8. Mathematical encyclopedia. - M.: Mathematical encyclopedia, 1996. - V.5, 164.

1. Method of assessment shop brilliance of a diamond, in which experimental or theoretical way in the visible observer paintings Shine determine the optical characteristics of the brilliance of a diamond, including the intensity of glitter, shimmer Shine and color saturation Shine, characterized by the degree of decomposition of white light into a rainbow of colors, and use the obtained optical characteristics Shine when determining the generalized coefficient beauty Shine of the diamond, which appreciate the beauty of the luster of the diamond, characterized in that it further as optical characteristics Shine define the appearance of Shine, harakterizuyu the average number of intense light spots in the film Shine, spatially distinguishable to the human eye, and also by dividing the picture Shine on integral part of the measured average values of the intensities of Shine constituent parts of the picture Shine, Express the obtained values of optical characteristics Shine in relative units, where the comparison options accept obtained in the same conditions of illumination and observation optical characteristics of the brilliance of a diamond is selected as the benchmark, using characteristic functions normalization convert the relative optical characteristics of the light in the factors of brilliance, and then determine the factor of iscritti Shine as a harmonic mean value of the factors of relief and twinkling glitter and the geometry factor paintings Shine characterizing the uniformity of the intensity pattern Shine as the geometric mean of the factors of the average values of intensities of Shine constituent parts of the picture Shine, and as a generalized coefficient beauty Shine diamond factor should be used charm charm, calculated as the average value of the factors of intensity, iscritti, color saturation and geometry of the picture Shine.

2. Method of assessment shop brilliance of a diamond according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality of a diamond, taken as a reference, choose diamond circle the first cut, with 57 facets, category "0" (zero) on the classification of the American Gemological society, with the size of the area 0,57 of the girdle diameter, angle of inclination of the faces of the crowns 34,8°, the angle of the pavilion facets 40,7°height wedges top of 0.75 of the height of the crown, the height of the wedges bottom 0,79 height of the pavilion and the girdle thickness 0,02 diameter.

3. Method of assessment shop brilliance of a diamond according to claim 1, characterized in that the characteristic functions of the normalization chosen by rational functions of the form

f(x)=k_{1}/[k_{2}+(x-k_{3})^{2n}],

where x is the value of some optical properties of brilliance, expressed in relative units;

f(x) is a factor of lustre corresponding to the relative optical characteristic luster;

k_{1}, k_{2}, k_{3}, n are constants that define the particular type of characteristic functions of normalization.

4. Method of assessment shop brilliance of a diamond according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of charm charm is calculated as a harmonic mean value of the factors of intensity, iscritti, color saturation and geometry of the picture Shine.

5. Method of assessment shop brilliance of a diamond according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of charm charm is considered as an additional "C" factor when evaluating diamonds of sovokupnosti with the famous "C" factors for the evaluation of clarity, color, cut, carat weight.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: testing of precious stones.

SUBSTANCE: diamond is fixed onto holder and tested under specified angle for getting image. Then second measurement is made for getting two sets of data calculated by means of computer. The second set of data can be received by means of measurement of depth or due to changing direction of viewing.

EFFECT: improved precision of localization.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: working stone.

SUBSTANCE: machine-tool comprises units for sawing arbitrary stones into thin-walled plates in rotatable vice, copying, and polishing and mechanism for changing units made of carriage with the horizontal axle in the top section. The desirable unit is set in the working zone by means of rotation around the axle, while the remainder units are positioned vertically in the waiting zone.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

2 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, in particular, manufacture of machines for mechanical treatment of stones, in particular, for drilling of amber products.

SUBSTANCE: each working position of the set is provided with the second spindle box located opposite the first one. The drills in the spindle boxes are installed coaxially. The rotor set is provided with a fixture for monitoring the integrity and blunting of the drills including two pickups of electron optics coupled via an electronic unit with a fixture for refusal from feed of the working positioned by blanks. Each pickup is fastened on a lever mounted on a post for turning, and is installed so that it checks the drills after the drilling is over at displacement of the working position. The fixture for fastening the products under treatment is installed for vertical motion.

EFFECT: enhanced capacity of the set and prevented reject.

3 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of semiconductor components and devices.

SUBSTANCE: method for dividing mono-crystal such as GaAs comprises steps of cutting mono-crystal at least by two portions, providing motion of cutting tool (2,3; 8,8w, 8b, 8c) relative to mono-crystal in direction of motion (V); orienting mono-crystal 1 in such a way that to arrange predetermined crystallographic direction (K) in cutting plane (T); selecting angle (ρ) between predetermined crystallographic direction (K) and motion direction (V) in such a way that to provide mutual compensation of forces acting upon cutting tool at cutting process in direction normal relative to cutting plane or providing said forces equal to predetermined value.

EFFECT: increased cutting speed, enhanced quality of wafers allowing omit further working operations of them.

16 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: automatic drilling machine comprises housing, two spindle units with drills, mechanism for clamping article, cam for machine feeding mechanism, feeder, and chute for receiving the finished articles. The two spindle units with drills and mechanism for clamping article are made of single kinematic chain. The chain is arranged along the axis of drilling for permitting co-operation with the cam. The spindle units are built in the bushings spring-loaded with respect to the housing. The mechanism for clamping blanks is made of a guide and clamping bushing spring-loaded with respect to the housing. The feeder is made of a pipe with hole for feeding and removing article under its own weight. The feeder is interposed between the guiding and clamping bushings and is secured to the latter one. The first spindle unit is provided with the stop. The second spindle unit has rod which allows the drills to be spaced. The rigidity of the spring which spring-loads the guiding bushing is lower than that of the spring which spring-loads the bushing which receives the second spindle unit and is higher than that of the spring which spring-loads the pressing bushing.

EFFECT: simplified design.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: automatic drilling machine comprises housing, two spindle units with drills, mechanism for clamping article, cam for machine feeding mechanism, feeder, and chute for receiving the finished articles. The two spindle units with drills and mechanism for clamping article are made of single kinematic chain. The chain is arranged along the axis of drilling for permitting co-operation with the cam. The spindle units are built in the bushings spring-loaded with respect to the housing. The mechanism for clamping blanks is made of a guide and clamping bushing spring-loaded with respect to the housing. The feeder is made of a pipe with hole for feeding and removing article under its own weight. The feeder is interposed between the guiding and clamping bushings and is secured to the latter one. The first spindle unit is provided with the stop. The second spindle unit has rod which allows the drills to be spaced. The rigidity of the spring which spring-loads the guiding bushing is lower than that of the spring which spring-loads the bushing which receives the second spindle unit and is higher than that of the spring which spring-loads the pressing bushing.

EFFECT: simplified design.

1 dwg