Formulation for foodstuff coating and method for production of foodstuff coatings
FIELD: food processing industry.
SUBSTANCE: claimed formulation contains the first polysaccharide having negative charge in formulation and converting into gel under cation effect, ad at least one the second component having neutral charge in formulation. Method for production of edible coating includes extrusion of said formulation and contacting of extruded formulation with gel-forming agent.
EFFECT: coating of high stability, continuity and good appearance.
16 cl, 5 ex
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The invention relates to a composition for the shell food products containing the first polysaccharide, which is negatively charged when in the composition and under the influence of cations turns into a gel, and the method of applying a coating on these products.
The level of technology
In the food industry it is well known cover food, such as sausage material, shell (hereinafter this term along with the term "sausage packaging" refers to the covering composition). For the application of such membranes are produced compositions that can be applied in liquid form directly on food products, in particular through co-extrusion, dipping the food product in the covering composition or spraying of the composition. You can also make a shell, for example, by extruding and then fill them food product.
Usually the shell shape of the gel, and, as one of the options, this can be done after application to a food product. The application is carried out, resulting membrane in contact with a gelling agent (thickener), resulting in a coating material enters the appropriate consistency, immediately gaining the desired hardness. If, for example, cos the local extruding such gel formation takes place after the completion of this operation. In the case when the shell is formed, for example, after extrusion, it is given by a gel-like form before filling food product.
For options with extrusion or co-extrusion is particularly true that the main role of rheological properties, and in particular the viscosity of the coating composition. If the viscosity is too low, the composition due to atmospheric moisture diluted before, when it can form a gel, thus failing to form a cohesive shell. Too high a viscosity can cause problems during extrusion and to undesirable deformation of the surface of the shell. For this reason, in addition to a component capable of forming a gel covering compositions typically contain a component that regulates the viscosity.
From patent document NL-C-102930 known covering composition, which contains mainly water and polysaccharide alginate, and the composition is, in principle, suitable for co-extrusion around the food product. However, it appeared that as the coating compositions such alginate compositions are unsatisfactory because they do not exhibit rheological properties that are desirable for the joint extrusion. For example, because of the low content of alginate (4 wt.%) the viscosity of the composition according to the document NL-C-102930 is too small (30 PA· with 18° (C) to obtain a satisfactory result when applied through co-extrusion.
Further, in order to obtain an acceptable viscosity, attempts have been made to increase the content of the alginate, but it turned out that the desired viscosity can be achieved only if the content of the alginate, at least 8 wt.%. However, the disadvantage of this proportion is too strong, the formation of gel during the gelation. In the food product has a very unattractive appearance, it is very likely deformation of the surface of the membrane and formation of cracks. It was also found that such alginate shell from a technical point of view exhibits adhesive properties, poor for food preparation. As a consequence, derived food product obligada alginate shell not tight.
The prior art also known membrane-based collagen. They are used for several decades; as examples, you can refer to patent document NL-A-690339, EP-A-0619077 and WO 93/12660.
However, especially in the case of joint extruded collagen has the disadvantage in that after deposition of a coating on a food product, the collagen layer is very vulnerable and need to spend for it by curing at the Alenia water, as well as through the creation of cross-links. Typically, the removal of water is carried out in a bath with salt solution, and cross-stitching is implemented in a chemical reaction, by means of Smoking or using liquid smoke, its active components, carrying out cross-stitching, or derivatives specified fluid. In this regard, please refer to the document WO 93/12660. The prior art is widely known and other suitable agents that carry out cross-linking, such as glutaric aldehyde. However, the above treatment options can adversely affect the taste of the product, coated, or product intended to be placed in the shell.
Another significant disadvantage of the shells of edible product containing collagen, is that the collagen is of animal origin and therefore unsuitable for coating, for example, vegetarian and kosher products.
Optional, but a significant drawback when applying animal protein is the fact that the detection of the corresponding animals such diseases as, for example, BSE or swine fever, animal products and, consequently, of animal protein is usually subjected to quarantine, to avoid any risk from the point of view of health. In addition, the extraction of the second protein can be a carrier of diseases, transmitted to humans, such as the syndrome of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. With this in mind, the question of reliability of supply of animal protein and, therefore, containing a covering material may be an adverse factor in the fact that under many national laws, the manufacturer must be able to prove that its products are produced from healthy animals.
Because of the shortcomings inherent in the collagen produced covering compositions that do not contain any of its forms. So, in document WO 99/55165 describes free from collagen covering composition containing a combination of protein with negatively charged gelling polysaccharides, polysaccharides, and protein can function as a gel-forming components, and also be used to control viscosity. For this purpose, such a composition contains 10 wt.% or more of protein, which can be also of animal origin.
With the introduction of the protein in such quantities in the covering composition often get a shell with suboptimal properties. Therefore, cross-linking the coating composition should be after co-extrusion, which may be affected, as mentioned above, the taste of food, and, for example, by boiling or life safety is rivani food product, equipped with a shell, many proteins have a tendency to paint it.
Thus, the problem to which the invention is directed, is to obtain a coating composition which has the desired rheological properties, which can be formulated without the inclusion of proteins and by which it is possible to form a sufficiently strong and stable shell, using the techniques of extrusion or co-extrusion, usually used in the food industry.
It was unexpectedly found that the above problem can be solved using an improved coating composition for food products of the type specified above, and that the composition contains at least a second polysaccharide, which when in the neutral. The term "neutral polysaccharide" is well known professionals in the industry. This term refers to a polysaccharide that contains no significant quantity of any of the charged groups and in the preferred embodiment, generally free from them. This polysaccharide has no charge at pH values commonly used in the food industry in the case of coating compositions based on polysaccharides. Thus, when used in the composition, for example, alginate is preferred pH value is nahodites is in the range of 4.0 to 9.5, and when they use pectin, the preferred range of pH is 2.0 to 9.5. In particular, in the case of the use of alginate more preferably, the pH values were in the range of 4.5-7.5, or even in the range of 4.0 to 6.0; even more preferred interval of 4.5 to 5.5. Most preferred is a pH of 5.0.
Through the introduction of a polysaccharide, a neutral at this pH value, can be obtained covering composition, which has rheological properties required for extrusion or co-extrusion. It has been shown that neutral polysaccharides highly suitable for the desired viscosity of the composition is essentially no adverse effect on gel formation gel-forming polysaccharide. Thus, the invention allows to obtain the covering composition on the basis of polysaccharides, which produce a membrane having sufficient strength and essentially no breaking in subsequent treatments. Examples of suitable neutral polysaccharides are cellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, metilcellulose and galactomannan (such as, for example, guar gum, gum resin and bean flour carob tree).
The expression "no adverse influence on the formation of gel" means that when the territory of the Institute of forming a gel normal to the current level of technology, the addition of an appropriate neutral polysaccharides in solution polysaccharides, forming a gel, such as, for example, alginate, makes it possible for the gel formation occurring in a comparable way and in a comparable extent in comparison with the variant in which a neutral polysaccharides are missing.
The term "polysaccharide" includes salts and acid polysaccharides, as well as their combinations, as well as salt and acid combinations of two or more polysaccharides. To ensure edibility shell of polysaccharides coating composition according to the invention preferred edible polysaccharides.
Foods that can be covered with the composition according to the invention, are well known in the prior art. They include, for example, pasty food procurement for the production of various types of sausages, and other meat and fish products or products that contain, for example, vegetables and/or cheese.
Another advantage of the invention lies in the fact that the content of any protein in the membrane is not required. Eliminates the above disadvantages of membranes containing these substances. We mean, for example, staining of the food product coated when it is boiling and/or frying.
Thus, by using the composition according to the invention, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory wrapper for a food product, which is th avoids the drawbacks of the protein, especially collagen, associated in particular with the removal of the water and cross-stitching. This circumstance allows to obtain significant savings in hardware costs and speed up production. Due to the fact that the coating does not require cross-linking after gelation, when using the composition according to the invention can give the covering layer and also fresh products. As has been shown so far in the application of the coating compositions on the basis of collagen it would have hardly been possible because of the cross-linkage reaction with smoke fluid, affecting the taste.
Negatively charged polysaccharides, turns into a gel under the influence of cations (hereinafter known as the term "polysaccharide, forming gel"), widely known from the prior art; in food industry it was used for several decades. Such polysaccharides and their salts or acids, usually dissolved in covering the composition of and turn into a gel, resulting in contact with a solution containing cations. The cations come into electrostatic interaction with polysaccharides forming the gel, causing the latter to form an insoluble complex with cations, and thus gelation occurs. Depending on the properties of the applied polysaccharide for this purpose use obnovlennth is s or divalent cations, as is known to experts in this field. So, for example, found that carrigan and alginate into a gel in the presence of ions respectively To+and divalent ions, preferably ions of CA2+.
In covering the composition according to the invention the first polysaccharide is preferably selected from the group consisting of alginate, pectin, Cartagena or a combination of two or more of these compounds. It was shown that in covering the composition according to the invention, these polysaccharides, particularly alginate, highly suitable for use as a polysaccharide, forming a gel.
When using this as pectin preferred form is discountpropeciayy pectin, in which less than 50% of the carboxylate groups esterified with a methyl group (metallkraft). It was shown that discountpropeciayy pectin highly suitable for forming a coating layer of good quality.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention the first, forming a polysaccharide gel composition according to the invention contains alginate. The advantage of the alginate is, among other things, the fact that the shell can withstand high temperatures, as, for example, in the case of boiling or roasting food, p is covered by the shell. While retaining the good properties of membranes, including elasticity, strength and elongation. In addition, the alginate has a good helenie properties.
To get a good, strong and smooth shell, covering the composition according to the invention in an optimum variant contains the first polysaccharide, preferably alginate, the amount of 1-7 wt.%, preferably 2-4 wt.%, and most preferably 2.3 to 3.0 wt.%.
In a favorable embodiment, the coating composition according to the invention the second polysaccharide contains galactomannan. It was shown that they are highly suitable for regulating the viscosity, which is especially important during extrusion or co-extrusion, and essentially no effect on the gelation of polysaccharides that form a gel, due to the neutral nature of galactomannans in the above range of pH values. The absence of any charge on galactomannans prevents their participation in the electrostatic interactions between the thickener and forming the gel polysaccharides during gel formation. Examples of galactomannans are gum from beans carob, resin gum and guar gum, preferably guar gum, gum from beans carob or a combination of these substances.
Thus, galactomannan, in particular the spine of guar gum, highly suitable to bring the viscosity to the correct value. In order to create the desired strength and texture, the composition, you can enter the proper amount of polysaccharide capable of forming a gel. Although it may be necessary to adjust the viscosity properly, in particular, for co-extrusion, good helenie properties of polysaccharides that form a gel, in particular of alginate is saved.
In an effective embodiment of the invention, galactomannans, located in the covering composition, contain guar gum. The actual advantage of this substance, which distinguish it from other galactomannans, is the solubility at a low temperature, specifically at 4°C. In the technological properties of the coating composition is improved as there is an opportunity to eliminate the step of heat required to dissolve many other polysaccharides, and to operate at the desired operating temperatures. It saves time and energy.
It was shown that the optimal membrane can be obtained in the case where the composition contains galactomannan, preferably guar gum, in the amount of 2-10 wt.%, preferably 3-6 wt.%. In fact, it turned out that the use of galactomannans in these concentrations the viscosity of the composition mo is but adjust so which is very suitable for extrusion or co-extrusion. In order to generate an optimal shell, you can enter the proper amount of gel-forming polysaccharides.
Preferably, the viscosity of the coating composition was 80-110 PA·at a temperature of 20°C. For extruding or co-extruding such a composition can be applied very effectively.
For specialists in this field will be clear that the viscosity depends on the temperature of the composition. So, for example, at low temperatures (0-5° (C)to obtain the desired viscosity, neutral polysaccharides need to add less.
The shell or food product extruded together with the covering composition, as well as covering the composition containing guar gum and alginate, are examples of optimal covering layer or contain such a layer. From the point of view of strength and texture it is comparable with modern shells on the basis of protein or even exceeds them. Thus, the food product with a covering layer containing alginate and guar gum can without damaging the specified layer even fry. It is hardly possible for products with protein shell, such as jointly extruded collagen casing.
As already explained above, the composition of the pre is Oschadny degree suitable for forming the coating composition, does not contain protein. Therefore, in the preferred embodiment of the invention the composition and, accordingly, the shell does not contain protein. However, if desired, the composition may contain this component.
In the particular case of option implementation according to the invention the composition contains 0-4 wt.% the protein. This small amount can be entered in the covering composition for several reasons, providing a positive effect. For example, the protein may contribute to the binding between the shell and the food product. In particular, it was found that for this purpose, suitable globular proteins, such as collagen. The introduction of such a protein in the covering structure it is possible to improve the connection between the covering layer and food preparation, coated, and this is particularly true for co-extrusion. The result is a food product which has superior adhesion of the specified layer to the food content. The composition of the optimal adhesive properties get in the case when the covering composition contains protein, such as collagen, in the amount of 0.5-2.5 wt.%, preferably 1-1 .5 wt.%. This structure of the collagen acts mainly as a binding protein and does not affect the strength of the casing. The strength of the coating layer provides alginate, perevedennyu the gel state. In this regard, we can point to the fact that for obtaining the adhesion properties of the membrane after gel formation is preferably subjected to reaction cross-linkage of the protein, for example, by bringing the shell after co-extrusion and formation of the gel in contact with smoke fluid, its active component, providing cross-stitching, or the derivative of the specified fluid.
It was shown also that in this context, it is preferable that the pH value of the coating composition in the presence of the protein was in the range of 6.5 to 8.5, because outside this interval cohesive properties of the coating composition required for co-extrusion, are manifested to a lesser extent. As a consequence, taking into account the subsequent cross-linkage reaction, usually occurring at acidic conditions, preferably in the composition of the buffer substance. Preferred examples of suitable buffer substances are organic buffer systems, in particular those belonging to lactic acid/lactate, citric acid/NaOH and acetic acid/acetate.
Protein can also be entered in order to make the food more attractive appearance, particularly from the point of view of color. In this case, the protein is preferably max the minimum is 1 wt.%. With such a concentration of protein, as a rule, does not give any significant contribution to the structure of the coating layer, and therefore the cross-linkage reaction is usually not necessary. When the maximum content of 4 wt.% protein essentially will not give any contribution to the viscosity and helenie properties of the coating composition, or in an extreme case, this contribution is negligible.
Covering the composition may also contain a moisturizing agent such as glycerin, propylene glycol, edible oil or ethanol. The specified agent has a positive impact on the consistency of the shell, particularly its plasticity. The content of the moisturizing agent is preferably 2-8 wt.%. The composition may also contain other additives known in the art, such as dyes and fragrances, preservatives and/or antimicrobial agents.
The invention particularly relates to an edible casing for food products, in particular sausage product, which contains at least the first polysaccharide, formed a gel under the influence of the cations, and the second (neutral) polysaccharide. Such a shell can be applied and processed in any manner common to the prior art. For membranes according to the invention by methods known to experts in this field, it is possible in order to obtain any desired property, related parameters such as elasticity, fragility and permeability with respect to air and/or moisture and lipids, as well as tensile strength.
The invention relates also to a method of manufacturing an edible shell, containing the following steps:
a) extrusion coating composition according to the invention with the aim of obtaining an extruded coating composition and
b) bringing the extruded composition into contact with a thickener to form a shell, translated in the gel state.
The method according to the invention allows to obtain membranes with optimal properties, using the extrusion process occurring under conditions optimal for this process, and entering into the composition of such amount of the polysaccharide, forming a gel, which may occur in the desired gelation with the formation of a shell of the desired quality, as well as such a number of neutral polysaccharide that the composition has acquired the appropriate rheological properties, including viscosity. After extrusion of the composition and place it in the gel state is obtained membrane can be subjected to one or more additional treatments, such as drying, coating on the shell coating that prevents the impact on, for example, a food product, and slicing oblock is. Then in the shell, you can enter food procurement, preferably in paste form.
One of the best embodiments of the invention provides in the framework of the method described above, the type of food product through co-extrusion, in which the covering part on stage and together ekstragiruyut around the food product intended to be placed in the shell. Due to a particularly suitable rheological and gennych properties of the coating composition according to the invention can very effectively be used for co-extrusion. One of the advantages of such extrusion is that food products whole, including the shell, you can very quickly make during a continuous process.
Preferably, the thickener contained divalent cations, and more preferred option with cations of alkaline earth metals, and even more preferably the use of ions of CA2+. This is especially true in the case of forming the shell, which contains alginate, which, in this context, the preferred component. In this regard, as a thickener, it is preferable to use water-soluble salt, preferably a salt of alkaline earth metal such as magnesium salt, or more preferably the l of calcium.
Bringing together extruded food product in contact with the thickener usually takes place directly after the joint extrusion occurs by immersing jointly extruded food product into a bath containing calcium chloride, calcium lactate or calcium acetate, and concentration of ions of CA2+typically 0.5 M Gelation can also be achieved through bringing together extruded food product in contact with calcium ions in some other manner, such as spraying or smearing of the solution containing calcium.
Jointly extruded food product usually result in contact with the contents of the bath containing the CA2+5-10 s at the temperature of approximately 20°and a calcium ion concentration of approximately 0.5 M
On the basis of the experts in this field will be able, without any inventive creativity, to find the number of neutral polysaccharide, suitable to obtain the desired rheological properties such as viscosity coating composition according to the invention. Thereby the manufacture of the coating composition, the optimal degree suitable for co-extrusion.
It turned out that su is the natural enemy role for the stability of the membranes according to the invention is the presence of structural water in the coated food product, which experts in the industry is measured by its actual content, in principle, varying in the interval 0-1. Preferably, this content was as low as possible. If there is a large amount of structural water, is implemented unwanted water transfer and, thus, the transport of ions between the food product and the shell. In this situation, the divalent cations are applied to gelation may, for example, zamestitel in the shell monovalent cations from the food product. In the insoluble complexes of polysaccharides and divalent cation decompose and dissolve. This process, relatively speaking, is the reverse process of gelation and can lead to dissolution and loss of the shell. A source of monovalent cations when applying shell food is sodium phosphate. The above-mentioned decomposition process occurs in the presence of usually applied in the food industry binders CA2+such as di - and triphosphates.
The exchange of ions and, consequently, the destruction of the shell prevents also, limiting the number of structural water. This condition can be ensured, for example, drying of the food product after the application of the shell, freezing food products is a, coated or choice of food procurement, in which the number of structural water is limited. An example of such a workpiece is known from the prior art sausage pasta for English diner sausage or varieties of dry sausages.
In addition, to prevent dissolution of the shell by adding to the food product cations interacting with which the gel-forming polysaccharide takes the form of a gel. Such cations include, for example, calcium. While the above undesirable metabolic processes are becoming limited. When keeping a food product in the aquatic environment, as in the case of canned or pickled sausage, the same effect can be obtained by introducing discussed cations in the aquatic environment. To resolve cations, adversely affecting gelation, to the food product can be added forming a gel polysaccharide, such as alginate. However, such additives can have a negative effect on the taste and/or texture of the product specified.
Unexpectedly, it was found that the stability of the shell is covered with a food product produced by the method according to the invention, can be increased by introducing the product, coated, after gelation in an acidic environment, pH value which is not offset is et 3. This food product is coated, for example, pollinate acidic solution or immersed in such a solution. Preferably, this solution contained liquid smoke, its component or derivative, acetic or lactic acid, or a combination of two or more of these substances. However, experts in this field can easily make any other acid solutions suitable for improving the stability of the coating layer.
Preferably, the acidic medium containing smoke acidic component or derivative. Not considering any explanation as the only possible, you can still make the following assumption. These components are in contrast to the situation taking place in the presence of membrane proteins capable of cross-linking, such as collagen, do not play any role in the reaction cross-linkage of polysaccharides present in the shell, but carry out such a reaction to proteins present in the food product coated.
To give the shell a constant strength, independent of the content of free cations in the food product, coated, or in the food product intended to be placed in the shell, in the preferred embodiment of the invention formed shell privodjat contact with the solution, which contains 0.1 to 0.5, preferably 0.25 wt.% acetic acid, 0.1 to 0.5, preferably 0.25 wt.% lactic acid and 0.1 to 1.0, preferably 0.5 wt.% liquid smoke or its derivative.
It should be noted that the covering composition according to the invention, if required, you can apply a portion of the food product, receiving a food product coated only partially.
The invention relates also to the shell, which can be obtained by the method according to the invention, as well as to the food product containing the same shell. The shell has many applications; it can be used, for example, for coating meat and chopped vegetables, as well as for the (partial) coverage of foods, such as leafy vegetables, for example, to prevent brown discoloration of cut edges and to guarantee longer lasting freshness.
Hereinafter the invention will be explained in more detail by means of some examples. If there are no other instructions percentages relate to weight. percent.
Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention
Cooking sausage pasta
of 10.3 wt. pieces of lean pork and 14.7 wt. the parts of the neck is passed through 3 mm grinder. Received product mix ,7 wt. parts of ice, 0,018 wt. parts nitrite curing salt, 0.002 wt. parts of phosphate of 0.001 wt. parts of ascorbate, about 0.001 wt. parts of the intensifier of taste and aroma, of 0.003 wt. parts of white pepper, about 0.001 wt. parts of nutmeg, of 0.0005 wt. parts coriander and 0.001 wt. pieces of ginger. This is followed by mixing until the desired degree of dispersion.
Cooking vegetarian sausage pasta
For vegetarian sausage pasta first prepare three dry mixture:
|A mixture of 1||protein eggs||18|
|Mix 2||fiber wheat||25|
|starch from tapioca||75|
|A mixture of 3||textured wheat||50|
|vegetables and herbs||50|
15 wt. parts 1 mixture is mixed with 14 wt. parts oil until smooth, then 55 wt. parts of water is stirred in a mixture of 1 volume, then add 7 wt. parts of a mixture of 2 and spend mixing until smooth. the conclusion add 9 wt. parts mix 3 and mix at a low speed. Thus prepared vegetarian sausage pasta used as filler packaging.
Control example 1
500 g of sodium alginate (Manugel DMB-Kekco) is mixed with 500 g of propylene glycol in heat treatment Hobart mixer equipped with a nozzle for pasta. Then gradually add 9000 g of water. After adding water to carry out the mixing in the most intensive mode of operation of the machine in the next 15 minutes Then the product is subjected to deaeration under vacuum in a high-speed cutting machine Stephan. The resulting product contains 5% of alginate and has a structural viscosity of 15 PA·C. Further treatment of this product in the extruder STORK MPS, designed for co-extrusion, is impossible, because the viscosity is too low. The product flows from the machine and cannot be converted into a homogeneous covering film.
Control example 2
The experiment repeats the control example 1 except that 800 g of alginate mixed with 800 g of propylene glycol, after which gradually add 8400 g of water. The resulting product contains 8% of alginate and has a structural viscosity 85 PA·C. It ekstragiruyut with sausage pasta, described above, or with vegetarian sausage pasta extruder STORK MPS, designed for joint ekstradirovan is. Sausage shaped with a diameter of 15 mm, passed through a 5% solution of CaCl2within 5 seconds, and then divided into pieces of size 10 cm products are Then subjected to preliminary drying for 20 min at 75°C. In conclusion, the products are subjected to a preliminary heating for 10 min in the device for cooking with steam at 85°C. After cooling, spend vacuum packaging products. Result: formation of the primary coating layer satisfactorily. However, the formed gel has such strong pressure and so greater shrinkage during the preliminary drying, the products break through, especially at the ends, and the contents come out.
The experiment repeats the control example 2 except that 250 g of alginate and 500 g of the guar gum is mixed with 750 g of propylene glycol, after which gradually add 8500 g of water. The resulting product contains 2.5% of alginate and 5% of the guar gum, the structural viscosity of the product is 100 PA·C. Then the product is treated as described in control example 2. Result: the product forms a nice uniform covering layer, which is directly after gelation has a high resistance against mechanical influences and remains intact after drying and pasteurization. Formed is of olbasa has a well-closed ends without departing filler. The final product retains its integrity during sterilization, heat treatment, boiling and roasting.
The experiment repeats the example 1 except that the covering composition is manufactured using a disc grinder and without the addition of propylene glycol. Thus obtained product contains 2.5% of alginate and 5% guar structural viscosity of the product is 105 PA·C. After further processing to product get results comparable with the results described above in example 1.
The experiment repeats the example 2 except that 250 g of alginate and 350 g of guar, located in a disc grinder, dissolved in 7400 g of phosphate buffer/lactate with pH 7.5. Then, the obtained product is thoroughly mixed with 2000 g of the collagen composition (industrial modification 430SCL-PV), having a protein content of 5%. The resulting product contains 2.5% of alginate, 3.5% of guar and 1% collagen protein. Its structural viscosity is 95 Pas·and the pH value is equal to 6.7. Then the product is treated as described in example 2. Result: the product forms a nice uniform covering layer, which is directly after gelation has a high resistance against mechanical influences and remains intact after drying, and p is sterization. Formed sausage has a well-closed ends without departing filler. In addition, significantly improves the adhesion of the packaging relative to the content. The final product retains its integrity during sterilization, heat treatment, boiling and roasting.
The experiment repeats the example 3 except that 200 g of alginate and 250 g of guar, located in a disc grinder, dissolved 5550 g of phosphate buffer/lactate with pH 7.5. Then, the obtained product is thoroughly mixed with 4000 g of the collagen composition having a protein content of 5%. Thus obtained product contains 2% of alginate 2.5% of guar and 2% collagen protein. Its structural viscosity is 90 Pas·and the pH is about 6.5. Then the product is treated as described in example 2, except that, to promote cross-linking of collagen in the gelling bath is added a small amount (2%) derived derived from liquid smoke. Result: the product forms a nice uniform covering layer, which is directly after gelation has adequate resilience to mechanical stress. The consequence of this is that there are no signs of belts after transport in the system. The sausage has a well-closed ends and packing the donkey drying and pasteurization exhibits good adhesion to content.
Cooking sausage packing by means of extrusion
9250 g of water are placed in a disc grinder. After running the machine slowly add 250 g of sodium alginate (Manugel DMB-Kelco). After adding 5 minutes include the most intense mode of operation of the machine. Then mix in the contents of 25 g of 50% lactic acid and 25 g of 50% acetic acid. Next stirred into 450 g of the guar gum to obtain a homogeneous paste. The product is subjected to deaeration under vacuum in a high-speed cutting machine Stephan.
Pasta has a structural viscosity 95 Pas·and the value of pH of 4.9.
The paste is pressed through a meat syringe, equipped with a concentric cylinder whose Central hole is closed (the width of the gap in this system is 0.35 mm).
Thus at a pressure of 1·106PA form cylinder, pasta dishes with a diameter of 20 mm Directly after exiting head pasta fix spray 5% solution of CaCl2. The form cylinder attached by blown in the air. In conclusion, covering the sausage layer being dried for 1.5 h at 50°C. the Dried layer has a thickness of 55 μm.
Thus formed a "wrapper" fill described above sausage pasta and vegetarian sausage pasta. Then the sausage is subjected to various treatments, t is Kim as boiling, heat treatment and roasting. In all cases, the covering layer retains its integrity, and sausages have an attractive appearance.
1. Extrudable or co-extrudable composition is water-based, suitable for application wrappers for food products, characterized in that it contains: first polysaccharide, negatively charged when in composition, turns into a gel under the influence of cations and containing alginate, and at least a second polysaccharide, neutral, when in composition and containing galactomannan, and the composition contains 2 to 7 wt.% alginate has a viscosity of 80-110 PA·at a temperature of 20°C.
2. Extrudable or co-extrudable composition water-based according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains 2-4 wt.%, preferably 2.3 to 3.0 wt.% the alginate.
3. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the galactomannan is selected from the group consisting of the guar gums, gums of beans carob or combinations thereof.
4. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the galactomannan contain guar gum.
5. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains 2-10 wt.%, preferably 3-6 wt.% the galactomannans, preferably the guar gum.
6. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the pH of the composition is between about 4.0 and 9.5, preferably between about 4.0 and 7.5, more preferably between about 4.0 and 6,0, even more preferably between 4.5 and 5.5, and in the preferred embodiment is 5.
7. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains 0-4 wt.% protein.
8. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally contains a wetting agent.
9. The method of obtaining edible shell, providing the extrusion of the composition according to any one of claims 1 to 8 and bringing the extruded composition into contact with a gelling agent to form the shell, which is in the gel state.
10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the composition together ekstragiruyut around the food product intended to move into the shell.
11. The method according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the extruded or co-extruded composition is administered in an acidic environment, pH value which is equal to 3 or less.
12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the acidic medium contains liquid smoke, its component or derivative, lactic acid, acetic acid, or a combination consisting of two or more substances.
13. The method according to item 12, wherein the formed membrane is brought into contact with the solution, and the solution contains 0.1 to 0.5 wt.%, preferably 0.25 wt.% acetic acid, 0.1 to 0.5 wt.%, preferably 0.25 wt.% lactic acid and 0.1 to 1.0 wt.%, preferably 0.5 wt.% liquid smoke or its production is underwater.
14. The shell is made by a method corresponding to any of PP-13.
15. A food product with sheath made in accordance with 14.
16. The composition comprising alginate and galactomannan added to water to form the composition according to claim 1.
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, method for obtaining of macaroni products, which may be used in dough forming with the use of die.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing dough from wheat flour, water, and additives; compacting dough; providing action upon dough mass of alternate electric current for 3-15 min, with specific heat released during said procedure being at least 34.5 kJ/kg, to result in heating of dough in chamber positioned before die to temperature of 65-70 C, said procedure being provided by directing electric current through electrodes and dough mass.
EFFECT: intensified process for producing of macaroni products, increased controllability of pressing process, reduced moisture content of dough under pressing process, improved quality of ready product and increased efficiency of processing equipment.
1 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, confectioneries and snacks made from cereal product and chocolate.
SUBSTANCE: food product contains frangible center formed as swelled extrudate dried to relative moisture content of 2-12%. Food product is prepared from bread hardtack ground to 20-200 micron sized particles, and corn flour, with weight part of bread hardtack particles constituting 90-75%. Center is coated with chocolate casing which is applied in pelleting drum. Center to chocolate casing weight ratio is 1:1-1:9 with size of center making 5-20 mm.
EFFECT: wider range of snack products.
FIELD: food-processing industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing liquid or pasty product in first section of two-screw extruder; extruding plasticized product and scalding in second section of two-screw extruder, second section being dynamically separated from first section; producing at least one strand of extruded and scalded mass; cutting resultant strand into pieces; adding liquid or pasty food product to extruded and scalded mass to obtain pieces of combined food product.
EFFECT: simplified and adjustable production of combined food product.
10 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, preparing of whole grain-based food products by extrusion.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has casing, charging hopper with dosing device, millstone, die and spinneret with rectangular through opening. Die has succession of cavities connected with each other. Apparatus is equipped with cereal mass flow distributor positioned for rotation in conjunction with extruder screw and arranged along axis of rotation of millstone and within two successively connected cavities. Gaps sized from 1 mm to 3 mm are provided between screw and millstone, and also between millstone and flow distributor for defining cereal working zone.
EFFECT: prolonged service life of die parts, provision for producing of large-sized hardtacks with novel organoleptical properties.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: food processing industry, in particular manufacturing of on tap extruded products from cereal raw materials.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains ground breadcrumb with particle size of 20-2000 mum and maize flour in amount of 10-25 mass %, wherein breadcrumb is obtained from dried bread with moisture of 2-5 %. Product of present invention has alike taste, nutritive characteristics and size as dry toasts prepared by conventional method, namely by cut bread drying.
EFFECT: simplified technology of extruded dry toast-like product manufacturing.
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, preparing of linked sausage products.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has co-extrusion device for pasty mass and casing enclosing said pasty mass, casing hardening means, twisting means, and conveyor positioned rearward of twisting means. Co-extrusion device and twisting means for guiding link on the one side, and conveyor on the other side are adapted for rotation relative to one another.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, compact construction and provision for conditions desirable for twisting operation.
19 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: food-processing industry;equipment for processing agricultural products.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to equipment for processing agricultural products by extrusion and may be used in the food-processing industry. The Press-extruder contains a body of the main drive unit with a loading hopper and a feeding device, a composite feed screw and a cylindrical body of a feed screw consisting of split components. In the place of coupling of the components of the feed screw body there are the ring-type grooves for rigid fixation in them of a ring with the internal chases directed at an angle to the axis of the ring. The ring has adjustable thickness and is made in the form of several rings and washers, the total thickness of which is equal to the width of the ring-type groove. The invention ensures enhanced efficiency and stability of the extrusion process at changing of the process technological characteristics and physical-mechanical properties of the processed materials.
EFFECT: the invention ensures enhanced efficiency and stability of the extrusion process at changing of the process technological characteristics and physical-mechanical properties of the processed materials.
FIELD: equipment for utilization of high moisture content wastes of food-processing industry, which may be used in processing industries of agronomical and industrial complex.
SUBSTANCE: method involves extruding feed through die assembly equipped with at least one slit-type die; cooling extruded feed and drying in air flow which is fed so as to penetrate through layer of product; preliminarily separating suspension into dispersion phase and dispersion medium; introducing dispersion phase into feed before extrusion process and introducing dispersion medium during extrusion process. Extruder has cylindrical screw casing terminating in die, and screw with rod and at least one screw blade. Rod has internal cavity communicated with liquid supply channel and liquid discharge channel. Screw rod is provided with at least one opening for connecting said cavity with screw outer surface. Opening on screw rod surface is terminating with recess oriented transverse to screw axis and spaced from said opening in direction opposite to direction of rotation of screw. Liquid discharge channel may be equipped with overflow valve. Opening for connecting said cavity with screw rod outer surface may be provided in replaceable threaded plug.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in extruding of feeds with increased moisture content.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: food-concentrate industry, in particular, manufacture of extruded products.
SUBSTANCE: method involves using unshelled triticale grains, wheat germs and condensed fat-free milk as basic products; grinding unshelled triticale grain with weight part of moisture of 10-11% to 0.32-0.63 mm sized particles; mixing ground grains with condensed fat-free milk and wheat germs, said components being used in the ratio of 7:1:2, respectively; feeding resultant mixture to extruder for processing thereof, with product having temperature of 440-445 K when it is in zone upstream of die, and pressure in said zone ranging between 7.0 and 7.5 MPa; coating resultant product with sugar-and-nut additive used in an amount of 3% by weight of extruded grain sticks.
EFFECT: provision for producing of high-quality combined extruded products with increased nutritive value.
FIELD: food-concentrates industry, in particular, manufacture of extruded products.
SUBSTANCE: method involves using basic products such as lentils preliminarily ground to 0.16-0.63 mm sized particles; mixing ground lentils with sunflower cake preliminarily ground to 0.16-0.63 mm sized particles and with semolina, said components being used in the ratio, wt%: lentils 42.7-51.1; sunflower cake up to 6.5; semolina 47.3-54.2; moistening resultant mixture to 20-30% moisture content; processing resultant mixture in screw-type extruder, said product having temperature of 368-393 K in zone upstream of die, at screw rotational velocity of 1-2 s-1 and pressure of 6-10 MPa in extruder zone upstream of die.
EFFECT: provision for obtaining of combined extruded food products with high quality and balanced composition.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, preparing of hollow formed products filled with food substances.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing at least one hollow formed product having at least one cavity, which is open into surrounding medium and which may be filled with filler material solid at standard ambient temperature. Said cavity has cross section area of from about 0.25 mm2 to about 1 cm2. At the first stage, hollow formed products are covered at reduced pressure with filler material, with temperature of filler material being set in such a manner that filler material is of cream-like consistency. At the second stage, pressure is increased in order to provide delivery of flowing covering material into cavities.
EFFECT: simplified manufacture and reduced manufacture costs of hollow formed products filled with food substances.
17 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, production of molded stuffed fish products.
SUBSTANCE: method involves molding product from fish farce; applying collagen dispersion onto surface of molded product and freezing; preparing collagen dispersion from fish skin, with collagen content in dispersion constituting 3-5%; additionally introducing into farce enriching additive, such as sea kale, carrot or mushrooms, in an amount of up 30-35% by weight of farce; additionally introducing into farce pork fat in an amount of 10-15% by weight of farce. Method allows fish products enriched with connective-woven prior art fibers to be prepared, with update tendencies of consumer demands and development of raw material stock for fish industry being taken into consideration.
EFFECT: wider range of fish products maximally ready for eating, increased nutritive and biological properties of products, and wider functional possibilities of secondary collagen-containing fish-processing industry products rarely demanded for food preparing purposes.
3 cl, 7 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, preparing of dough products with meat, meat-and-vegetable, fish, curd, vegetable or fruit filler.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing dough and filler; forming dough; placing dough in package; exposing to thermal processing prior to usage. Before forming procedure, filler is dehydrated by 20-60% and after forming procedure it is dried by microwave radiation within temperature range of 20-120° to moisture content of 6-12%. Before exposing to microwave radiation, products may be steamed-through to temperature of at least 70°C inside product. Krill or shrimp may be added to fish filler.
EFFECT: reduced costs for transportation and storage and decreased time for thermal processing of products before usage.
2 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical engineering; production of the laminated multilayered welded flat film used for manufacture of welded hose-type films.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the laminated multilayered welded flat film for manufacture of a welded hose-type films used as a packing and a shell for food stuff. Both surface layers of the multilayered flat film are formed at least of one copolyamide and at least of one amorphous polyamide and-or at least of one homopolyamide and-or at least of a modified polyolefin. The multilayered flat film is manufactured using a method of masking, at least, of two flat films, which in turn are a single layered-or multilayered and not obligatory are biaxially stretched out. The invention allows to increase the strength of the welded seam and to improve impermeability for a water steam and oxygen.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased strength of the welded seams of the laminated multilayered welded flat film and its improved impermeability for a water steam and oxygen.
25 cl 5 ex