Method for production of sealing membrane from porcine skin

FIELD: food processing industry, in particular production of edible collagen membrane for sealing of foodstuffs such as ham, etc.

SUBSTANCE: according to invention fresh porcine skins are rapidly frozen. Then before further treatment thereof skins are defrosted and defatted by using enzymes. Further skins are sequentially treated by fast alkaline hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis and ground to produce gel-like liquid mass. In last step gel-like mass is extruded, plated and dried to produce target membrane.

EFFECT: collagen sealing membrane with excellent protective characteristics against food oxidation and dehydration.

22 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

 

BACKGROUND of INVENTION

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to the manufacture of collagen sealing membranes, in particular to the manufacture of edible collagen sealing membranes, designed to protect food products such as hams and the like,

The level of technology

Collagen sealing membrane (in particular, membrane, foil and the like) are the most diverse applications, in particular, according to the US patents 5736180 ("Spice impregnated edible wrapping foil"), US 5520925 ("Material on basis of collagen fibers for covering wounds), US 5190810 ("Composite for use in making protective articles for use in laser surgery), US 5103816 ("Composite for use in making protective articles for use in laser surgery), US 5028695"Process for the manufacture of collagen membrans used for hemostasis, the dressing of wounds and for implants"), US 4131650 ("Collagen foil for cosmetic application").

Of the above-mentioned patent US 5736180 known that edible collagen film is used inter alia for wrapping food products, in particular hams.

Collagen film can be produced from skins of various animals. However, in the manufacture of collagen film from the skin of pigs (in particular, from the skin of pigs) have to solve a number of specific problems associated with the difference between pork skins from the skins, for example, cattle or skins of cows. For such problems include, in particular, the problems associated with it is Timothy remove pork skins hairline and processing of large quantities of fat, contained in the pig skins.

Currently, there are various methods of making collagen film from pork skins, which, however, does not meet the requirements for it when it is used in food products or the manufacture of other products. In the present methods, the focus is on the problems of processing pork skins, which are made of different leather from tanneries.

Currently, the collagen film is made from pork skins according to the technology described below in points(a)-(C). Proposed in this invention is significantly superior to known techniques. Known manufacturing techniques collagen film include the following:

(a) the skins of pigs slaughtered at the slaughterhouse (i.e. the company which is specially designed for slaughtering and primary processing of livestock), usually treated for preservation (canning) sodium chloride and sell through special sales on tannery (i.e. the manufacturing of skins tanned and finished leather). From tanneries skins first washed with water and treated with wetting agents and optionally enzymes, which are used to remove adhesive residues (faeces) and sodium chloride. the subsequent process stages, with the skins removed hair, using sodium sulfide and lime and, if necessary enzymes and lubricants. The result of this treatment, get swollen skins (which are alkaline) with a thickness of approximately from 5 to 10 mm.

(b) Further processing of skins associated with the receipt of them tanned and finished leather and is in a horizontal "delamination" of skins for two layers. The bottom layer, i.e. the layer facing directly to the carcass of an animal, used as starting material for the manufacture of collagen film. Depending on the specific conditions at the tannery, the processing which is the intermediate stage of the technological process, the resulting material is often stored for an indefinite period of time in hygienically uncontrolled conditions.

(C) Obtained from the skins of "saw," is treated with a solution of caustic soda and/or lime in the process of alkaline hydrolysis, which can take up to 15 days. During hydrolysis receive material suitable for further processing, in particular grinding. Thanks corresponding molecular characteristics of collagen processed cow hides (mesh structure) the nature of the hydrolysis process usually ranges from intense to aggressive. After alkaline hydrolysis of the saw handle in highly KIS the th environment, for example in hydrochloric acid, bringing the pH is reduced to a value less 3,5, after which it is crushed to a gel-like mass. In another embodiment, the skins after alkaline hydrolysis process organic or inorganic acid, bringing the pH to 5-7, and then rubbed in a soft fibrous mass and then reduce the pH to a value less a 3.5. The obtained liquid soft mass, the content of collagen which is less than 2.5% which is added to some other substances, such as glycerin, Karion® (sorbitol) and cross-linking agents, ekstragiruyut and dried in a belt dryer with obtaining a film.

The above technology has significant disadvantages. First of all, it has been found that this technology allows to produce a film that meets the requirements of this when using for food and other similar products. As some specific disadvantages of the known technologies include the following:

salt used to preserve hides and skins, can contain additives that should not be present in food products;

- skins are stored in the raw form and contain fecal contamination;

- obtained product can be of doubtful origin (i.e. market skins can be and skins of dubious origin, for example W is URS animals scored on rivademar);

- processing of skins from tanneries based on the requirements of the development of the skin, and is associated with the use of technical chemicals;

to the producers of the film skins are transported in a frozen form, and therefore in the warm season increases the risk of contamination of hides and skins of various types of bacteria (germs). This kind of infection can in some cases cause the rotting of supplied skins. Processed with alkali products potentially exposed to uncontrolled chemical degradation, the degree of which depends on the temperature conditions and duration of the period of time from the moment of separation of the skins prior to receipt of the source material manufacturers membranes;

- the quality of the source material for the manufacture of the film subject to significant fluctuations depending on various circumstances, what is happening with the material during the entire time up to the moment of its receipt by the film manufacturer;

- aggressive alkaline treatment (hydrolysis) is also accompanied by changes in the properties of collagen as a result of denaturation.

SUMMARY of the INVENTION

Based on the foregoing, the present invention was based on the task to eliminate the above and other problems associated with the technology of the call is anovich sealing membranes, first of all, with the technology of production of edible collagen sealing membrane from pork skins (in particular, from the skins of pigs or pigs).

In the present invention inter alia include: a) a new method of making collagen sealing membranes, b) new collagen sealing membrane produced by this method, and C) a new way to use this collagen sealing membrane.

The first object of the invention is a method of manufacturing a collagen sealing membrane from pork skins, namely, that pig skin and quickly frozen for further processing, the captured skin is subjected to enzymatic degreasing, the skins are subjected to a rapid alkaline hydrolysis, the skin is subjected to acid hydrolysis, the skins of the crushed gel to liquid mass, a gel-like mass ekstragiruyut, listout and dried to obtain collagen sealing membrane.

Another object of the invention is collagen sealing membrane made as described above, the first object of the present invention. In a preferred version of the proposed collagen sealing membrane is used as a wrapper for food products such as ham.

The above and other objects, features and preimushestvenno in more detail below on the preferred options of its performance with reference to the accompanying drawing, as well as in the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

It should be noted that although the invention is illustrated by the example of some specific variants of its execution scope of the invention is not limited to these options and the attached drawing, which shows the shell of the finished sealing membrane, which is located inside the appropriate product, such as ham or other meat product.

PREFERRED embodiments of the INVENTIONS

As noted above, in the invention, in particular, include: (a) new method of producing collagen sealing membranes, b) new sealing membrane produced by this method, and C) a new way to use this collagen sealing membrane.

The method of manufacture of the product

The first object of the present invention is a new method of making collagen sealing membrane (which can also be called collagen film, sheath etc). Proposed in the invention method in a preferred variant consists in carrying out the following major steps (the sequence of these stages may be different):

(a) the collection/freezing shot skins,

b) degreasing,

C) the dehairing/alkaline treatment,

g) acid treatment,

d) processing in a gel-like mass which,

(e) extrusion/blow drying.

a) Immediately after removing the slaughterhouse [i.e. immediately after skinning pig (for example, shooting skins) on the enterprise on the slaughter of pigs and their pre-processing] removed the skins are then washed with cold or hot water and obespechivajut. After that, the skins immediately frozen, receiving raw materials for further production of collagen sealing membranes. Removed skins preferably quickly freeze clean while they remain therefore suitable for further use. Freeze the skins can be many different methods, placing them, for example, in the refrigerating chamber for quick freezing, the temperature of which is maintained at -50°With, or in conventional refrigerator, the temperature of which varies from -18 to -28°C. For the same purpose, removed the skins can handle dry ice or liquid nitrogen. To begin the processing of hides and skins in sealing membrane can and immediately after their removal in fresh form, i.e. without freezing.

Removed skins should preferably be kept frozen until further processing described below. In this regard it should be noted that further processing of skins is usually not at the slaughterhouse, where the captured skins preferably be transported in frozen form. To further clicks the processing stages (b) and a subsequent stage, described below, to simplify performed in this technological operations frozen skins preferable to thaw.

b) During the further processing of skins degrease in one or several stages. This process is preferably carried out with the help of enzymes with the use of wetting agents (e.g. detergents). Before chemical treatment of skins they can to remove fat machining (to reduce the fat content from the original to 15%). It is also possible degreasing skins with water and surfactants or organic solvents.

C) After that, the skin is subjected to alkaline treatment using alkaline organic or inorganic chemically active agents. Such processing can be combined with the removal with the skins of swine bristles. To dissolve the hair and softening fibrous collagen structure, you can use strong alkaline agents such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. For dissolution of the bristles can also be used inorganic or organic reductants type sulfides (for example, sodium sulfide, potassium sulfide) or tizaidine (for example, teopista, thiourea, thioglycol).

g) processing the skins acid agents, in particular neorganicheskiye (for example, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid) or organic acids (e.g. lactic acid, citric acid, formic acid, acetic acid), the pH was adjusted up to a maximum of 4.0. During this treatment, the skin absorb water (swell). This swelling is quite important for further processing of skins in a gel-like mass. It is also possible to neutralize the skins using acidic chemically active agents to increase the pH to 4-8, and most preferably up to 5-7. From the obtained after this treatment again usesage material after grinding to get containing fiber suspension. Subsequently, this suspension is acidified with bringing its pH to a value less 4, and turn into a liquid mass, resembling in its consistency gel.

d) Swollen skin is crushed to a gel-like mass. A gel-like mass can also be obtained from Nerazzurri skins by grinding at pH greater than about 4.0, after obtaining the corresponding acidification of the collagen suspension.

e) Obtained liquid mass process then known stages of extrusion and drying, which are similar to the known process steps used in the processing of cow hides, as described above.

Proposed in the present invention the method is compared to known methods significant advantages. To such benefits include, inter alia, the following:

(1) Advantages of the proposed method in the implementation stage (a):

- receipt of product that can be used in food production,

- receipt of the source material for the manufacture of films, which has consistently high quality

- exclude the possibility of the receipt of raw material from controversial sources, not related to the food industry,

- eliminated the possibility of hitting the received raw chemicals and pollution of them,

- eliminated the possibility of hitting the received raw harmful germs or bacteria and contamination by them,

- eliminates the possibility of uncontrolled chemical decomposition of the obtained raw

- eliminates the possibility of microbiological decomposition of raw materials received.

(2) In the stages b)-d) high fat content, and relatively soft, non-corrosive alkaline processing prevent changes in the properties of collagen as a result of denaturation. Moderate temperature and non-aggressive bleaching also contribute to the preservation of collagen. Subsequent use of the resulting collagen material can reduce or eliminate the presence in the final product of cross-linking agents. In contrast, in radiusy their properties collagen requires the use of crosslinking agents to obtain the necessary tensile strength.

Proposed in the invention method can be characterized by several distinctive features that detail is illustrated in the following examples, without limiting its scope, and to the accompanying drawing. In the examples below, considered a number of specific products offered in the invention method.

In these examples, in the processing of pork skins after the implementation of the above stage (a) assumes the number below and is specific for each case of technological operations. (In the description below, the percentages specified in terms of a lot of skins (i.e. 100% corresponds to the mass of skins), and a "mixer" refers to the reaction apparatus made of stainless steel).

EXAMPLE 1

Stage I (degreasing)

In the first stage (after collecting and freezing) very oily skin degrease. This process operation is preferably performed with the use of enzymes with the use of wetting agents (e.g., detergent). For hydrolysis of natural oils, which is located between the collagen fibers, it is preferable to use lipase. To achieve this effect, it is preferable application of proteases (which contribute to a more equal degreasing of skins). For emulsification released during degreasing fatty acids FAV is preferably to use a surfactant. Proposed in this invention to be used together on the first stage of chemical and biochemical agents, which achieves a number of advantages, is a new, not known at the present time, solution, never used in obtaining edible casings or films.

In one specific non-limiting of the invention examples of such degreasing of skins can be performed in the following way (in this respect it must be emphasized that the speech in this case is only about illustrating a variant of the invention, in which, depending on the specific circumstances, can be made of various obvious for specialists changes, in parentheses indicate the most preferred values of the respective values):

dissolving the protein enzymes (proteases)
The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°C)
pH 7-11 (9-10).
(1) the Contents of mixer
skins100%
water50-150%(100%)
sodium carbonate0-5%(3%)
fat dissolving enzymes (lipase)0-2%(0,6%)
0-2%(0,5%)
(2) processing in the mixer0.5 to 3 h(1 h)
(3) Added to the mixer agents
PAV0.05 to 3%(0,5%)
(4) Duration of treatment in the mixer0.5 to 5 h(2 h)
(5) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved
chemicals (for example, through the case drain line)

Stage II (alkaline processing/dehairing (i.e. removing hog bristle))

In the second stage with pork skins removed hair (i.e. remaining in the skin of the roots of the hair). The presence of such hair is a problem processing it is pork skins. At this stage, "hair removal" is used several chemical reagents, preferably comprising sodium sulfide, which is dissolved requires the removal of hair or bristles. Such processing of skins and related benefits not currently used in the manufacture of edible films and is a new techno is logicheskoi operation. Usually the dehairing of hides of cattle comes from tanneries, subject to certain technological conditions. Sulfide pig dehairing of skins in compliance with the requirements for food products, is new.

In particular, without limiting the invention example is the dehairing can be done as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°C)
pH greater than 9 (more than 12).
(1) the contents of mixer
lime0.5 to 5%(3%)
water20-50%(30%)
sodium sulfide2-6%(4%)
(2) processing in the mixer2-8 h(5.5 hours)
(3) Added to the mixer substance
waterthe remainder to 100%(70%)
(4) Duration of treatment in the mixer5-30 min(10 min)
(5) Washing
Draining from the water tap
and dissolved chemicals

In another embodiment, instead of sodium sulfide to dissolve the bristles you can use other inorganic or organic reducing agents, in particular the potassium sulfide or tizaidine, such as tosporte, thiourea, thioglycol. Used for dehairing as reductant lime can be replaced by a strong alkali, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.

Stage III (water rinse)

At this stage, pork skins, processed with alkali, is subjected to leaching by water. In particular, without limiting the invention example such leaching can be carried out as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°)
(1) the Contents of mixer
water50-200% (100%)
(2) processing in the mixer5-30 min (10 min)
(3) Premiani
The drain and the faucet water and dissolved chemicals

Stage IV (cleaning and disclosure skins)

When performing this, which is the preferred stage the skin is cleaned, preferably using peroxide for the bleaching of the skin. At this stage it is preferable to use sodium hydroxide, which allows you to create in the mixer alkaline conditions that increase the efficiency of peroxide.

Sodium hydroxide is also "reveals" collagen structure, i.e. provides an initial separation of collagen fibers. When processing of the collagen structures of the known methods, the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the "disclosure" of the skins of cattle, and above all the duration of this operation more than the disclosure of pork skins. The collagen structure of the skins of cattle has more cross-linking and has higher strength and therefore requires a stronger hydrolysis than collagen structure pork skins. In particular, for the disclosure of pork skins proposed in the present invention by way enough to hold their processing within 1-2 hours with sodium hydroxide with a concentration of from 0.3 to 0.8%. For disclosure of the skins of cattle with the use of sodium hydroxide necessary to its concentration was in the range from 1 to 1.5% when the duration of treatment within 12 to 24 hours, and when is ispolzovanie lime slurry processing such skins usually lasts at least 15 days.

In particular, without limiting the invention example, the processing of pork skins at this stage can be done as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°C)
pH 8-13 (9-11).
(1) the Contents of mixer
water50-200%100%
hydrogen peroxide (33-35%)0-2%(1%)
sodium hydroxideof 0.3-0.8%(0,6%)
(2) processing in the mixer1-2 hours(1 h)
(3) Washing
Draining from the water tap and
dissolved chemicals

Stage V (re-washing the skins with water)

At this stage, the peeled skins with the disclosed at the previous stage of the collagen structure is preferably subjected to repeated washing with water. In particular, without limiting the invention example this washing can be carried shall be as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°).
(1) the Contents of mixer
water50-200% (100%)
(2) processing in the mixer5-40 min (20 min)
(3) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved chemicals

Stage VI (acidification)

After the above alkaline treatment and preferably it is at this stage conduct short-term acidification of skins. This acidification is additional disclosure collagen structure, in particular the hydrolysis destroyed by acid cross-linking, which is associated with the dissolution of soluble acid collagenomas material contained in the skins.

In particular, without limiting the invention example, the acidification can be carried out as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°C)
pH maximum of 3.5.
(1) the Contents of mixer
water30-150%(70%)
hydrochloric acid (31-33%)the 2.5-10%(7%)
(2) processing in the mixer0.25 to 5 h(2 h)
(3) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved
chemicals

At this stage it is possible to use other acids, namely, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid or organic acids, for example lactic acid, citric acid, formic acid, acetic acid. The processing time for the skins at this stage lasts from 15 minutes to 5 hours

Stage VII (additional rinsing the skin with water)

At this stage, pork skins preferably subjected to additional washing with water. In particular, without limiting the invention example, the washing water can be done as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

Process conditions: temperature 30°C.
(1) the Contents of the mixer water50-200%(100%)
(2) processing in the mixer5-40 min(20 min)
(3) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved
chemicals

(4) Repeat the above operations (1)-(3) to bring the pH to the level of 1,8-3,9 (approximately). In this way, by increasing the pH of the collagen absorbs water. From such "filled with water" material by grinding directly to obtain a gel-like mass.

After additional washing of the skin preferably have a pH of about 2.5, and the content of collagen is approximately 13-21%.

Instead acidification of the skin can be neutralized. In this case, neutralized skins are crushed to the state of the collagen suspension, then after acidification get a gel-like mass (see example 2).

Stage VIII (grinding)

Water washed skins preferably crushed, taking each homogeneous gel-like mass. Grinding skins to a gel-like mass in the processing of collagen at the present time it is known, however, in contrast to known what's technologies for more efficient grinding skins this operation in accordance with the proposed invention method is preferably carried out at least three stages. Compared to grinding skins, for example, only in two stages, such a method with the same degree of grinding of the skin, protects collagen fibers. It is important to note that the addition of water followed by separation of almost all collagen fibers, with the exception of only small particles of collagen mass.

In particular, without limiting the invention example, the grinding can be carried out as follows.

1. After transmission of the skins through the disk grinder with holes with a diameter of 10 mm or cutting knives from the skins received individual pieces having the form of cubes with sides about 1 cm

2. Then from these pieces using a meat grinder or a filter press with holes of 4 mm diameter, received smaller pieces the size of a few millimeters.

3. Using a filter press with holes of diameter less than 1 mm or colloid mill or homogenizer obtained before these pieces were crushed to a size less than 1 mm

At all these stages of grinding skins you can add water or ice.

Stage IX (cooking liquid mass)

At the next stage, the resulting mass of the crushed skins preferably mixed with water and razmelchitelem. Part of the water can be replaced with ice.

As razmagchitsa can be used, for example, deserty, crisper is s, the polyalcohol (for example, glycerol or sugar polymer (for example, sorbitol and Karion®).

Treatment of collagen structures is usually performed with proper precautionary measures aimed at the preservation of collagen. It is therefore very important feature of the proposed invention the collagen sealing membranes is that in the process of their manufacture do not apply cross-linking agents that are commonly used to stabilize and improve mechanical properties.

However, if necessary you can use the following chemicals as cross-linking agents: organic cross-linking agents, such as dialdehyde, α-hydroxyaldehyde, diisocyanate, bisacrylamide, acrolein, carbodiimides, anhydrides, Dien, Polian, and inorganic crosslinking agents such as aluminum compounds. In mass production it is preferable to use water-soluble and slowly reacts connection (for example, dialdehyde, α-hydroxyaldehyde). Insoluble in water quickly reacts connection should only be used as coatings for dry film.

Below as one of not limiting the invention to the examples listed compounds used at this stage in the preparation of liquid mass, and conditions of the cooking liquid mass (in parentheses CC who are the most preferred values of the respective values):

the collagen content1-25%(1,8%)
glycerin0-1%(0,5%)
sorbitol0-1%(0,2%)
pH2-3,6(2,5)
temperature3-18°(8°)

Relative to soften it should be noted that a clean and dry collagen film quite easily broken. The use of softeners allows separation of collagen fibers, i.e. fibers easily change their position relative to neighboring fibers. We know that the best razmelchitelem for collagen is water. The above softeners operate indirectly and, having a very high hygroscopicity, keep water in the collagen. However, these hydrocarbons have a very significant disadvantage in that they, being a good source of easily released carbon, support the growth of microbes and bacteria.

Despite the fact that fats are very good softeners, floor dry collagen film fats does not give a significant effect. When applying fat on a dry film of collagen fats penetrate only in the gaps between the fibers, and not inside with the MIH fibers. Adding to the collagen mass of fat emulsions allows you to achieve the best results, but this method of softening has the following two drawbacks:

1) the presence of collagen film emulsifiers and

2) not enough is firmly held by the fibers of fat to migrate to the surface of the collagen film.

In preferred variants the best razmelchitelem can serve remaining in the collagen natural fat. This fat easily penetrates into the interstices between the fibers and the inside of the fibers. It is preferable that at all stages proposed in the invention method, one way or another connected with the use of various chemicals, there was no removal of the collagen structure of the whole is contained in the processed skins natural oil. The presence of collagen mass remaining in her natural fat, which is an effective razmelchitelem, allows you to minimize or completely refrain from further use of carbohydrate razmagchitsa. This feature proposed in the present invention a method based on processing of fatty pork skins is its advantage in comparison with other currently known methods.

The removal of fat from the treated hides and skins of at the stage(s) degreasing temperature dependent, the values of pH, the duration of treatment, the amount of lipase, the amount of surfactant, the number of steps of degreasing and their place in the whole process chain.

The process is preferably carried out at elevated temperature (about 30° (C), at pH 9-10, for a sufficiently long period of time (which is, for example, up to 6 h)in the presence of a large amount of lipase (1%), large quantities of surface-active substances (up to 3%), in several stages (up to 5 or more during the entire process and on its last stages, i.e. after the alkali treatment. The contents remaining in the collagen fat should be from 0 to 10% (based on dry weight of the film).

Relative to the cross-linking agents, it should be noted that the best mechanical properties of natural raw collagen. In currently known technologies usually after a strong alkaline chemical treatment of skins (i.e. hydrolysis of the collagen molecules) required the use of large quantities of cross-linking agents. Such crosslinking agents are used for artificial rebuild larger molecules. Proposed in the present invention the method provides protection of the collagen molecules and allows to minimize the number of used cross-linking agents.

Stage XII (homogenization)

<> At the next stage proposed in the invention method, it is preferable to carry out the homogenization of the prepared liquid mixture. First, it removes air bubbles, after which the suspension is passed through a homogenizer and then pumped into stainless steel tanks.

Significant from a chemical point of view is that the homogenization promotes uniform distribution of the water throughout the liquid collagen weight. Homogenization is the last stage of size reduction of the collagen particles, followed by separation of the bundles of fibers and large particles on fibers and fibrils. Preferably, the homogenization must meet at least one, most preferably all of the following requirements:

1) the process of homogenization should not affect the length of the fibers/fibrils,

2) homogenization should provide the maximum separation of the bundles of fibers on the fiber/fibers and/or

3) when the homogenization should be appropriate ratio between the fibers and fibrils.

From compliance with these three requirements are directly and significantly affected the mechanical properties of the collagen film.

Proposed in the present invention the method is new even though the known technology related to the processing to which lagena, provide various grinding stage (disintegration). According to the present invention can use conventional homogenizer or colloid mill. For homogenizacji you can use the same equipment as in the above-described grinding stage. However, it should be noted that subject to the homogenization of the collagen material has essentially the final characteristics (water content, collagen content, the content razmagchitsa, pH, temperature), then as described above is preceded by a stage of grinding stage at which the specified parameters of the material are brought to the final. Thus, at the stage of homogenization of the collagen material is ground to a particle size of less than 1 mm using, for example, a filter press with holes of diameter less than 1 mm or colloid mill or homogenizer.

Stage XIII (extrusion, listomania and drying)

After homogenization, the suspension is preferably ekstragiruyut, listout and dried. First, the suspension is preferably passed through an extruder with a slot die. Extruded slurry is fed from the extruder onto the belt conveyor. After that, the suspension is preferably listout (for example, pass through listvalue rollers). Extruded suspension also preferably neutral the form (for example, immediately at the exit of the extruder). For neutralization, it is preferable to use gaseous ammonia or sodium bicarbonate or other neutralizing agents. It should be noted that before entering the extruder pH of the suspension is about 2.0 to 3.6V. When the pH of the collagen particles are in the swollen state (i.e., they contain very large amounts of water). The high water content of the deformation of collagen at all levels (in particular, at the level of molecules, microfibril, elementary fibers, fibers). Immediate drying of the suspension without neutralization can lead to fixation (fixation) of these strains, restriction in the extent of interaction of the molecules of collagen and reduce the strength of the film. Therefore, as noted above, after the extrusion of suspension and before drying, it is preferable to carry out the formation of fibers. Such formation of fibers may be, as described above, in the neutralization of the suspension with a corresponding increase in pH or coagulation using solutions with a high concentration of ions.

The chemicals used for the formation of fibers, and the duration of the process of forming fibers can have a significant impact on the properties of the collagen film. The above-mentioned gaseous ammonia acts very rapidly the ro and therefore its use can adversely affect the formation of high-quality fibers. Sodium bicarbonate, also mentioned above, acts slowly, and its use has a positive effect on the formation of fibers and allows to obtain a collagen film with good mechanical properties. In this respect it must be emphasized that before the creation of the present invention the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of collagen was not known.

Extruded mass is preferably directly skip to the above-mentioned conveyor belt through the dryer. In the dryer neutralized suspension, located on the conveyor belt, preferably subjected to continuous drying air at a temperature of about 60-90°C. According to one non-limiting scope of the invention variants you can use the dryer with a length of about 50 meters, the Speed of the conveyor (i.e., the capacity of the plant) should be selected taking into account the length of the dryer. In the above-mentioned non-limiting embodiment, the invention if the length of the dryer 50 m conveyor speed (which directly determines the performance of the collagen film) may be about 3 to 9 m/min Preferred width of the movable conveyor film in this embodiment is about 60 cm (although e is from the size may vary depending on specific circumstances).

The present invention, which proposes a method of manufacturing a collagen film from pork skins, significantly different from all currently known solutions, which provides for the use of obezbashennyh splits of bovine with very little fat content derived from tanneries. In other words, problems that you can solve the present invention, i.e. degreasing very oily material and the removal of the bristles are new to experts in the field of manufacturing of collagen film. Proposed in the invention method preserves collagen structure and therefore provides the ability to manufacture collagen film without using any cross-linking agents. Processed under strict conditions, which are subjected to medium thick hides and skins of bovine animals, weakens the material and therefore requires to stabilize the films the application of cross-linking agents. The production of collagen film without the use of crosslinking agents is not currently known in this area. Violation of the collagen structure of the skins of cattle and the use of cross-linking agents are the cause of low elasticity obtained by this technology, the collagen film. The high elasticity of the collagen film is, as you know, is it of its most important characteristics. To increase the elasticity of the film can with fat. For example, in DE 19640019 A1 to increase the elasticity of the collagen film is proposed to use the fat, specially added to the mass of comminuted collagen. Manufactured as proposed in the present invention by way of the collagen foil due to the presence of fat in pork skins has a very high elasticity.

Stage XIV (storage)

The last stage of the whole process of manufacturing of collagen film is its storage, for example in a Packed form. Before packing of the collagen foil is preferably subjected to air conditioning (drying). Before packing the moisture content in the collagen film should be from 5 to 25%, more preferably from 10 to 20% and most preferably from 11 to 18% (the level of moisture content is, for example, to the stage of softening and this stage of air conditioning). Among other things specified preferred interval moisture content in the collagen film facilitates its use. Collagen film, moisture content which is less than 15%, is too fragile, and when the moisture content of more than about 20%, it becomes exposed to increased growth of germs and bacteria. The thickness of the finished collagen film may be about 0.01-2 mm, and the specific dry weight can the t to be about 10-50 g/m

Received the product and its application

As noted above, the received proposed in the invention by way of the product (i.e. collagen film) has a number of advantages compared to collagen films manufactured by known technologies. These benefits include, inter alia, the following:

starting from the moment of slaughter, the content of microorganisms is at a minimum level, which is not significantly increased, while the proposed invention, the film does not contain products of pyrogenic reactions and other metabolic waste products occurring in microorganisms;

proposed film can be characterized by a high content of natural fat, and so she, in particular, are able to absorb less water and has high elasticity. In the manufacture of such film chemical softeners or used in a minimum quantity, or not used at all. In addition, the reduced capacity of the proposed film to absorb moisture increases its ductility;

proposed in the present invention the collagen film better retains its natural structure in comparison with the existing films. When making this film, which not only has a higher elasticity, but is more with aulnoy, cross-linking agents are either used in a minimum quantity, or not used at all;

proposed in the invention, the collagen film (due to the fact that it is made under more mild conditions) has a higher isoelectric point and therefore absorbs less water and neutral conditions. So this film longer remains stable and is more pliable in comparison with the existing films.

As stated above, the proposed invention the collagen film allows to achieve a number of advantages when it is used as sheath of food, or in cases when the requirements for such a collagen film, similar to the requirements of the edible film (i.e. when you want the low content in foil various harmful impurities). In the preferred embodiment shown in the drawing, provided in the invention, the film F is used as a wrapper for wrapping food products R. More preferred is the use of the proposed film as a wrapper for wrapping meat and other similar products. In the most preferred version of the proposed film is used to wrap the "hams". It should be noted that for specialists in this area is evident all considered neither the e benefits which has proposed in the invention, the collagen film, and the diversity of possible areas of its application.

Typically, the collagen film at the outlet of the dryer has a very high fragility (due to the very low content of moisture). With newly produced collagen film is very difficult to apply. Very dry film exhibits a high affinity to water. The water absorption and hydration of the film is very fast, and this process is very difficult to control. For a potential buyer can quickly absorb water collagen film creates a significant inconvenience. Collagen film, which is not used immediately after it was made, absorbs large amounts of water contained in the wet air. The resulting film becomes sticky and very difficult to work on the appropriate equipment. After a few days, there is another problem associated with growth falling film of germs and bacteria.

The presence in the proposed invention the collagen film with natural fat gives it durability under conditions of changing humidity. The residual water content in the proposed invention the collagen film at the outlet of the dryer is preferably 11-13%. Even in conditions of high humidity the water content of the offer is Lenk practically does not change and can best be increased to approximately 15%.

Porcine collagen fibers are thinner than collagen fibers of the hides of cattle. Therefore, from porcine collagen film can be made more compact consisting of a fiber material. The smaller the thickness of the fibers has a positive effect on the number of significant properties in the film when it is used as a wrapping material, in particular the permeability to oxygen and moisture. If the permeability to oxygen at normal collagen film is about 1000-2000 ml/m2- day-bar, proposed in the present invention the film she is 200-500 ml/m2- day-bar. If the moisture permeability in normal collagen film is also about 1000-2000 g/m2- day-bar, the films according to the invention it is 100-300 g/m2-day-bar. Proposed in the present invention the collagen film more effectively protects nekotorye products from their potential chemical oxidation and loss of contained water.

Proposed in the invention, the collagen film can be used for wrapping legs, giving it a shape of a cylindrical shell, inside which is placed ham. Then this is enclosed in a sheath of collagen films ham is usually placed in the grid. Proposed in the present invention the collagen film is also his rodamine membrane, reducing the loss of water contained in cooked hams and meat for a roast. Proposed in the present invention the collagen sheath also provides easy removal with Packed in her product grid.

Proposed in the present invention the collagen film can also be used as a shell for smoked hams, products from the last heat treatment and subjected to salting of meat, meat for a roast, cooked sausages and other meat products, fish products and confectionery. Sealing membrane according to the invention thus protects the food from losing water, grease, etc.

EXAMPLE 2

Stage I (pre-processing)

In the first stage, the skins are washed with the use of surfactants.

In specific, non-limiting example, such pre-processing can be done as follows (in this respect it must be emphasized that the speech in this case is only about illustrating a variant of the invention, in which, depending on the specific circumstances, can be made of various obvious for specialists changes, in parentheses indicate the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
the temperature of 10-25° (20°).
(1) the Contents of mixer
skins100%
water50-200% (100%)
PAV0,2-3% (1%)
(2) processing in the mixer0.5 to 4 h (1 h)
(3) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved chemicals

Stage II (alkaline processing/dehairing (i.e. removing hog bristle))

In the second stage with pork skins removed hair (i.e. remaining in the skin of the roots of the hair). The presence of such hair is a problem processing it is pork skins. At this stage, "hair removal" is used several chemical reagents, preferably comprising sodium sulfide, which is dissolved requires the removal of hair or bristles. Such processing of skins and related benefits not currently used in the manufacture of edible films and is a new technological operation. Usually the dehairing of hides of cattle comes from tanneries, subject to certain technological conditions. As mentioned above, sulfide bezvolosy is the W pork skins with the requirements requirements for food products, is new.

In particular, without limiting the invention example is the dehairing can be done as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:

the temperature of 10-25° (20°),

pH greater than 9 (more than 12).
(1) the Contents of mixer
lime0.5 to 5%(3%)
water20-50%(30%)
sodium sulfide2-6%(4%)
(2) processing in the mixer2-8 h(5 h)
(3) Added to the mixer substance
waterthe remainder to 100%(70%)
(4) Duration of treatment in the mixer5-30 min(10 min)
(5) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved
chemicals

Stage III (water rinse)

At this stage, pork skins, the processing is subjected to the alkali subjected to leaching by water. In particular, without limiting the invention example such leaching can be carried out as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°).
(1) the Contents of mixer
water50-200% (100%)
(2) processing in the mixer5-30 min (10 min)
(3) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved chemicals
Stage IV (degreasing)

At this stage, oily skin degrease. This process operation is preferably performed with the use of enzymes with the use of wetting agents (e.g., detergent). For hydrolysis of natural oils, which is located between the collagen fibers, it is preferable to use lipase. To achieve this effect, it is preferable application of proteases (which contribute to a more equal degreasing of skins). For emulsification released during degreasing fatty acids preferably the use of surfactants. Proposed in this invention to be used together on the first stage of chemical and biochemical agents, which achieves a number of advantages, is a new, not known at the present time, solution, never used in obtaining edible films.

In one specific non-limiting of the invention examples of such degreasing of skins can be performed in the following way (in this respect it must be emphasized that the speech in this case is only about illustrating a variant of the invention, in which, depending on the specific circumstances, can be made of various obvious for specialists changes, in parentheses indicate the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°C)
pH 8-13 (9-11).
(1) the Contents of mixer
water50-200% (100%)
fat dissolving enzymes (lipase)0-2% (0,6%)
(2) processing in the mixer0.25 to 6 h (1 h)
(3) Added to the mixer agents
RA is toraysee protein enzymes (proteases) 0-2% (0,5%)
PAV0,05-3% (0,5%)
(4) Duration of treatment in the mixer1-12 h (4 h)
(5) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved chemicals

Stage V (re-washing the skins with water)

At this stage, pork skins preferably subjected to repeated washing with water. In particular, without limiting the invention example such leaching can be carried out as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°)
(1) the Contents of mixer
water50-200% (100%)
(2) processing in the mixer5-40 min (20 min)
(3) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved chemicals

Stage VI (neutralization)

Then after degreasing the skin is subjected to neutralization. In particular, without limiting the invention example, the neutralization of the skins can be done as follows(in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 10-35° (30°C)
pH maximum of 3.5.
(1) the Contents of mixer
water50-200% (100%)
citric acid0,5-2% (1%)
(2) processing in the mixer2-5 h (3 h)
(3) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved chemicals
(4) the Contents of the mixer:
water50-200% (100%)
Mononitrate sodium0,5-5% (2%)
(5) Duration of treatment in the mixer2-5 h (3 h)
Regulation of pH with hydrochloric acid (10%)
(6) Added to the above contents of the mixer components
hydrochloric acid (10%)0,2-2% (1%)
(7) the duration of the processing in the mixer0.5 to 5 h (2 h)
Operations 6-7 repeat until
until the pH reaches 5.
(8), the Shutter stopped in the mixer during the night
(9) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved chemicals

Stage VII (additional water rinse)

In particular, without limiting the invention example additional water rinse can be done as follows (in brackets the most preferred values of the respective values):

The conditions:
temperature 15-35° (30°).
(1) the Contents of mixer
water50-200% (100%)
(2) processing in the mixer5-40 min (20 min)
(3) Washing
Discharge from the mixer of water and dissolved chemicals

After that, the processed material is crushed to the state of the collagen suspension, which after acidification get a gel-like mass.

Stage VIII (grinding)

This stage is similar to the same stage, considered in example 1.

Stage IX (grinding)

Obtained at the previous stage of the crushed material cm who're asked with 5 parts water and 3 parts of ice. The grinding is carried out in a colloid mill until a homogeneous collagen suspension.

Stage X (cooking liquid mass)

At this stage, the suspension is again preferably mixed with water, ice, hydrochloric acid and razmelchitelem until a homogeneous gel-like mass.

Below are the basic data characterizing the received one of ohranyaemih invention examples a mixed lot:

the collagen content1-2,5% (1,8%)
glycerin0-1,2% (0,6%)
pH2-3,6 (2,8)
temperature3-18° (8°)

Obviously, in the above specific examples of preferred embodiments of the present invention can be made various changes that are associated with specific features of the invention and which, however, should not extend beyond the scope of the invention, discussed in detail above and bounded below by the claims.

1. The method of obtaining collagen sealing membrane from pork skins, characterized in that it provides for the removal from the obtained from the skins of the material of the main part of the fat by degreasing, chemical dehairing of material, after which vtorogo the latter is subjected to acid hydrolysis, then grinding to obtain a gel-like mass which ekstragiruyut, are listomania and dried.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that prior to degreasing skins removed from carcasses of pigs and removed the skins freeze with obtaining the specified material.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the degreasing is performed with the help of enzymes.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that obtained from the skins of material degreasing in such a way that made him collagen sealing the membrane of the fat content is about 10% or less, calculated on the dry weight of this collagen sealing membrane.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the dehairing obtained from the skins of material carried by alkaline treatment at pH for removing with his hairline.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that after dehairing obtained from the skins of material washed with water.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that after washing with water obtained from the skins material handle provides a whitening amount of peroxide and ensuring the separation of the fibers by the amount of sodium hydroxide.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that after treatment with peroxide and sodium hydroxide obtained from the skins of the material is subjected to repeated washing with water.

9. The method is about 7, characterized in that after acid hydrolysis obtained from the skins of the material is washed with water and bring the pH to the level of 1,8-3,9.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that obtained from the skins of the crushed material to a gel-like mass by milling.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the gel-like mass is mixed with softening membrane number of razmagchitsa selected from the group comprising deserty, crispity, and polymeric polyalcohol sugar.

12. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that after grinding the gel-like mass is homogenized for almost uniform distribution of water and separation of the contained collagen fibers and fibrils.

13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pH of the gel mass prior to its extrusion is about 2.5-3.6V.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the moisture content of collagen sealing membrane is about 11-18%.

15. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that degrease the skin with the help of enzymes in the presence of wetting agents.

16. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the degreasing using enzymes includes the use of lipases.

17. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the alkaline treatment involves the use of sodium sulfite.

18. Collagen sealing membrane manufactured by the method according to claim 1.

19. allynova sealing membrane, representing edible film containing natural collagen, which is part of the pork skins.

20. Collagen sealing membrane according to claim 19, wrapped around a food product.

21. Collagen sealing membrane according to claim 20, which wrapped food product is a ham.

22. Collagen sealing membrane according to claim 19, the moisture content is approximately from 5 to 25%.

23. Collagen sealing membrane according to claim 19, the thickness of which is approximately from 0.01 to 2 mm.



 

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